paths of innovation technological change in 20th century america

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Paths Of Innovation

Author : David C. Mowery
ISBN : 0521646537
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 43. 17 MB
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This highly accessible treatment examines the sources, structure, and economic effects of technological innovation in the twentieth-century US economy.

Exploring The Black Box

Author : Nathan Rosenberg
ISBN : 0521459559
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 81. 72 MB
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This book presents a unique account of how technological change is generated and the processes by which improved technologies are introduced into economic activity. The central theme of the book is the idea that technological changes are often "path dependent": their form and direction tend to be influenced strongly by the particular sequence of earlier events out of which a new technology has emerged. Individual chapters explore the particular features of new technologies in different historical and sectoral contexts.

Inside The Black Box

Author : Nathan Rosenberg
ISBN : 0521273676
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 45. 59 MB
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Economists have long treated technological phenomena as events transpiring inside a black box and, on the whole, have adhered rather strictly to a self-imposed ordinance not to inquire too seriously into what transpires inside that box. The purpose of Professor Rosenberg's work is to break open and examine the contents of the black box. In so doing, a number of important economic problems be powerfully illuminated. The author clearly shows how specific features of individual technologies have shaped a number of variables of great concern to economists: the rate of productivity improvement, the nature of learning processes underlying technological change itself, the speed of technology transfer, and the effectiveness of government policies that are intended to influence technologies in particular ways. The separate chapters of this book reflect a primary concern with some of the distinctive aspects of industrial technologies in the twentieth century, such as the increasing reliance upon science, but also the considerable subtlety and complexity of the dialectic between science and technology. Other concerns include the rapid growth in the development of costs associated with new technologies as well as the difficulty of predicting the eventual performance characteristics of newly emerging technologies.

American Corporate Economy

Author : William Lazonick
ISBN : 0415186110
Genre : Corporations
File Size : 79. 40 MB
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The readings collected in these four volumes examine the evolution, operation, and performance of the American corporate enterprise, and the American corporate economy more generally. Divided into seven sections, many of the readings provide broad overviews of the evolution of the US corporate enterprise, while others contribute to debates on its role in the evolution of American economy and society. The material is arranged thematically to help the reader navigate the field. There is also a new introduction and a thorough index, making this set an invaluable resource for both academics and practitioners in the field.

Encyclopedia Of 20th Century Technology

Author : Colin Hempstead
ISBN : 9781135455514
Genre : History
File Size : 26. 83 MB
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Comprising 395 essays arranged alphabetically, mostly on individual objects, artefacts, techniques, and products, this is an up-to-date work of reference for all those involved in teaching or researching the history of twentieth-century technology. For a full list of entries, contributors, and more, visit the Encycloped ia of 20th-Century Technology website.

Entrepreneurial Knowledge Technology And The Transformation Of Regions

Author : Charlie Karlsson
ISBN : 9781135055905
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 25. 33 MB
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In recent years, policy makers have given much credence to the role of entrepreneurship in the transformation of regions. As a result, a new set of policy responses have emerged that focus on the support of new venture creation, small business growth and idea generation and commercialization. While there is a wealth of research about entrepreneurship in general, less attention has been given to the development of new tools and programs in support of entrepreneurial activities, and to the ways in which the emergence, the character and the types of entrepreneurship policies might differ between countries. In particular, the transatlantic perspective is of special interest because of the pioneering role of the United States in this area, and also due to the European Union's focus on economic competitiveness. The contributions included in this book explore the emergence of entrepreneurship policies from a transatlantic comparative perspective and address different aspects of entrepreneurship policies including local entrepreneurship policies and the relationship between knowledge-based industries and entrepreneurship policies.

American Military Technology

Author : Barton C. Hacker
ISBN : 0313333084
Genre : History
File Size : 55. 90 MB
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How have Americans made war? This volume provides a concise history of the science and technology of American military might.

The Small Business Innovation Research Program

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309171482
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 56. 84 MB
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In 1992, Congress for the first time explicitly directed the federal agencies making SBIR grants to use commercial potential as a criterion for granting SBIR awards. In response, the Department of Defense developed the SBIR Fast Track initiative, which provides expedited decision-making for SBIR awards to companies that have commitments from outside vendors. To verify the effectiveness of this initiative, the DoD asked the STEP Board to assess the operation of Fast Track. This volume of original field research includes case studies comparing Fast Track and non-Fast Track firms, a large survey of SBIR awardees, and statistical analyses of the impact of regular SBIR and Fast Track awards. Collectively, the commissioned papers and the findings and recommendations represent a significant contribution to our understanding of the SBIR program.

Evolution Made To Order

Author : Helen Anne Curry
ISBN : 9780226390116
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 14 MB
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In the mid-twentieth century, American plant breeders, frustrated by their dependence on natural variation in creating new crops and flowers, eagerly sought technologies that could extend human control over nature. Their search led them to celebrate a series of strange tools: an x-ray beam directed at dormant seeds, a drop of chromosome-altering colchicine on a flower bud, and a piece of radioactive cobalt in a field of growing crops. According to scientific and popular reports of the time, these mutation-inducing methods would generate variation on demand, in turn allowing breeders to genetically engineer crops and flowers to order. Creating a new crop or flower would soon be as straightforward as innovating any other modern industrial product. In Evolution Made to Order, Helen Anne Curry traces the history of America’s pursuit of tools that could speed up evolution. It is an immersive journey through the scientific and social worlds of midcentury genetics and plant breeding and a compelling exploration of American cultures of innovation. As Curry reveals, the creation of genetic technologies was deeply entangled with other areas of technological innovation—from electromechanical to chemical to nuclear. An important study of biological research and innovation in America, Evolution Made to Order provides vital historical context for current worldwide ethical and policy debates over genetic engineering.

Technology And Transformation In The American Electric Utility Industry

Author : Richard F. Hirsh
ISBN : 0521524717
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 87. 71 MB
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This book examines management failures in America's electric utility industry in the 1960s and 1970s.

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