phenomics

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Phenomics

Author : Roberto Fritsche-Neto
ISBN : 9783319136776
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 27 MB
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This book represents a pioneer initiative to describe the new technologies available for next-generation phenotyping and applied to plant breeding. Over the last several years plant breeding has experienced a true revolution. Phenomics, i.e., high-throughput phenotyping using automation, robotics and remote data collection, is changing the way cultivars are developed. Written in an easy to understand style, this book offers an indispensable reference work for all students, instructors and scientists who are interested in the latest innovative technologies applied to plant breeding.

Phenomics

Author : John M. Hancock
ISBN : 9781466590960
Genre : Medical
File Size : 51. 30 MB
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As our ability to acquire massive amounts of information about genome variation accelerates it is becoming increasingly clear that to make maximum use of this information we also need well-structured, systematic data on the phenotypic consequences of genomic changes. Phenomics is the new discipline of using standardized measurement techniques to characterize the phenotypic effects of random or systematic genome modifications (for example randomly generated mutations or systematic gene knockouts). This approach is now being used in an increasing range of species and systems. In this book, experts working in phenomics in most of the major species and systems that are currently being studied present overviews of the field from their different, but overlapping perspectives.

Phenomics

Author : Carole Rapo
ISBN : OCLC:821966309
Genre : Insects as biological pest control agents
File Size : 30. 9 MB
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Currently we test host specificity of weed biological control agents using the phylogenetic relatedness of the weed and its related non-targets, which has been an overall good predictor of non-target attack. This was not the case for the prospective biological control agent Ceutorhynchus cardariae Korotyaev (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) investigated for the biological control of the invasive Brassicaceae plant Lepidium draba L. in North America. No-choice host specificity testing revealed a phylogenetically disjunct fundamental host range. This study is premised on the concept that a detailed phenotype will better predict host range than a genetic phylogeny. We used a measure of phylogenetic correlation, Blomberg's K, to assess the strength of the association between the feeding intensity by C. cardariae and phylograms based on phenotypic and genetic similarity, and to compare the association between those phylograms. As a comparison, we also included Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), as an oligophagous insect which feeds broadly within the Brassicaceae. We found that a phylogram based on phenotypic traits - the qualitative (presence and absence) and quantitative (concentration in [mu]mol/g dry weight) glucosinolate and the total set of amino acids and amines profiles - better predicted the feeding intensity by C. cardariae than did a phylogram based on genetic similarity (in our study: the chloroplast gene ndhF), but not by P. xylostella . In contrast, we found that synthetic phylograms based on the combination of a selected set of primary nitrogenous metabolites with the glucosinolates, were satisfactory predictors of the feeding intensity by C. cardariae and P. xylostella than a phylogram based on genetic similarity. These results are of importance for the practitioners of biological control of weeds who seek to use specialist insects with narrow host range to control invasive weeds. For evolutionary ecologists, who seek to understand the specialist-generalist divide, these results support recent evidence that the defensive phenotype of plants is likely to be composed of multiple interacting factors, and that other plant traits than secondary chemistry, such as the primary chemistry, are implicated in shaping that phenotype.

Genetics Genomics And Fish Phenomics

Author :
ISBN : 9780128052167
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 50 MB
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Genetics, Genomics and Fish Phenomics provides the latest information on the rapidly evolving field of genetics, presenting new medical breakthroughs that are occurring as a result of advances in our knowledge of genetics. The book continually publishes important reviews of the broadest interest to geneticists and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines, critically analyzing future directions, with hhis volume focusing on genetics, genomics, and phenomics of fish. Includes a critical analysis of future directions for the study of clinical genetics Written and edited by recognized leaders in the field Presents new medical breakthroughs that are occurring as a result of advances in our knowledge of genetics

Phenomics In Crop Plants Trends Options And Limitations

Author : Jitendra Kumar
ISBN : 9788132222262
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 18 MB
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Identification of desirable genotypes with traits of interest is discernible for making genetic improvement of crop plants. In this direction, screening of a large number of germplasm for desirable traits and transfer of identified traits into agronomic backgrounds through recombination breeding is the common breeding approach. Although visual screening is easier for qualitative traits, its use is not much effective for quantitative traits and also for those, which are difficult to score visually. Therefore, it is imperative to phenotype the germplasm accessions and breeding materials precisely using high throughput phenomics tools for challenging and complex traits under natural, controlled and harsh environmental conditions. Realizing the importance of phenotyping data towards identification and utilization of a germplasm as donors, global scientific community has exerted increased focus on advancing phenomics in crop plants leading to development of a number of techniques and methodologies for screening of agronomic, physiological, and biochemical traits. These technologies have now become much advanced and entered the era of digital science. This book provides exhaustive information on various aspects related to phenotyping of crop plants and offers a most comprehensive reference on the developments made in traditional and high throughput phenotyping of agricultural crops.

Tissue Phenomics Profiling Cancer Patients For Treatment Decisions

Author : Gerd Binnig
ISBN : 9781351134255
Genre : Medical
File Size : 52. 39 MB
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In the age of digitization our society is transformed into a new state. In particular, machine intelligence dramatically elevates our capability to create and digest information. Naturally, healthcare is also impacted by this trend and will even be more transformed into a informatic driven discipline in the future. In the most important area of histo-pathology, the interpretation of tissue slices from cancer patients, informatics will have an early and huge impact on treatment decisions and probably will act as the leading discipline for this transformation in medicine. Tissue Phenomics provides a comprehensive methodology aiming at the discovery of the most accurate tissue-based decision support algorithm by close integration of assay development, image analysis and bioinformatics, and optimization feedback loops. In this book the methodology of Tissue Phenomics and its benefits and wealth’s are described. The different components of Tissue Phenomics are explained in the different chapters. In the chapters 2 to 4 of this book different authors describe various approaches on how to convert the wealth of tissue slide pixel data into mineable information using knowledge-based and data-driven image analysis methods. Subsequently, the datafication of images and the bioinformatics part plays a crucial role in generating prognostic and predictive models for disease progression. The integration of other data sources such as genomics, radiomics and patient related information is also important and is described as well. As discussed in chapters 5 and 6, these models may classify patients in distinct groups such as those responding to a given therapy. Since Tissue Phenomics provides a huge set of potentially prognostic features (phenes), one focus of both chapters is robust feature selection methods by advanced Monte-Carlo cross validation algorithms. In chapter 7 we discuss multiple application examples of Tissue Phenomics in academic and commercial settings and its tremendous impact to advances in biomedical sciences. Building on the successes in research, chapters 8 and 9 discuss applications in clinical environments and provide a flavor to the future envision in chapter 10, where tissue datafication and subsequent patient profiling is part of every routine examination, with the goal to best match patients with the most successful therapy, as predicted by tissue phenes.

Comparing Bacterial Gene Networks Based On High Throughput Phenomics

Author : Birgit Pfalz
ISBN : OCLC:1004520408
Genre :
File Size : 89. 6 MB
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Legumes Under Environmental Stress

Author : Parvaiz Ahmad
ISBN : 9781118917084
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 76 MB
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The improvement of crop species has long been a goal since cultivation began thousands of years ago. To feed an ever increasing world population will require a great increase in food production. Wheat, corn, rice, potato and legumes are expected to lead as the most important crops in the world. Due to environmental fluctuations legumes are often exposed to different environmental stresses, leading to decreased yield and problems with growth and development of the legumes. The present work will cover the physiobiochemical, molecular and omic approaches and responses of legumes towards environmental stress. Contributors will be active researchers and practitioners from international institutions and organisations. The book will be a valuable and much-needed resource for plant scientists, breeders and agricultural researchers worldwide.

Final Technical Report For Phenomic Analysis Of Natural And Induced Variation In Brachypodium Distachyon De Sc0001526

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ISBN : OCLC:925447725
Genre :
File Size : 25. 39 MB
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The goal of this project was to apply high-throughput, non-destructive phenotyping (phenomics) to collections of natural variants and induced mutants of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon and characterize a small subset of that material in detail. B. distachyon is well suited to this phenomic approach because its small size and rapid generation time allow researchers to grow many plants under carefully controlled conditions. In addition, the simple diploid genetics, high quality genome sequence and existence of numerous experimental tools available for B. distachyon allow us to rapidly identify genes affecting specific phenotypes. Our phenomic analysis revealed great diversity in biofuel-relevant traits like growth rate, biomass and photosynthetic rate. This clearly demonstrated the feasibility of applying a phenomic approach to the model grass B. distachyon. We also demonstrated the utility of B. distachyon for studying mature root system, something that is virtually impossible to do with biomass crops. We showed tremendous natural variation in root architecture that can potentially be used to design crops with superior nutrient and water harvesting capability. Finally, we demonstrated the speed with which we can link specific genes to specific phenotypes by studying two mutants in detail. Importantly, in both cases, the specific biological lessons learned were grass-specific and could not have been learned from a dicot model system. Furthermore, one of the genes affects cell wall integrity and thus may be a useful target in the context of biomass crop improvement. Ultimately, all this information can be used to accelerate the creation of improved biomass crops.

Omics In Plant Breeding

Author : Aluízio Borém
ISBN : 9781118820841
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 79 MB
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Computational and high-throughput methods, such as genomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics, known collectively as “-omics,” have been used to study plant biology for well over a decade now. As these technologies mature, plant and crop scientists have started using these methods to improve crop varieties. Omics in Plant Breeding provides a timely introduction to key omicsbased methods and their application in plant breeding. Omics in Plant Breeding is a practical and accessible overview of specific omics-based methods ranging from metabolomics to phenomics. Covering a single methodology within each chapter, this book provides thorough coverage that ensures a strong understanding of each methodology both in its application to, and improvement of, plant breeding. Accessible to advanced students, researchers, and professionals, Omics in Plant Breeding will be an essential entry point into this innovative and exciting field. • A valuable overview of high-throughput, genomics-based technologies and their applications to plant breeding • Each chapter explores a single methodology, allowing for detailed and thorough coverage • Coverage ranges from well-established methodologies, such as genomics and proteomics, to emerging technologies, including phenomics and physionomics Aluízio Borém is a Professor of Plant Breeding at the University of Viçosa in Brazil. Roberto Fritsche-Neto is a Professor of Genetics and Plant Breeding at the University of São Paulo in Brazil.

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