peatlands evolution and records of environmental and climate changes developments in earth surface processes

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Peatlands

Author : I.P. Martini
ISBN : 0080468055
Genre : Law
File Size : 37. 77 MB
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'In the past two decades there has been considerable work on global climatic change and its effect on the ecosphere, as well as on local and global environmental changes triggered by human activities. From the tropics to the Arctic, peatlands have developed under various geological conditions, and they provide good records of global and local changes since the Late Pleistocene. The objectives of the book are to analyze topics such as geological evolution of major peatlands basins; peatlands as self sustaining ecosystems; chemical environment of peatlands: water and peat chemistry; peatlands as archives of environmental changes; influence of peatlands on atmosphere: circular complex interactions; remote sensing studies of peatlands; peatlands as a resource; peatlands degradation, restoration, plus more.' * Presents an interdisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on Earth Science, and addresses the need for intergration between subdisciplines and the developing of new approaches * Synthesizes the evolutionary, ecological, and chemical characteristics of major peatlands, as well as focuses on the environmental changes, from climate changes to surface ares changes due to human activities * Covers topical studies of worldwide interest and provides examples from many different countries

Peatlands Of The Western Guayana Highlands Venezuela

Author : Joseph Alfred Zinck
ISBN : 3642201385
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 67 MB
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The Guayana Highlands in northeastern tropical America, rising from lowland rain forests and savannas up to 3000 m elevation, are characterized by ancient tablelands called tepuis. The peatlands that developed on the tepuis constitute unique and fascinating ecosystems and are the focus of this volume, which starts with an overview of tropical and subtropical peats, followed by an introduction to the geo-ecological features of the Guayana region as a whole, with special emphasis on the diversity of the vegetation cover from lowlands to uplands to highlands. The core subject centers on the properties and dating of the peat deposits and the interpretation of the chronological record in terms of past environmental changes. The well illustrated book will appeal to a broad range of scientists interested in tropical highland peats, including quaternarists, soil scientists, geomorphologists, geographers, geologists, ecologists, botanists, hydrologists, conservationists, and land use planners.

Changing Climates Earth Systems And Society

Author : John Dodson
ISBN : 9048187168
Genre : Science
File Size : 30. 8 MB
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The International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE) was established as a means of raising worldwide public and political awareness of the vast, though frequently under-used, potential the Earth Sciences possess for improving the quality of life of the peoples of the world and safeguarding Earth’s rich and diverse environments. The International Year project was jointly initiated in 2000 by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the Earth Science Division of the United Nations Educational, Scienti?c and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). IUGS, which is a Non-Governmental Organisation, and UNESCO, an Inter-Governmental Organisation, already shared a long record of productive cooperation in the na- ral sciences and their application to societal problems, including the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP) now in its fourth decade. With its main goals of raising public awareness of, and enhancing research in the Earth sciences on a global scale in both the developed and less-developed countries of the world, two operational programmes were demanded. In 2002 and 2003, the Series Editors together with Dr. Ted Nield and Dr. Henk Schalke (all four being core members of the Management Team at that time) drew up outlines of a Science and an Outreach Programme. In 2005, following the UN proclamation of 2008 as the United Nations International Year of Planet Earth, the “Year” grew into a triennium (2007–2009).

Smoke On Water

Author : John Crump
ISBN : 9788277011684
Genre :
File Size : 81. 75 MB
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Peatlands have so far been identified in 180 countries and they occur extensively in both the northern and tropical zones of our planet. They usually form in depressions where water permanently accumulates, either sustained by rainwater or underground sources. A lack of oxygen in the waterlogged environment slows decomposition of organic matter, leading to the accumulation of peat layers. However, across the globe peatlands are under threat from drainage and burning for agricultural, forestry and development uses. Fifteen percent of reserves are currently understood to be either destroyed or degraded. To help achieve these outcomes, this report assesses the extent of peatlands in the tropics, the threats they face and the action being taken to preserve them. 1. Peatlands are important to human societies around the world. They contribute significantly to climate change mitigation and adaptation through carbon sequestration and storage, biodiversity conservation, water regime and quality regulation, and the provision of other ecosystem services that support livelihoods. 2. Immediate action is required to prevent further peatland degradation and the serious environmental, economic and social repercussions it entails. Existing options to tackle the issue vary, and for that reason implementation should be regionally adapted to local environmental, economic and social needs and characteristics. 3. A landscape approach is vital and good practices in peatland management and restoration must be shared and implemented across all peatland landscapes to save these threatened ecosystems and their services to people. 4. Local communities should receive support to sustainably manage their peatlands by preserving traditional non-destructive uses and introducing innovative management alternatives. 5. A comprehensive mapping of peatlands worldwide is essential to better understanding their extent and status, and to enable us to safeguard them. Research and monitoring should be improved to provide better maps and tools for rapid assessment and transparent use of them to underpin action and multi-stakeholder engagement.

Earth Surface Processes And Environmental Changes In East Asia

Author : Kenji Kashiwaya
ISBN : 9784431555407
Genre : Science
File Size : 71. 91 MB
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This book examines relationships between climate-hydrological changes and other phenomena including land use and natural disasters during the Holocene and recent past. In particular, periods of rapid climatic shifts such as global warming and global cooling are examined through paleohydrological and other studies of various lake-catchment systems in East Asia, from Mongolia in the north to Taiwan in the south. A number of different research techniques are used in the work presented here, including sediment analysis and optically stimulated luminescence dating and the reader learns how the lake-catchment system functions as a “proxy observatory” for past and present environmental monitoring. The lake catchments studied by the authors of this volume are under similar climatic conditions, i.e., under the East Asia monsoon, with some systematic difference in climatic factors. Both proxy and observation data are available for the surrounding countries’ provisions against natural disasters that are related to climate-hydrological events and readers will see how present instrumental observation data can be connected to past proxy data (sediment information) in the system.

Peatlands And Climate Change

Author : International Peat Society
ISBN : 9529940114
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 77 MB
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New Research Opportunities In The Earth Sciences

Author : Committee on New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences at the National Science Foundation
ISBN : 9780309219242
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 58 MB
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The 2001 National Research Council (NRC) report Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science (BROES) described how basic research in the Earth sciences serves five national imperatives: (1) discovery, use, and conservation of natural resources; (2) characterization and mitigation of natural hazards; (3) geotechnical support of commercial and infrastructure development; (4) stewardship of the environment; and (5) terrestrial surveillance for global security and national defense. This perspective is even more pressing today, and will persist into the future, with ever-growing emphasis. Today's world-with headlines dominated by issues involving fossil fuel and water resources, earthquake and tsunami disasters claiming hundreds of thousands of lives and causing hundreds of billions of dollars in damages, profound environmental changes associated with the evolving climate system, and nuclear weapons proliferation and testing-has many urgent societal issues that need to be informed by sound understanding of the Earth sciences. A national strategy to sustain basic research and training of expertise across the full spectrum of the Earth sciences is motivated by these national imperatives. New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences identifies new and emerging research opportunities in the Earth sciences over the next decade, including surface and deep Earth processes and interdisciplinary research with fields such as ocean and atmospheric sciences, biology, engineering, computer science, and social and behavioral sciences. The report also identifies key instrumentation and facilities needed to support these new and emerging research opportunities. The report describes opportunities for increased cooperation in these new and emerging areas between EAR and other government agency programs, industry, and international programs, and suggests new ways that EAR can help train the next generation of Earth scientists, support young investigators, and increase the participation of underrepresented groups in the field.

Landslides And Engineered Slopes From The Past To The Future

Author : Zuyu Chen
ISBN : UOM:39015079286350
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 33 MB
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Eu Climate Policy Explained

Author : Jos Delbeke
ISBN : 9781317338116
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 37. 82 MB
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The EU has been the region of the world where the most climate policies have been implemented, and where practical policy experimentation in the field of the environment and climate change has been taking place at a rapid pace over the last twenty-five years. This has led to considerable success in reducing pollution, decoupling emissions from economic growth and fostering global technological leadership. The objective of the book is to explain the EU's climate policies in an accessible way, to demonstrate the step-by-step approach that has been used to develop these policies, and the ways in which they have been tested and further improved in the light of experience. The book shows that there is no single policy instrument that can bring down greenhouse gas emissions, but the challenge has been to put a jigsaw of policy instruments together that is coherent, delivers emissions reductions, and is cost-effective. The book differs from existing books by the fact it covers the EU's emissions trading system, the energy sector and other economic sectors, including their development in the context of international climate policy. Set against the backdrop of the 2015 UN Climate Change conference in Paris, this accessible book will be of great relevance to students, scholars and policy makers alike.

Introduction To Process Geomorphology

Author : Vijay K. Sharma
ISBN : 1439803374
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 30 MB
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Introduction to Process Geomorphology provides an integrative approach to the process dynamics and the origin of landforms by the contemporary processes involved in their evolution. The author highlights the physical and chemical laws governing the activity of the earth-surface processes in specific environmental stress conditions, puts forward competing hypotheses on the evolution of landforms, and discusses the bases of internal geologic processes for the explanation of the tectogenic features of the earth. Landforms evolve over a long period of cyclic and geologic time, inheriting the imprints of past process rates and/or process domains. The principles and methods of evaluating the signature of environmental change are highlighted in the text by citing suitable studies. The process-form relationships provide the building blocks also for the optimum utilization of the land resources of the earth, and quantitative assessment of the stability of geomorphic systems and the quality of environment. The approach in this part of the text enables readers to gain an in-depth understanding of the application of the principles of geomorphology to the evaluation, planning, and management of the earth’s resources for sustainable development. This book discusses process dynamics in quantitative terms and reviews theories on the evolution of landforms that flow from theoretical and empirical data. It offers examples and case studies that enable students to comprehend the related components of process-landform relationships. The review and synthesis of information found in each chapter provides a better understanding of the complexity of still inadequately understood process activities and the manner of landform evolution.

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