pedestrian dynamics mathematical theory and evacuation control

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Pedestrian Dynamics

Author : Pushkin Kachroo
ISBN : 1439805202
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60. 26 MB
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Homeland security, transportation, and city planning depend upon well-designed evacuation routes. You can’t wait until the day of to realize your plan won’t work. Designing successful evacuation plans requires an in-depth understanding of models and control designs for the problems of traffic flow, construction and road closures, and the intangible human factors. Pedestrian Dynamics: Mathematical Theory and Evacuation Control clearly delineates the derivation of mathematical models for pedestrian dynamics and how to use them to design feedback controls for evacuations. The book includes: Mathematical models derived from basic principles Mathematical analysis of the model Details of past work MATLAB® code 65 figures and 400 equations Unlike most works on traffic flow, this book examines the development of optimal methods to effectively control and improve pedestrian traffic flow. The work of a leading expert, it examines the differential equations applied to conservation laws encountered in the study of pedestrian dynamics and evacuation control problem. The author presents new pedestrian traffic models for multi-directional flow in two dimensions. He considers a range of control models in various simulations, including relaxed models and those concerned with direction and magnitude velocity commands. He also addresses questions of time, cost, and scalability. The book clearly demonstrates what the future challenges are and provides the tools to meet them.

Pedestrian Dynamics

Author : Sadeq J. Al-nasur
ISBN : 3540755594
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 45. 51 MB
Format : PDF
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Effective evacuation of people from closed spaces is an extremely important topic, since it can save real lives in emergency situations that can be brought about by natural and human made disasters. Usually there are static maps posted at various places at buildings that illustrate routes that should be taken during emergencies. However, when disasters happen, some of these routes might not be valid because of structural problems due to the disaster itself and more importantly because of the distribution of congestion of people spread over the area. The average flow of traffic depends on the traffic density. Therefore, if all the people follow the same route, or follow a route without knowing the congestion situation, they can end up being part of the congestion which results in very low flow rate or worse a traffic jam. Hence it becomes extremely important to design evacuations that inform people how fast and in which direction to move based on real-time information obtained about the people distribution using various sensors. The sensors used can include cameras, infra red sensors etc., and the technology used to inform people about the desired movement can be communicated using light matrix, small speakers, and in the future using wireless PDAs. This book provides mathematical models of pedestrian movements that can be used specifically for designing feedback control laws for effective evacuation. The book also provides various feedback control laws to accomplish the effective evacuation. The book uses the hydrodynamic hyperbolic PDE macroscopic pedestrian models since they are amenable to feedback control design. The control designs are obtained through different nonlinear techniques including Lyapunov functional techniques, feedback linearization in the distributed model, and some discretized techniques.

Fractional Order Crowd Dynamics

Author : Kecai Cao
ISBN : 9783110472837
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 83. 37 MB
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This book illustrates the application of fractional calculus in crowd dynamics via modeling groups of pedestrians. Decision-making processes, conservation laws of mass/momentum, and micro-macro models are employed to describe system dynamics and cooperative movements, and reaction-advection-diffusion models are studied to control the group. With practical issues considered, this book is of interests to mathematicians, physicists, and engineers.

Feedback Control Theory For Dynamic Traffic Assignment

Author : Pushkin Kachroo
ISBN : 9783319692319
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 26. 45 MB
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This book develops a methodology for designing feedback control laws for dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) exploiting the introduction of new sensing and information-dissemination technologies to facilitate the introduction of real-time traffic management in intelligent transportation systems. Three methods of modeling the traffic system are discussed: partial differential equations representing a distributed-parameter setting; continuous-time ordinary differential equations (ODEs) representing a continuous-time lumped-parameter setting; and discreet-time ODEs representing a discrete-time lumped-parameter setting. Feedback control formulations for reaching road-user-equilibrium are presented for each setting and advantages and disadvantage of using each are addressed. The closed-loop methods described are proposed expressly to avoid the counter-productive shifting of bottlenecks from one route to another because of driver over-reaction to routing information. The second edition of Feedback Control Theory for Dynamic Traffic Assignment has been thoroughly updated with completely new chapters: a review of the DTA problem and emphasizing real-time-feedback-based problems; an up-to-date presentation of pertinent traffic-flow theory; and a treatment of the mathematical solution to the traffic dynamics. Techinques accounting for the importance of entropy are further new inclusions at various points in the text. Researchers working in traffic control will find the theoretical material presented a sound basis for further research; the continual reference to applications will help professionals working in highway administration and engineering with the increasingly important task of maintaining and smoothing traffic flow; the extensive use of end-of-chapter exercises will help the graduate student and those new to the field to extend their knowledge.

Theory Numerics And Applications Of Hyperbolic Problems I

Author : Christian Klingenberg
ISBN : 9783319915456
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 24. 74 MB
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The first of two volumes, this edited proceedings book features research presented at the XVI International Conference on Hyperbolic Problems held in Aachen, Germany in summer 2016. It focuses on the theoretical, applied, and computational aspects of hyperbolic partial differential equations (systems of hyperbolic conservation laws, wave equations, etc.) and of related mathematical models (PDEs of mixed type, kinetic equations, nonlocal or/and discrete models) found in the field of applied sciences.

Pedestrian And Evacuation Dynamics 2012

Author : Ulrich Weidmann
ISBN : 9783319024479
Genre : Computers
File Size : 51. 6 MB
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The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynote talks as well as 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innovative new research, building a strong foundation for the next conference and for future research.

Pedestrian And Evacuation Dynamics

Author : Richard D. Peacock
ISBN : 1441997253
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 26. 67 MB
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An aging population, increasing obesity and more people with mobility impairments are bringing new challenges to the management of routine and emergency people movement in many countries. These population challenges, coupled with the innovative designs being suggested for both the built environment and other commonly used structures (e.g., transportation systems) and the increasingly complex incident scenarios of fire, terrorism, and large-scale community disasters, provide even greater challenges to population management and safety. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics, an edited volume, is based on the Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics (PED) 5th International 2010 conference, March 8th-10th 2010, located at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. This volume addresses both pedestrian and evacuation dynamics and associated human behavior to provide answers for policy makers, designers, and emergency management to help solve real world problems in this rapidly developing field. Data collection, analysis, and model development of people movement and behavior during nonemergency and emergency situations will be covered as well.

Practical And Experimental Robotics

Author : Ferat Sahin
ISBN : 1420059106
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 44. 53 MB
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Taking a completely hands-on approach, using cheap and easily available robotics kits, Practical and Experimental Robotics provides a detailed exploration of the construction, theory, and experiments for different types of robots. With topics ranging from basic stamp microcontrollers to biped and propeller based robots, the text contains laboratory experiments, examples with solutions, and case studies. The authors begin with a review of the essential elements of electronics and mechanics. They describe the basic mechanical construction and electrical control of the robot, then give at least one example of how to operate the robot using microcontrollers or software. The book includes a reference chapter on Basic Stamp Microcontollers with example code pieces and a chapter completely devoted to PC interfacing. Each chapter begins with the fundamentals, then moves on to advanced topics, thus building a foundation for learning from the ground up. Building a bridge between technicians who have hands-on experience and engineers with a deeper insight into the workings, the book covers a range of machines, from arm, wheel, and leg robots to flying robots and robotic submarines and boats. Unlike most books in this field, this one offers a complete set of topics from electronics, mechanics, and computer interface and programming, making it an independent source for knowledge and understanding of robotics.

Traffic And Granular Flow 15

Author : Victor L. Knoop
ISBN : 9783319334820
Genre : Computers
File Size : 85. 14 MB
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The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinary research, exchange ideas, and meet many experts in these areas of research.

The British National Bibliography

Author : Arthur James Wells
ISBN : STANFORD:36105211722678
Genre : English literature
File Size : 27. 22 MB
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