pasteur s quadrant basic science and technological innovation

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Pasteur S Quadrant

Author : Donald E. Stokes
ISBN : 0815719078
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 66 MB
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Over fifty years ago, Vannevar Bush released his enormously influential report, Science, the Endless Frontier, which asserted a dichotomy between basic and applied science. This view was at the core of the compact between government and science that led to the golden age of scientific research after World War II—a compact that is currently under severe stress. In this book, Donald Stokes challenges Bush's view and maintains that we can only rebuild the relationship between government and the scientific community when we understand what is wrong with that view. Stokes begins with an analysis of the goals of understanding and use in scientific research. He recasts the widely accepted view of the tension between understanding and use, citing as a model case the fundamental yet use-inspired studies by which Louis Pasteur laid the foundations of microbiology a century ago. Pasteur worked in the era of the "second industrial revolution," when the relationship between basic science and technological change assumed its modern form. Over subsequent decades, technology has been increasingly science-based. But science has been increasingly technology-based--with the choice of problems and the conduct of research often inspired by societal needs. An example is the work of the quantum-effects physicists who are probing the phenomena revealed by the miniaturization of semiconductors from the time of the transistor's discovery after World War II. On this revised, interactive view of science and technology, Stokes builds a convincing case that by recognizing the importance of use-inspired basic research we can frame a new compact between science and government. His conclusions have major implications for both the scientific and policy communities and will be of great interest to those in the broader public who are troubled by the current role of basic science in American democracy.

The Social Sciences Go To Washington

Author : Hamilton Cravens
ISBN : 0813533414
Genre : History
File Size : 56. 76 MB
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What happens when the allegedly value-free social sciences enter the national political arena? In The Social Sciences Go to Washington, scholars examine the effects of the massive influx of sociologists, demographers, economists, educators, and others to the federal advisory process in the postwar period. Essays look at how these social scientists sought to change existing policies in welfare, public health, urban policy, national defense, environmental policy, and science and technology policy, and the ways they tried to influence future policies. Policymakers have been troubled that followers of postmodernism have questioned the legitimacy of scientific and political authority to speak for the desires of social groups. As the social sciences increasingly become expressions of individual preferences, the contributors ask, how can they continue to be used to set public policy for us all? This collection is a useful resource for anyone studying the relationship between science and the government in the postwar years.

Beyond Sputnik

Author : Homer Alfred Neal
ISBN :
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 63. 9 MB
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DIVA timely introduction to all facets of U.S. national science policy/div

The Future Of Photovoltaics Manufacturing In The United States

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309224857
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 20. 49 MB
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Technological innovation and growth are critical to U.S. competitiveness in a global economy. One means of facilitating growth and improving competitiveness is to foster more robust innovation ecosystems through the development of public-private partnerships, industry consortia, and other regional and national economic development initiatives. Public-private partnerships, in particular, catalyze the commercialization of state and national investments in research and development. One of the major projects of the National Research Council's Board on Science Technology and Economic Policy (STEP) is to examine state and local investment programs designed to attract and grow knowledge-based industries. STEP analyzes state and regional innovation initiatives to gain a better understanding of the challenges associated with the transition of research into products, the practices associated with successful state and regional programs, and their interaction with federal programs and private initiatives. In April and July 2009, STEP convened two meeting to assess the future of the U.S. photovoltaic industry and the practical steps that the federal government and some state and regional governments are taking to develop the capacity to manufacture photovoltaics competitively. The Future of Photovoltaic Manufacturing in the United States captures the presentations and discussions of these meetings. This report explores the prospects for cooperative R&D efforts, standards, and roadmapping efforts that could accelerate innovation and growth of a U.S. photovoltaics industry. It includes both efforts to strengthen existing industries as well as specific new technology focus areas such as nanotechnology, stem cells, and energy in order to gain an improved understanding of program goals, challenges, and accomplishments.

Achieving Impact In Research

Author : Pam Denicolo
ISBN : 9781446292792
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 66. 35 MB
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This unique addition to the Success in Research series addresses the importance of understanding and achieving impact for the purposes of gaining research funding and reporting achieved impact for the Research Excellence Framework (REF). The book includes contributions from researchers and researcher developers who feel that impact is ill-defined and poorly understood despite its prevalence in policy documents, websites and institutional activities. This succinct and cohesive text draws on the expert contributors' collective research practice, knowledge and experience. Using a variety of examples, boxed activities and highlighted reflection points, this practical guide covers the following key areas: The meaning of impact in relation to research How the Impact Agenda fits with attitudes and ethics that motivate research The different characterisations of research impact and when impact is apparent How impact can be planned into proposals, evaluated and evidenced The skills needed to be an impactful researcher How impact can be supported through Knowledge Exchange and effective partnerships This is a must-have guide for anyone seeking to understand and achieve impact in their own research. The Success in Research series, from Cindy Becker and Pam Denicolo, provides short, authoritative and accessible guides on key areas of professional and research development. Avoiding jargon and cutting to the chase of what you really need to know, these practical and supportive books cover a range of areas from presenting research to achieving impact, and from publishing journal articles to developing proposals. They are essential reading for any student or researcher interested in developing their skills and broadening their professional and methodological knowledge in an academic context.

Academe

Author :
ISBN : UOM:49015003050094
Genre : Universities and colleges
File Size : 68. 32 MB
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Spectra

Author :
ISBN : IND:30000070505585
Genre : Speech
File Size : 32. 17 MB
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Six Degrees Of Social Influence

Author : Douglas T. Kenrick
ISBN : 9780199313976
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 80. 54 MB
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Over the course of the last four decades, Robert Cialdini's work has helped spark an intellectual revolution in which social psychological ideas have become increasingly influential. The concepts presented in his book, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, have spread well beyond the geographic boundaries of North America and beyond the field of academic social psychology into the areas of business, health, and politics. In this book, leading authors, who represent many different countries and disciplines, explore new developments and the widespread impact of Cialdini's work in research areas ranging from persuasion strategy and social engineering to help-seeking and decision-making. Among the many topics covered, the authors discuss how people underestimate the influence of others, how a former computer hacker used social engineering to gain access to highly confidential computer codes, and how biology and evolution figure into the principles of influence. The authors break new ground in the study of influence.

Encyclopedia Of Educational Theory And Philosophy

Author : D. C. Phillips
ISBN : 9781483364759
Genre : Education
File Size : 72. 49 MB
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Education is a field sometimes beset by theories-of-the-day and with easy panaceas that overpromise the degree to which they can alleviate pressing educational problems. The two-volume Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy introduces readers to theories that have stood the test of time and those that have provided the historical foundation for the best of contemporary educational theory and practice. Drawing together a team of international scholars, this invaluable reference examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them and presents them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, this work offers essays on cutting-edge research and concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Features: Over 300 signed entries by trusted experts in the field are organized into two volumes and overseen by a distinguished General Editor and an international Editorial Board. Entries are followed by cross references and further reading suggestions. A Chronology of Theory within the field of education highlights developments over the centuries; a Reader’s Guide groups entries thematically, and a master Bibliography facilitates further study. The Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references combine for strong search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic version. Available in a choice of print or electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy is an ideal reference for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary educational theory.

Innovation For A Low Carbon Economy

Author : Tim Foxon
ISBN : STANFORD:36105131738895
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 53. 18 MB
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Innovation for a Low Carbon Economy analyses the interplay of technological, institutional, market and management factors in the dynamics of energy systems. The book aims to inform national and international policies to promote low carbon innovation.

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