physico chemical analysis of industrial catalysts a practical guide to characterization publication ifp

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Physico Chemical Analysis Of Industrial Catalysts

Author : John Lynch
ISBN : 2710808374
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 73. 51 MB
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This book describes the principal physico-chemical techniques for characterising the catalysts used in searching for new active phases, optimising the formulation and monitoring industrial production. Based on courses given at the Institut Francias du Peole for research technicians in the fields of kinetics and catalysis, this book covers useful basic theory and provides numerous examples of industrial applications. This guide is an essential companion for technicians and chemical engineers whose work requires an understanding of the fields of application, including the capabilities and the limits of today's complex characterisation techniques.Contents: Introduction. 1. Textural characterisation of catalysts. 2. Atomic absorption spectrometry. 3. Atomic emission spectroscopy. 4. X-ray fluorescence. 5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. 6. Ion impact analysis. 7. Scanning electron microscopy. 8. Elemental analysis in the electron microprobe. 9. Transmission electron microscopy. 10. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering. 11. Exafs. 12. Infrared absorption spectrometry. 13. Nuclear magnetic resonance. 14. Thermal analysis methods. Index

Catalysis By Transition Metal Sulphides

Author : RAYBAUD Pascal
ISBN : 9782710809913
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 79 MB
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The main application of Transition Metal Sulphides (TMS) as solid catalysts is for production of clean fuels in petroleum refineries. The various feedstocks to be processed all contain more or less sulphur, included in highly stable heteroaromatic molecules. In order to meet the stringent specifications imposed worldwide nowadays on transportation fuels to reduce their environmental impact, catalytic hydroprocessing remains essential. In this process, sulphur is removed as H2S following the reaction between molecular hydrogen and the heteroaromatics. The reaction conditions and reaction medium composition are such that only TMS provide stable catalysts, generally supported on alumina. Both for their fundamental and applied interest, these fascinating systems are still the subject of a very significant research effort, while major advances have been made over the past 30 years, involving innovative preparation routes, sophisticated surface science experiments for characterisation, detailed kinetic and mechanistic studies, and state of the art DFT simulations giving unprecedented insight into the local structure as well as elementary steps at microscopic level. This book aims at providing a complete, comprehensive and updated survey of the field, useful for anyone involved: the student starting a research project, the academic researcher or the refinery engineer willing to deepen their knowledge on the catalytic as well as on the process aspects. 37 specialists from IFP Energies nouvelles, CNRS, or French universities have contributed, reporting a unique synthesis of the last 15 years of research. The preface written by Michèle Breysse, a well known leading scientist who devoted most of her fruitful career to this topic, puts this collective work into a meaningful historical perspective. Contents : Part 1. Fundamental Aspects: Insights from DFT calculations and experimental surface sciences. 1. Periodic trends in catalysis by sulphides. 2. Atomic scale structures of mixed lamellar sulphides. 3. Theoretical and microkinetic studies of hydrotreatment reactions. 4. Models of supported Co(Ni)MoS Catalysts. Part 2. Progress in the preparation and characterisation of industrial hydrotreating catalysts. 1. Principles involved in the preparation of hydrotreatment catalysts. 2. Progress in the preparation of new catalysts. 3. Progress in the preparation of catalysts with controlled acidity: case of aluminosilicate supports. 4. Activation and genesis of the active phase by sulfidation. 5. life cycle of an HDT catalyst. 6. Charaterisation of catalysts. Part 3. Applications to the production of clean fuels. 1. An overview of refining. 2. Deep desulphurisation of middle distillates. 3. Selective desulphurisation of catalytic cracking gasolines. 4. Hydrocracking. 5. Hydroprocessing and hydroconversion of residue fractions. 6. Hydrotreatment of vegetable oils. 7. Hydroconversion of coals. Conclusion.

The Geopolitics Of Energy

Author : Jean-Pierre Favennec
ISBN : 9782710811459
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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Rarely has the world's energy sector known such a complicated and fragile environment as that being experienced in 2011. Energy demand is increasing rapidly because of growth in the developing countries. It is largely met by fossil fuels : oil, natural gas and coal, and also by hydraulic and nuclear power. The use of all these forms of energy now gives rise to controversy. A year after the uncontrollable oil leaks from the Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico, the consequences of the accident are still being debated. The development of shale gas, currently the source of half natural gas production in the United States, meets strong opposition in a number of European countries. Even more serious, the accident at Fukushima has put into question the future development of nuclear power, particularly in Europe but also in the USA. There is considerable criticism of the use of coal, which is the source for most of the energy needs in China and a number of developing countries, because of its emissions of CO2 and other pollutants. Even traditional biomass, whose use leads to deforestation and to respiratory diseases, and the development of hydraulic power are the subject of debate. How should one judge between these different energies ? How can decisions be taken between reducing consumption and increasing production ? What is the future for new renewable energies ? These are the issues at stake on the energy sector. This book appears just at the right time to provide clear and well documented replies to the questions that all of us, as energy users, are posing. How are the different forms of energy produced ? What does the future hold for them ? Who are the players active in the energy scene ? What are the supply constraints ? What is the impact of the strong growth in India and China on energy resources ? The book is in two parts. The first sets out the major characteristics of the energy sector. The second provides an analysis of the global energy issues region by region and details the geopolitical aspects. This work is well illustrated and accessible to all, as it does not require any specific prior knowledge. It will particularly interest readers seeking a global perspective of a sector that is fundamental both to our economy and also for our international policies.

Catalysis For Renewables

Author : Gabriele Centi
ISBN : 9783527621125
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 97 MB
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With its focus on catalysis and addressing two very hot and timely topics with significant implications for our future lives, this will be a white book in the field. The authority behind this practical work is the IDECAT Network of Excellence, and the authors here outline how the use of catalysis will promote the more extensive use of renewable feedstocks in chemical and energy production. They present the latest applications, their applicability and results, making this a ready reference for researchers and engineers working in catalysis, chemistry, and industrial processes wishing to analyze options, outlooks and opportunities in the field.

European Communities Oil And Gas Technological Development Projects

Author :
ISBN : 9789400956346
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 45 MB
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The Commission of the European Community has, by means of the Directorate General for Energy, been involved in energy research aimed at improving the energy supply situation of the Community. This involvement is on two levels, firstly, the Community supports research and development aimed at improving the technologies associated with the location and production of tradi tional fuels and, secondly, the Community is actively involved in research to replace traditional energy sources with suitable alternatives. Given the parlous state of the energy supply situation in the Community, it was felt that a special effort was required to develop new technologies associated with improving the supply of traditional fuels and in develop ing and establishing alternative sources of energy. The ini tiati ve of the Community was begun in 1973 when the Council ap proved Regulation (EEC) 3056/73 setting up a series of three-year research and development programmes in the oil and gas sector. This programme was one factor in the Community's response to the supply crisis of 1973.

Ultra Fine Particles

Author : Tyozi Uyeda
ISBN : 9780815519416
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 84. 54 MB
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This book was written with several objectives in mind: 1. To share with as many scientists and engineers as possible the intriguing scientific aspects of ultra-fine particles (UFPs) and to show their potential as new materials. 2. Entice such researchers to participate in the development of this emerging field. 3. To publicize the achievements of the Ultra-Fine Particle Project, which was carried out under the auspices of the Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology program (ERATO). In addition to the members of the Ultra-Fine Particle Project, contributions from other pioneers in this field are included. To achieve the first objective described above, the uniformity of the contents and focus on a single central theme have been sacrificed somewhat to provide a broad coverage. It is expected that the reader can discover an appropriate topic for further development of new materials and basic technology by reading selected sections of this book. Alternately, one may gain an overview of this new field by reviewing the entire book, which can potentially lead to new directions in the development of UFPs.

Subsea Pipelines And Risers

Author : Yong Bai
ISBN : 9780080524191
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 74. 44 MB
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• Updated edition of a best-selling title • Author brings 25 years experience to the work • Addresses the key issues of economy and environment Marine pipelines for the transportation of oil and gas have become a safe and reliable way to exploit the valuable resources below the world’s seas and oceans. The design of these pipelines is a relatively new technology and continues to evolve in its quest to reduce costs and minimise the effect on the environment. With over 25years experience, Professor Yong Bai has been able to assimilate the essence of the applied mechanics aspects of offshore pipeline system design in a form of value to students and designers alike. It represents an excellent source of up to date practices and knowledge to help equip those who wish to be part of the exciting future of this industry.

Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Revised And Expanded

Author : George J. Antos
ISBN : 9780824757120
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 74 MB
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Catalytic Naphtha Reforming, Second Edition presents modern, crystal-clear explanations of every aspect of this critical process for generating high-octane reformate products for gasoline blending and production of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) aromatics. The book details the chemistry of naphtha reforming, the preparation and characterization of catalysts, and the very latest commercial technologies and industrial applications. With more than 300 tables and figures, it addresses the development of new catalysts and revamp process improvements propelled by regulations on sulfur, benzene, and oxygenate content in gasoline and refinery pressure to maximize utilization of existing assets.

Nanotechnology In Catalysis 3

Author : Bing Zhou
ISBN : 9780387346885
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 37. 87 MB
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This volume continues the tradition formed in Nanotechnology in Catalysis 1 and 2. As with those books, this one is based upon an ACS symposium. Some of the most illustrious names in heterogeneous catalysis are among the contributors. The book covers: Design, synthesis, and control of catalysts at nanoscale; understanding of catalytic reaction at nanometer scale; characterization of nanomaterials as catalysts; nanoparticle metal or metal oxides catalysts; nanomaterials as catalyst supports; new catalytic applications of nanomaterials.

Zeolites For Cleaner Technologies

Author : Michel Guisnet
ISBN : 9781783261178
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 21 MB
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This book, written and edited by leading authorities from academia and industrial groups, covers both preventive- and curative-zeolite-based technologies in the field of chemical processing. The opening chapter presents the state of the art in zeolite science. The two subsequent chapters summarize the chemistries involved in the processes and the constraints imposed on the catalyst/adsorbent. Three major areas are covered: oil refining, petrochemicals and fine chemicals. A chapter on the (curative) use of zeolites in pollution abatement completes this overview. In the area of oil refining, a general lecture sets the scene for present and future challenges. It is followed by in-depth case studies involving FCC, hydrocracking and light naphtha isomerization. Also, an entire chapter is devoted to the often-overlooked subject of base oils. In the area of petrochemicals, the processing of aromatics and olefins is described and special attention is paid to the synergy between catalysis and separation on molecular sieves. Contents:Introduction to Zeolite Science and Technology (M Guisnet & J-P Gilson)The Chemistry of Catalytic Processes (A Corma & A Martínez)Preparation of Zeolite Catalysts (T G Roberie et al.)Refining Processes: Setting the Scene (R H Jensen)Advances in Fluid Catalytic Cracking (E T Habib et al.)Hydrocracking (J A R Van Veen)C4-C6 Alkane Isomerisation (F Schmidt & E Köhler)Base Oil Production and Processing (M Daage)Para-Xylene ManufacturingCatalytic Reactions and Processes (F Alario & M Guisnet)Separation of Paraxylene by Adsorption (A Méthivier)Aromatic Alkylation: Towards Cleaner Processes (J S Beck et al.)Methanol to Olefins (MTO) and Beyond (P Barger)Zeolite Effects on Catalytic Transformations of Fine Chemicals (D E De Vos & P A Jacobs)Functionalization of Aromatics over Zeolite Catalysts (P Marion et al.)Zeolites and ‘Non-Zeolite’ Molecular Sieves in the Synthesis of Fragrances and Flavors (W F Hoelderich & M C Laufer)Pollution Abatment Using Zeolites: State of the Art and Further Needs (G Delahay & B Coq) Readership: Undergraduates, graduate students, academics and researchers in catalyst chemistry. Reviews:“Chapter authors have provided a teaching text that gives excellent introductory chapters to zeolites, and to the nature and significance of the processes that they can catalyse … This excellent book should be required reading for all scientists who have an interest in improving the environment.”Chemistry & Industry

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