pedestrian dynamics mathematical theory and evacuation control

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Pedestrian Dynamics

Author : Pushkin Kachroo
ISBN : 1439805202
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 20. 93 MB
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Homeland security, transportation, and city planning depend upon well-designed evacuation routes. You can’t wait until the day of to realize your plan won’t work. Designing successful evacuation plans requires an in-depth understanding of models and control designs for the problems of traffic flow, construction and road closures, and the intangible human factors. Pedestrian Dynamics: Mathematical Theory and Evacuation Control clearly delineates the derivation of mathematical models for pedestrian dynamics and how to use them to design feedback controls for evacuations. The book includes: Mathematical models derived from basic principles Mathematical analysis of the model Details of past work MATLAB® code 65 figures and 400 equations Unlike most works on traffic flow, this book examines the development of optimal methods to effectively control and improve pedestrian traffic flow. The work of a leading expert, it examines the differential equations applied to conservation laws encountered in the study of pedestrian dynamics and evacuation control problem. The author presents new pedestrian traffic models for multi-directional flow in two dimensions. He considers a range of control models in various simulations, including relaxed models and those concerned with direction and magnitude velocity commands. He also addresses questions of time, cost, and scalability. The book clearly demonstrates what the future challenges are and provides the tools to meet them.

Pedestrian Dynamics

Author : Sadeq J. Al-nasur
ISBN : 3540755594
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 62. 48 MB
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Effective evacuation of people from closed spaces is an extremely important topic, since it can save real lives in emergency situations that can be brought about by natural and human made disasters. Usually there are static maps posted at various places at buildings that illustrate routes that should be taken during emergencies. However, when disasters happen, some of these routes might not be valid because of structural problems due to the disaster itself and more importantly because of the distribution of congestion of people spread over the area. The average flow of traffic depends on the traffic density. Therefore, if all the people follow the same route, or follow a route without knowing the congestion situation, they can end up being part of the congestion which results in very low flow rate or worse a traffic jam. Hence it becomes extremely important to design evacuations that inform people how fast and in which direction to move based on real-time information obtained about the people distribution using various sensors. The sensors used can include cameras, infra red sensors etc., and the technology used to inform people about the desired movement can be communicated using light matrix, small speakers, and in the future using wireless PDAs. This book provides mathematical models of pedestrian movements that can be used specifically for designing feedback control laws for effective evacuation. The book also provides various feedback control laws to accomplish the effective evacuation. The book uses the hydrodynamic hyperbolic PDE macroscopic pedestrian models since they are amenable to feedback control design. The control designs are obtained through different nonlinear techniques including Lyapunov functional techniques, feedback linearization in the distributed model, and some discretized techniques.

Pedestrian And Evacuation Dynamics 2012

Author : Ulrich Weidmann
ISBN : 9783319024479
Genre : Computers
File Size : 30. 42 MB
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The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynote talks as well as 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innovative new research, building a strong foundation for the next conference and for future research.

Practical And Experimental Robotics

Author : Ferat Sahin
ISBN : 1420059106
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 48. 47 MB
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Taking a completely hands-on approach, using cheap and easily available robotics kits, Practical and Experimental Robotics provides a detailed exploration of the construction, theory, and experiments for different types of robots. With topics ranging from basic stamp microcontrollers to biped and propeller based robots, the text contains laboratory experiments, examples with solutions, and case studies. The authors begin with a review of the essential elements of electronics and mechanics. They describe the basic mechanical construction and electrical control of the robot, then give at least one example of how to operate the robot using microcontrollers or software. The book includes a reference chapter on Basic Stamp Microcontollers with example code pieces and a chapter completely devoted to PC interfacing. Each chapter begins with the fundamentals, then moves on to advanced topics, thus building a foundation for learning from the ground up. Building a bridge between technicians who have hands-on experience and engineers with a deeper insight into the workings, the book covers a range of machines, from arm, wheel, and leg robots to flying robots and robotic submarines and boats. Unlike most books in this field, this one offers a complete set of topics from electronics, mechanics, and computer interface and programming, making it an independent source for knowledge and understanding of robotics.

Pedestrian And Evacuation Dynamics

Author : Richard D. Peacock
ISBN : 1441997253
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 39. 22 MB
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An aging population, increasing obesity and more people with mobility impairments are bringing new challenges to the management of routine and emergency people movement in many countries. These population challenges, coupled with the innovative designs being suggested for both the built environment and other commonly used structures (e.g., transportation systems) and the increasingly complex incident scenarios of fire, terrorism, and large-scale community disasters, provide even greater challenges to population management and safety. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics, an edited volume, is based on the Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics (PED) 5th International 2010 conference, March 8th-10th 2010, located at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. This volume addresses both pedestrian and evacuation dynamics and associated human behavior to provide answers for policy makers, designers, and emergency management to help solve real world problems in this rapidly developing field. Data collection, analysis, and model development of people movement and behavior during nonemergency and emergency situations will be covered as well.

Stochastic Transport In Complex Systems

Author : Andreas Schadschneider
ISBN : 0080560520
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 85 MB
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The first part of the book provides a pedagogical introduction to the physics of complex systems driven far from equilibrium. In this part we discuss the basic concepts and theoretical techniques which are commonly used to study classical stochastic transport in systems of interacting driven particles. The analytical techniques include mean-field theories, matrix product ansatz, renormalization group, etc. and the numerical methods are mostly based on computer simulations. In the second part of the book these concepts and techniques are applied not only to vehicular traffic but also to transport and traffic-like phenomena in living systems ranging from collective movements of social insects (for example, ants) on trails to intracellular molecular motor transport. These demonstrate the conceptual unity of the fundamental principles underlying the apparent diversity of the systems and the utility of the theoretical toolbox of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics in interdisciplinary research far beyond the traditional disciplinary boundaries of physics. Leading industry experts provide a broad overview of the interdisciplinary nature of physics Presents unified descriptions of intracellular, ant, and vehicular traffic from a physics point of view Applies theoretical methods in practical everyday situations Reference and guide for physicists, engineers and graduate students

The British National Bibliography

Author : Arthur James Wells
ISBN : STANFORD:36105211722678
Genre : English literature
File Size : 55. 95 MB
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Photogrammetric Image Analysis

Author : Uwe Stilla
ISBN : 9783642243936
Genre : Computers
File Size : 39. 3 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the ISPRS Conference on Photogrammetric Image Analysis, held in Munich, Germany, in October 2011. The 25 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 54 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on orientation, matching, object detection, 3D reconstruction and DEM, classification, people and tracking, as well as image processing.

Pedestrian And Evacuation Dynamics 2003

Author : E. R. Galea
ISBN : STANFORD:36105113645704
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 28. 10 MB
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Physics Of The Human Mind

Author : Ihor Lubashevsky
ISBN : 9783319517063
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 11 MB
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This book tackles the challenging question which mathematical formalisms and possibly new physical notions should be developed for quantitatively describing human cognition and behavior, in addition to the ones already developed in the physical and cognitive sciences. Indeed, physics is widely used in modeling social systems, where, in particular, new branches of science such as sociophysics and econophysics have arisen. However, many if not most characteristic features of humans like willingness, emotions, memory, future prediction, and moral norms, to name but a few, are not yet properly reflected in the paradigms of physical thought and theory. The choice of a relevant formalism for modeling mental phenomena requires the comprehension of the general philosophical questions related to the mind-body problem. Plausible answers to these questions are investigated and reviewed, notions and concepts to be used or to be taken into account are developed and some challenging questions are posed as open problems. This text addresses theoretical physicists and neuroscientists modeling any systems and processes where human factors play a crucial role, philosophers interested in applying philosophical concepts to the construction of mathematical models, and the mathematically oriented psychologists and sociologists, whose research is fundamentally related to modeling mental processes.

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