permafrost soils 16 soil biology

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Permafrost Soils

Author : Rosa Margesin
ISBN : 9783540693710
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 29 MB
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Most of the Earth’s biosphere is characterized by low temperatures. Vast areas (>20%) of the soil ecosystem are permanently frozen or are unfrozen for only a few weeks in summer. Permafrost regions occur at high latitudes and also at high ele- tions; a significant part of the global permafrost area is represented by mountains. Permafrost soils are of global interest, since a significant increase in temperature is predicted for polar regions. Global warming will have a great impact on these soils, especially in northern regions, since they contain large amounts of organic carbon and act as carbon sinks, and a temperature increase will result in a release of carbon into the atmosphere. Additionally, the intensified release of the clima- relevant tracer gas methane represents a potential environmental harzard. Significant numbers of viable microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, p- totrophic cyanobacteria and green algae, fungi and protozoa, are present in per- frost, and the characteristics of these microorganisms reflect the unique and extreme conditions of the permafrost environment. Remarkably, these microorg- isms have been reported to be metabolically active at subzero temperatures, even down to ?20°C.

Handbook Of Soil Sciences

Author : Pan Ming Huang
ISBN : 9781439803066
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 57 MB
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An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for construction and manufacturing. To develop lasting solutions to the challenges of balanced use and stewardship of the Earth, we require a fundamental understanding of soil—from its elastic, porous three-phase system to its components, processes, and reactions. Handbook of Soil Sciences: Properties and Processes, Second Edition is the first of two volumes that form a comprehensive reference on the discipline of soil science. Completely revised and updated to reflect the current state of knowledge, this volume covers the traditional areas of soil science: soil physics, soil chemistry, soil mineralogy, soil biology and biochemistry, and pedology. Contributors discuss the application of physical principles to characterize the soil system and mass and energy transport processes within the critical zone. They present significant advances in soil chemistry; describe how minerals are formed and transformed; and provide an introduction to the soil biota. They also examine geomorphology, land use, hydropedology, and subaqueous soils as well as the classification and digital mapping of soil. Critical elements addressed in each section include: Descriptions of concepts and theories Definitions, approaches, methodologies, and procedures Data in tabular and figure format Extensive references This cohesive handbook provides a thorough understanding of soil science principles and practices based on a rigorous, complete, and up-to-date treatment of the subject matter compiled by leading scientists. It is a resource rich in data, offering professional soil scientists, agronomists, engineers, ecologists, biologists, naturalists, and students their first point of entry into a particular aspect of the soil sciences.

Syllabus Der Boden Luft Und Flechtenalgen

Author : Hanuš Ettl
ISBN : 9783642394621
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 75 MB
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Algen spielen neben den Bakterien und Pilzen eine wichtige Rolle im Bodenleben. Zur Vertiefung der Kenntnis bodenbewohnender eukaryontischer Algen fehlte bisher ein Bestimmungswerk, das die weltweit verstreuten Daten zusammengefasst darstellt. Über 1000 Algenarten sind bislang aus Böden, aus der Luft und aus Flechten beschrieben, doch ist das Wissen über Lebensvorgänge, Reproduktion, Entwicklung usw. noch sehr lückenhaft. Auch sind viele Bodenalgen überhaupt nur mittels Kulturen erfassbar. Dieser Syllabus enthält deshalb für 260 Gattungen und mehr als 1000 Arten aero-terrestrischer Algen entsprechende Bestimmungsschlüssel, Beschreibungen von Morphologie und Zytologie samt Abbildungen, dazu noch ergänzende Hinweise auf Vorkommen, Verbreitung und vorhandene Kulturen. Ein Sonderkapital ist dabei den eukaryontischen Flechtenalgen gewidmet. Die systematische Gliederung und Anordnung stellt einen Kompromiss zwischen den Auffassungen der klassischen und modernen Systematik unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Lichtmikroskopie dar. Soweit möglich wurden neben der Originalliteratur auch Eigenbeobachtungen und Kulturen in die Bearbeitung mit einbezogen. An taxonomischen Namensänderungen und Neubeschreibungen ist die neue Familie Myrmeciaceae (Ordnung Chlorellales) hervorzuheben. Hinweise auf wichtige Literatur sollen zu weiterführenden Untersuchungen anregen. Im allgemeinen Teil finden sich wesentliche Informationen über Ökologie, Bestimmung und Kulturmethoden bei Bodenalgen sowie übersichtliche Darstellungen der charakteristischen morphologischen und zytologischen Merkmale der behandelten Algengruppen. Seit dem Erscheinen der 1. Auflage sind zahlreiche weitere aeroterrestrische Algen beschrieben und taxonomische Änderungen vorgenommen worden. Hinweise dazu und die entsprechenden Literaturangaben samt Register sind als Ergänzungsteil nach den Bildtafeln und vor der Literatur des Hauptteils eingefügt.

Permafrost Ecosystems

Author : Akira Osawa
ISBN : 1402096933
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 35 MB
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Drawing from a decade-long collaboration between Japan and Russia, this important volume presents the first major synthesis of current knowledge on the ecophysiology of the coniferous forests growing on permafrost at high latitudes. It presents ecological data for a region long inaccessible to most scientists, and raises important questions about the global carbon balance as these systems are affected by the changing climate. Making up around 20% of the entire boreal forests of the northern hemisphere, these ‘permafrost forest ecosystems’ are subject to particular constraints in terms of temperature, nutrient availability, and root space, creating exceptional ecosystem characteristics not known elsewhere. This authoritative text explores their diversity, structure, dynamics and physiology. It provides a comparison of these forests in relation to boreal forests elsewhere, and concludes with an assessment of the potential responses of this unique biome to climate change. The book will be invaluable to advanced students and researchers interested in boreal vegetation, forest ecology, silviculture and forest soils, as well as to researchers into climate change and the global carbon balance.

Canadian Journal Of Microbiology

Author :
ISBN : MINN:31951P010771535
Genre : Microbiology
File Size : 43. 96 MB
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Antarctic Terrestrial Microbiology

Author : Don A. Cowan
ISBN : 9783642452130
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 82 MB
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This book brings together many of the world’s leading experts in the fields of Antarctic terrestrial soil ecology, providing a comprehensive and completely up-to-date analysis of the status of Antarctic soil microbiology. Antarctic terrestrial soils represent one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Once thought to be largely sterile, it is now known that these diverse and often specialized extreme habitats harbor a very wide range of different microorganisms. Antarctic soil communities are relatively simple, but not unsophisticated. Recent phylogenetic and microscopic studies have demonstrated that these communities have well established trophic structuring and play a significant role in nutrient cycling in these cold and often dry desert ecosystems. They are surprisingly responsive to change and potentially sensitive to climatic perturbation. Antarctic terrestrial soils also harbor specialized ‘refuge’habitats, where microbial communities develop under (and within) translucent rocks. These cryptic habitats offer unique models for understanding the physical and biological ‘drivers’ of community development, function and evolution.

2nd European Conference On Permafrost

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105121939016
Genre :
File Size : 27. 94 MB
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Biodiversity And Dynamics Of Ecosystems In North Eurasia Forest And Soil Ecosystems Of North Eurasia Pt 1 Forest Ecosystems Of North Eurasia Pt 2 Soil Ecosystems Of North Eurasia 2 V

Author : Rossiĭskai︠a︡ akademii︠a︡ nauk. Sibirskoe otdelenie
ISBN : UOM:39015056497475
Genre : Biodiversity
File Size : 67. 31 MB
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Physiological Plant Ecology

Author : Malcolm C. Press
ISBN : 0521549299
Genre : Nature
File Size : 78. 4 MB
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The last decade has seen rapid and major advances in our understanding of the physiological ecology of plants. This volume reviews some of these advances and new challenges. The chapters cover five broad themes: resource acquisition and utilization; interactions between organisms; responses to global environmental changes; ecosystems; and integration and scaling. This book brings together an unrivalled collection of leading practitioners in the discipline from North America, Europe and Australia and adopts a broad approach, ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem level. It has proven a valuable tool for researchers and advanced students in the discipline.

Sipre Report

Author :
ISBN : UCAL:B3095972
Genre : Frozen ground
File Size : 21. 23 MB
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