police pursuit driving policy and research springerbriefs in criminology

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Police Pursuit Driving

Author : Geoffrey P. Alpert
ISBN : 9781493907120
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 53. 24 MB
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Police pursuits, often receiving a lot of media attention, have become a topic of concern and priority for both law enforcement and the communities they serve. They often come with high risks for the well-being of community members and for both the police officers involved in the chase as well as for the fleeing suspects. In this brief, we summarize what is known about police pursuits, from both legal decisions and criminological research. We then discuss the impact of this research on police pursuit policy, court decisions, and media reports. We offer suggestions about the need for more development and use of research, and the challenges for research to be integrated into police policies, training, supervision and accountability systems.

Procedural Justice And Legitimacy In Policing

Author : Lorraine Mazerolle
ISBN : 9783319045436
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 22. 55 MB
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This brief focuses on the “doing” of procedural justice: what the police can do to implement the principles of procedural justice, and how their actions can improve citizen perceptions of police legitimacy. Drawing on research from Australia (Mazerolle et al), the UK (Stanko, Bradford, Jackson etc al), the US (Tyler, Reisig, Weisburd), Israel (Jonathon-Zamir et al), Trinidad & Tobago (Kochel et al) and Ghana (Tankebe), the authors examine the practical ways that the police can approach engagement with citizens across a range of different types of interventions to embrace the principles of procedural justice, including: · problem-oriented policing · patrol · restorative justice · reassurance policing · and community policing. Through these examples, the authors also examine some of the barriers for implementing procedurally just ways of interacting with citizens, and offer practical suggestions for reform. This work will be of interest for researchers in criminology and criminal justice focused on policing as well as policymakers.

Using Modeling To Predict And Prevent Victimization

Author : Ken Pease
ISBN : 9783319031859
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 54. 13 MB
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This work provides clear application of a new statistical modeling technique that can be used to recognize patterns in victimization and prevent repeat victimization. The history of crime prevention techniques range from offender-based, to environment/situation-based, to victim-based. The authors of this work have found more accurate ways to predict and prevent victimization using a statistical modeling, based around crime concentration and sub-group profiling with regard to crime vulnerability levels, to predict areas and individuals vulnerable to crime. Following from this prediction, they propose policing strategies to improve crime prevention based on these predictions. With a combination of immediate actions and longer-term research recommendations, this work will be of interest to researchers and policy makers in focused on crime prevention, police studies, victimology and statistical applications.

Emerging Trends In Drug Use And Distribution

Author : David Khey
ISBN : 9783319035758
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 67. 16 MB
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This Brief explores emerging trends in drug use and distribution. This timely Brief examines recent examples of emerging drugs including salvia (from the plant Salvia divinorum), bath salts (and other synthetic stimulants) and so-called research chemicals (primarily substituted phenethylamines, synthetic cousins of ecstasy), which have tended to receive brief levels of high intensity media coverage that may or may not reflect an actual increase in their usage. Over the past decade in particular, “new” substances being used recreationally seem to come out of obscurity and gain rapid popularity, particularly spurred on by discussion and distribution over the internet. While changing trends in the drug market have always presented a challenge for law enforcement and public health officials, online forums, media coverage and other recent trends discussed in this Brief allow them to gain popularity more quickly and change more frequently. These rapid shifts allow less time for researchers to understand the potential health consequences of these substances and for law enforcement to stay abreast of abuses of legal substances. This work includes: 1) review of relevant research and literature, 2) review the Internet sources in which many deem important in influencing the emerging drug market, 3) discussion of national and international trends in use, abuse and distribution of these substances and 4) examination of current drug policy and recommendations for the future. This brief will be useful for criminology and criminal justice, sociology and public health. It will also be useful for those that deal with youth and the problems that may develop during adolescence and early adulthood.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation Of Children

Author : Brandy Bang
ISBN : 9783319018782
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 44. 26 MB
Format : PDF
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The commercial exploitation of children is a global crisis (Rahman, 2011; Svensson, 2006). However, media outlets and sociological researchers have successfully situated the problem as a primarily Asian, South American, or Eastern European concern. In the process, the exploitation of children in the United States has largely been ignored. The continued trafficking of international youth into this country, coupled with the growing rate at which American born children are targeted by interstate sex traffickers, speaks to the urgency with which the domestic exploitation of children must be addressed (Walker-Rodriguez & Hill, 2011). In fact, research suggests that an average of 250,000 American children and adolescents are at risk of commercial exploitation each year (Estes & Weiner, 2001). Further, there are indications that current data vastly underestimate the actual numbers of vulnerable and victimized youth (Chase & Statham, 2005). According to the U.S. Department of Justice (2007), no systematic efforts have been made to examine the commercial exploitation of children in this country. The low visibilities of the crime, combined with the inherent vulnerability of the victims, have facilitated the continued victimization of these children. The purpose of this book is to provide a critical analysis of the domestic, commercial exploitation of children. A careful explanation of the differing forms of commercial exploitation of children, victim and offender characteristics, and the mechanisms which maintain the problem will assist health care providers, researchers, and law enforcement in their efforts with this marginalized and understudied population. The authors begin with a comprehensive review of extant literature in this area. Additionally, case studies of child sexual exploitation are included to further illustrate the severity, complexity, and depravity of commercial exploitation in real life cases.​​​​​

Police Pursuits

Author : Geoffrey P. Alpert
ISBN : 1878734660
Genre : Police pursuit driving
File Size : 67. 70 MB
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Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs As Organized Crime Groups

Author : Thomas Barker
ISBN : 9783319074313
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 34. 97 MB
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​​This brief covers the unique crime group of Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs are adult criminal associations composed of “bikers” living a deviant lifestyle that includes individual, group, and club criminal behavior. These groups are sometimes called one percenters, due to the American Motorcycle Association statement that ninety-nine percent of motorcyclists are law abiding citizens. While many may be familiar with the reputation of the Hells' Angels, many may not realize the wide network of other Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs or the extent of their involvement in criminal activities. The brief includes a breakdown of the criminal networks and activities of these groups, which operate similarly to an organized crime group. It also covers the evolution of motorcycle clubs to motorcycle gangs. It examines the recent trend of American-based motorcycle gangs into international organized crime activities. This book will be of interest to researcher studying criminology, particularly organized crime and criminal networks, as well as international and comparative law and public policy.​

Ethical Research With Sex Workers

Author : Susan Dewey
ISBN : 9781461464921
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 23. 50 MB
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This volume is the result of the many years the authors have spent conducting ethnographic field research with sex workers, conversing with other researchers, and, perhaps most importantly, developing a deep sense of empathy for the sex worker participants in the research as well as the colleagues who carry out this work with the goal of advancing social justice. They have a combined total of twenty-five years’ experience carrying out research with sex workers, and this extensive period of time has given them ample opportunity to reflect upon the topic of ethics. Sex work, defined as the exchange of sexual or sexualized intimacy for money or something of value, encompasses a wide range of legal and illegal behaviors that present researchers with key ethical challenges explored in the volume. These ethical challenges include: · Research methodology · Distinguishing research from activism · Navigating the politically and ideologically charged environments in which researchers must remain constantly attuned to the legal and public policy implications of their work · Possibilities for participatory sex work research processes · Strategies for incorporating participants in a variety of collaborative ways Sex work presents a unique set of challenges that are not always well understood by those working outside of anthropology and disciplines closely related to it. This book serves an important function by honestly and openly reviewing strategies for overcoming these ethical challenges with the end goal of producing path-breaking research that actively incorporates the perspectives of research participants on their own terms. Ever attuned to the reality that research on sex work remains a deeply political act, Ethical Research with Sex Workers: Anthropological Approaches aspires to begin a dialogue about the meanings and practices ascribed to ethics in a fraught environment. Drawing upon a review of published scholarly and activist work on the subject, as well as on interviews with researchers, social service providers, and sex workers themselves, this volume is an unprecedented contribution to the literature that will engage researchers across a variety of disciplines, such as academics and researchers in anthropology, sociology, criminal justice, and public health, as well as activists and policymakers.

The Web Of Violence

Author : Sherry Hamby
ISBN : 9789400755963
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 75. 74 MB
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There is an increasing appreciation of the interconnections among all forms of violence. These interconnections have critical implications for conducting research that can produce valid conclusions about the causes and consequences of abuse, maltreatment, and trauma. The accumulated data on co-occurrence also provide strong evidence that prevention and intervention should be organized around the full context of individuals’ experiences, not narrowly defined subtypes of violence. Managing the flood of new research and practice innovations is a challenge, however. New means of communication and integration are needed to meet this challenge, and the Web of Violence is intended to contribute to this process by serving as a concise overview of the conceptual and empirical work that form a basis for understanding the interconnections across forms of violence throughout the lifespan. It also offers ideas and directions for prevention, intervention, and public policy. A number of initiatives are emerging to integrate the findings on co-occurrence into research and action. The American Psychological Association established a new journal, Psychology of Violence, which is a forum for research on all types of violence. Sherry Hamby is the founding editor and John Grych is associate editor and co-editor of a special issue on the co-occurrence of violence in 2012. Dr. Hamby also is a co-investigator of the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), which has drawn attention to polyvictimization. Polyvictimization is a focus of the U.S. Department of Justice’s Defending Childhood Initiative and has recently been featured in calls for grant proposals by the Office of Victims of Crime and National Institutes for Justice.

Developing And Maintaining Police Researcher Partnerships To Facilitate Research Use

Author : Jeff Rojek
ISBN : 9781493920563
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 77. 14 MB
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This Brief discusses methods to develop and maintain police – researcher partnerships. First, the authors provide information that will be useful to police managers and researchers who are interested in creating and maintaining partnerships to conduct research, work together to improve policing and help others understand the linkages between the two groups. Then, more specifically, they describe how police managers consider and utilize research in policing and criminal justice and its findings from a management perspective in both the United States and Australia. While both countries experience similar issues of trust, acceptance, utility, and accountability between researchers and practitioners, the experiences in the countries differ. In the United States with 17,000 agencies, the use of research findings by police agencies requires understanding, diffusion and acceptance. In Australia with a small number of larger agencies, the problems of research-practitioner partnerships have different translational issues, including acceptance and application. As long as police practitioners and academic researchers hold distinct and different impressions of each other, the likelihood of positive, cooperative, and sustainable agreements between them will suffer.

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