permafrost soils 16 soil biology

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Permafrost Soils

Author : Rosa Margesin
ISBN : 9783540693710
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 50 MB
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Vast areas of the soil ecosystem are permanently frozen or are unfrozen for only a few weeks in summer. Permafrost soils are of global interest since a significant increase in temperature is predicted for polar regions. This volume summarizes recent knowledge on various aspects of permafrost and permafrost-affected soils, including typical properties of these soils, the distribution and biodiversity of permafrost microorganisms, examples for microbial activity in frozen soils, and genomic and proteomic insights into cold adaptation of permafrost bacteria. The impact of global warming on microbial communities, carbon dynamics, geomorphology and frozen-ground engineering are further discussed. Other chapters describe the feasibility and limitations of methods for removing contaminants in frozen ground, and consider terrestrial permafrost as a model for extraterrestrial habitats.

Handbook Of Soil Sciences

Author : Pan Ming Huang
ISBN : 9781439803066
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 63 MB
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An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for construction and manufacturing. To develop lasting solutions to the challenges of balanced use and stewardship of the Earth, we require a fundamental understanding of soil—from its elastic, porous three-phase system to its components, processes, and reactions. Handbook of Soil Sciences: Properties and Processes, Second Edition is the first of two volumes that form a comprehensive reference on the discipline of soil science. Completely revised and updated to reflect the current state of knowledge, this volume covers the traditional areas of soil science: soil physics, soil chemistry, soil mineralogy, soil biology and biochemistry, and pedology. Contributors discuss the application of physical principles to characterize the soil system and mass and energy transport processes within the critical zone. They present significant advances in soil chemistry; describe how minerals are formed and transformed; and provide an introduction to the soil biota. They also examine geomorphology, land use, hydropedology, and subaqueous soils as well as the classification and digital mapping of soil. Critical elements addressed in each section include: Descriptions of concepts and theories Definitions, approaches, methodologies, and procedures Data in tabular and figure format Extensive references This cohesive handbook provides a thorough understanding of soil science principles and practices based on a rigorous, complete, and up-to-date treatment of the subject matter compiled by leading scientists. It is a resource rich in data, offering professional soil scientists, agronomists, engineers, ecologists, biologists, naturalists, and students their first point of entry into a particular aspect of the soil sciences.

Permafrost Ecosystems

Author : Akira Osawa
ISBN : 1402096933
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 14 MB
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Drawing from a decade-long collaboration between Japan and Russia, this important volume presents the first major synthesis of current knowledge on the ecophysiology of the coniferous forests growing on permafrost at high latitudes. It presents ecological data for a region long inaccessible to most scientists, and raises important questions about the global carbon balance as these systems are affected by the changing climate. Making up around 20% of the entire boreal forests of the northern hemisphere, these ‘permafrost forest ecosystems’ are subject to particular constraints in terms of temperature, nutrient availability, and root space, creating exceptional ecosystem characteristics not known elsewhere. This authoritative text explores their diversity, structure, dynamics and physiology. It provides a comparison of these forests in relation to boreal forests elsewhere, and concludes with an assessment of the potential responses of this unique biome to climate change. The book will be invaluable to advanced students and researchers interested in boreal vegetation, forest ecology, silviculture and forest soils, as well as to researchers into climate change and the global carbon balance.

Ecology Of Cyanobacteria Ii

Author : Brian A. Whitton
ISBN : 9789400738553
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 96 MB
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Cyanobacteria have existed for 3.5 billion years, yet they are still the most important photosynthetic organisms on the planet for cycling carbon and nitrogen. The ecosystems where they have key roles range from the warmer oceans to many Antarctic sites. They also include dense nuisance growths in nutrient-rich lakes and nitrogen-fixers which aid the fertility of rice-fields and many soils, especially the biological soil crusts of arid regions. Molecular biology has in recent years provided major advances in our understanding of cyanobacterial ecology. Perhaps for more than any other group of organisms, it is possible to see how the ecology, physiology, biochemistry, ultrastructure and molecular biology interact. This all helps to deal with practical problems such as the control of nuisance blooms and the use of cyanobacterial inocula to manage semi-desert soils. Large-scale culture of several organisms, especially "Spirulina" (Arthrospira), for health food and specialist products is increasingly being expanded for a much wider range of uses. In view of their probable contribution to past oil deposits, much attention is currently focused on their potential as a source of biofuel. Please visit http://extras.springer.com/ to view Extra Materials belonging to this volume. This book complements the highly successful Ecology of Cyanobacteria and integrates the discoveries of the past twelve years with the older literature.

Canadian Journal Of Microbiology

Author :
ISBN : MINN:31951P010771535
Genre : Microbiology
File Size : 65. 5 MB
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Microbiology Of Extreme Soils

Author : Patrice Dion
ISBN : 354074231X
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 94 MB
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This volume provides a comprehensive coverage of the principal extreme soil ecosystems of natural and anthropogenic origin. Extreme soils oppose chemical or physical limits to colonization by most soil organisms and present the microbiologist with exciting opportunities. Described here are a range of fascinating environments from permafrost to Martian soils. The book includes chapters on basic research in addition to applications in biotechnology and bioremediation.

Cryosols

Author : John Kimble
ISBN : 9783662064290
Genre : Nature
File Size : 59. 28 MB
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Cryosols – permafrost – occupy a unique part of the earth and have properties greatly different from other soils. They also occur where the greatest impact of global warming is predicted. This is the first book bring together the leading researchers in the area of permafrost soils to produce a review of the geography, cryogenic soil forming processes, ecological processes, classification and use of soils that are affected by permafrost.

Antarctic Terrestrial Microbiology

Author : Don Cowan
ISBN : 9783642452130
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 10 MB
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This book brings together many of the world’s leading experts in the fields of Antarctic terrestrial soil ecology, providing a comprehensive and completely up-to-date analysis of the status of Antarctic soil microbiology. Antarctic terrestrial soils represent one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Once thought to be largely sterile, it is now known that these diverse and often specialized extreme habitats harbor a very wide range of different microorganisms. Antarctic soil communities are relatively simple, but not unsophisticated. Recent phylogenetic and microscopic studies have demonstrated that these communities have well established trophic structuring and play a significant role in nutrient cycling in these cold and often dry desert ecosystems. They are surprisingly responsive to change and potentially sensitive to climatic perturbation. Antarctic terrestrial soils also harbor specialized ‘refuge’habitats, where microbial communities develop under (and within) translucent rocks. These cryptic habitats offer unique models for understanding the physical and biological ‘drivers’ of community development, function and evolution.

Bioremediation Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons In Cold Regions

Author : Dennis M. Filler
ISBN : 9781139470049
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 14 MB
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This guide to bioremediation in cold regions is designed to aid environmental practitioners, industry, and regulators in the remediation of petroleum spills and contaminated sites in cold regions. Remediation design and technology used in temperate climates does not necessarily work in cold climates, and cleanup takes longer due to shorter treatment seasons, sub-freezing temperatures, ground freezing and thawing, and limited bioactivity. Environmental engineers and scientists from eight countries working in the polar regions combine their experiences and expertise with petroleum contamination to write this book. It contains in-depth discussions on regulations, freezing and frozen ground, identification and adaptations of cold-tolerant bacteria, contaminant transport in cold soils and permafrost, temperature effects on biodegradation, analytical methods, treatability studies, and nutritional requirements for bioremediation. Emphasis is given to practical and effective bioremediation methods for application in cold regions. Emerging technologies are also discussed.

Soil Organic Carbon

Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
ISBN : 9789251096819
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 28. 86 MB
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The publication was launched at the Global Symposium on Soil Organic Carbon (GSOC) held at FAO headquarters (Rome, 21-23 March 2017). It provides an overview to decision-makers and practitioners of the main scientific facts and information regarding the current knowledge and knowledge gaps on Soil Organic Carbon. It highlights how better information and good practices may be implemented to support ending hunger, adapting to and mitigating climate change and achieving overall sustainable development.

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