physico chemical analysis of industrial catalysts a practical guide to characterization publication ifp

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Physico Chemical Analysis Of Industrial Catalysts

Author : John Lynch
ISBN : 2710808374
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 77. 52 MB
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This book describes the principal physico-chemical techniques for characterising the catalysts used in searching for new active phases, optimising the formulation and monitoring industrial production. Based on courses given at the Institut Francias du Peole for research technicians in the fields of kinetics and catalysis, this book covers useful basic theory and provides numerous examples of industrial applications. This guide is an essential companion for technicians and chemical engineers whose work requires an understanding of the fields of application, including the capabilities and the limits of today's complex characterisation techniques.Contents: Introduction. 1. Textural characterisation of catalysts. 2. Atomic absorption spectrometry. 3. Atomic emission spectroscopy. 4. X-ray fluorescence. 5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. 6. Ion impact analysis. 7. Scanning electron microscopy. 8. Elemental analysis in the electron microprobe. 9. Transmission electron microscopy. 10. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering. 11. Exafs. 12. Infrared absorption spectrometry. 13. Nuclear magnetic resonance. 14. Thermal analysis methods. Index

Catalysis By Transition Metal Sulphides

Author : RAYBAUD Pascal
ISBN : 9782710809913
Genre : Science
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The main application of Transition Metal Sulphides (TMS) as solid catalysts is for production of clean fuels in petroleum refineries. The various feedstocks to be processed all contain more or less sulphur, included in highly stable heteroaromatic molecules. In order to meet the stringent specifications imposed worldwide nowadays on transportation fuels to reduce their environmental impact, catalytic hydroprocessing remains essential. In this process, sulphur is removed as H2S following the reaction between molecular hydrogen and the heteroaromatics. The reaction conditions and reaction medium composition are such that only TMS provide stable catalysts, generally supported on alumina. Both for their fundamental and applied interest, these fascinating systems are still the subject of a very significant research effort, while major advances have been made over the past 30 years, involving innovative preparation routes, sophisticated surface science experiments for characterisation, detailed kinetic and mechanistic studies, and state of the art DFT simulations giving unprecedented insight into the local structure as well as elementary steps at microscopic level. This book aims at providing a complete, comprehensive and updated survey of the field, useful for anyone involved: the student starting a research project, the academic researcher or the refinery engineer willing to deepen their knowledge on the catalytic as well as on the process aspects. 37 specialists from IFP Energies nouvelles, CNRS, or French universities have contributed, reporting a unique synthesis of the last 15 years of research. The preface written by Michèle Breysse, a well known leading scientist who devoted most of her fruitful career to this topic, puts this collective work into a meaningful historical perspective. Contents : Part 1. Fundamental Aspects: Insights from DFT calculations and experimental surface sciences. 1. Periodic trends in catalysis by sulphides. 2. Atomic scale structures of mixed lamellar sulphides. 3. Theoretical and microkinetic studies of hydrotreatment reactions. 4. Models of supported Co(Ni)MoS Catalysts. Part 2. Progress in the preparation and characterisation of industrial hydrotreating catalysts. 1. Principles involved in the preparation of hydrotreatment catalysts. 2. Progress in the preparation of new catalysts. 3. Progress in the preparation of catalysts with controlled acidity: case of aluminosilicate supports. 4. Activation and genesis of the active phase by sulfidation. 5. life cycle of an HDT catalyst. 6. Charaterisation of catalysts. Part 3. Applications to the production of clean fuels. 1. An overview of refining. 2. Deep desulphurisation of middle distillates. 3. Selective desulphurisation of catalytic cracking gasolines. 4. Hydrocracking. 5. Hydroprocessing and hydroconversion of residue fractions. 6. Hydrotreatment of vegetable oils. 7. Hydroconversion of coals. Conclusion.

The Geopolitics Of Energy

Author : Jean-Pierre Favennec
ISBN : 9782710811459
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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Rarely has the world's energy sector known such a complicated and fragile environment as that being experienced in 2011. Energy demand is increasing rapidly because of growth in the developing countries. It is largely met by fossil fuels : oil, natural gas and coal, and also by hydraulic and nuclear power. The use of all these forms of energy now gives rise to controversy. A year after the uncontrollable oil leaks from the Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico, the consequences of the accident are still being debated. The development of shale gas, currently the source of half natural gas production in the United States, meets strong opposition in a number of European countries. Even more serious, the accident at Fukushima has put into question the future development of nuclear power, particularly in Europe but also in the USA. There is considerable criticism of the use of coal, which is the source for most of the energy needs in China and a number of developing countries, because of its emissions of CO2 and other pollutants. Even traditional biomass, whose use leads to deforestation and to respiratory diseases, and the development of hydraulic power are the subject of debate. How should one judge between these different energies ? How can decisions be taken between reducing consumption and increasing production ? What is the future for new renewable energies ? These are the issues at stake on the energy sector. This book appears just at the right time to provide clear and well documented replies to the questions that all of us, as energy users, are posing. How are the different forms of energy produced ? What does the future hold for them ? Who are the players active in the energy scene ? What are the supply constraints ? What is the impact of the strong growth in India and China on energy resources ? The book is in two parts. The first sets out the major characteristics of the energy sector. The second provides an analysis of the global energy issues region by region and details the geopolitical aspects. This work is well illustrated and accessible to all, as it does not require any specific prior knowledge. It will particularly interest readers seeking a global perspective of a sector that is fundamental both to our economy and also for our international policies.

Lignin Valorization

Author : Gregg T. Beckham
ISBN : 9781782625544
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 53 MB
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A comprehensive, interdisciplinary picture of how lignocellulosic biorefineries could potentially employ lignin valorization technologies.

Industrial Catalysis

Author : Jens Hagen
ISBN : 9783527684649
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 77. 34 MB
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Now in it's 3rd Edition, Industrial Catalysis offers all relevant information on catalytic processes in industry, including many recent examples. Perfectly suited for self-study, it is the ideal companion for scientists who want to get into the field or refresh existing knowledge. The updated edition covers the full range of industrial aspects, from catalyst development and testing to process examples and catalyst recycling. The book is characterized by its practical relevance, expressed by a selection of over 40 examples of catalytic processes in industry. In addition, new chapters on catalytic processes with renewable materials and polymerization catalysis have been included. Existing chapters have been carefully revised and supported by new subchapters, for example, on metathesis reactions, refinery processes, petrochemistry and new reactor concepts. "I found the book accesible, readable and interesting - both as a refresher and as an introduction to new topics - and a convenient first reference on current industrial catalytic practise and processes." Excerpt from a book review for the second edition by P. C. H. Mitchell, Applied Organometallic Chemistry (2007)

Catalysis For Renewables

Author : Gabriele Centi
ISBN : 9783527621125
Genre : Science
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With its focus on catalysis and addressing two very hot and timely topics with significant implications for our future lives, this will be a white book in the field. The authority behind this practical work is the IDECAT Network of Excellence, and the authors here outline how the use of catalysis will promote the more extensive use of renewable feedstocks in chemical and energy production. They present the latest applications, their applicability and results, making this a ready reference for researchers and engineers working in catalysis, chemistry, and industrial processes wishing to analyze options, outlooks and opportunities in the field.

Nanomaterials In Catalysis

Author : Philippe Serp
ISBN : 9783527656899
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 21 MB
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Nanocatalysis has emerged as a field at the interface between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and offers unique solutions to the demanding requirements for catalyst improvement. Heterogeneous catalysis represents one of the oldest commercial applications of nanoscience and nanoparticles of metals, semiconductors, oxides, and other compounds have been widely used for important chemical reactions. The main focus of this fi eld is the development of well-defined catalysts, which may include both metal nanoparticles and a nanomaterial as the support. These nanocatalysts should display the benefits of both homogenous and heterogeneous catalysts, such as high efficiency and selectivity, stability and easy recovery/recycling. The concept of nanocatalysis is outlined in this book and, in particular, it provides a comprehensive overview of the science of colloidal nanoparticles. A broad range of topics, from the fundamentals to applications in catalysis, are covered, without excluding micelles, nanoparticles in ionic liquids, dendrimers, nanotubes, and nanooxides, as well as modeling, and the characterization of nanocatalysts, making it an indispensable reference for both researchers at universities and professionals in industry.

Novel Concepts In Catalysis And Chemical Reactors

Author : Andrzej Cybulski
ISBN : 9783527641536
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 97 MB
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The chemical process industry faces a tremendous challenge of supplying a growing and ever more demanding global population with the products we need. The average efficiency at which resources are converted into the final products is however still dramatically low. The most obvious solution is to carry out chemical conversions at much higher yields and selectivity and this is where active and selective catalysts and efficient chemical reactors play a crucial role. Written by an international team of highly experienced editors and authors from academia and industry, this ready reference focuses on how to enhance the efficiency of catalysts and reactors. It treats key topics such as molecular modeling, zeolites, MOFs, catalysis at room temperature, biocatalysis, catalysis for sustainability, structured reactors including membrane and microchannel reactors, switching from batch to continuous reactors, application of alternative energies and process intensification. By including recent achievements and trends, the book provides an up-to-date insight into the most important developments in the field of industrial catalysis and chemical reactor engineering. In addition, several ways of improving efficiency, selectivity, activity and improved methods for scale-up, modeling and design are presented in a compact manner.

Low Temperature Oxidation

Author : F. P. Fehlner
ISBN : UOM:39015010637778
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 80 MB
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An interdisciplinary study of the corrosion of metals that emphasizes the role of oxide structure in interpreting oxidation kinetics of metals and semiconductors. Covers low temperature oxidation, silicon oxidation, structure of vitreous oxides, transport processes in vitreous oxides, and oxide films. Index.

Sugar Based Surfactants

Author : Cristóbal Carnero Ruiz
ISBN : 1420051679
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 7 MB
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Touted as the new darling of the chemical industry, alkyl polyglycosides are gaining in popularity due to the fact that they are readily biodegradable, low-toxic, and made from renewable resources. Sugar-Based Surfactants compiles the most recent and relevant aspects of sugar-based surfactants, including self-association, phase behavior, and interfacial properties. Focusing on both colloidal and interfacial science, the book deals with the adsorption of surfactants in both the air-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces. It also covers new advances in surfactant science, such as the development of a family of potent surface active agents that are non-toxic, and thus usable in ubiquitous consumer products

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