precipitation theory measurement and distribution

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Precipitation

Author : Ian Strangeways
ISBN : 1139460013
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 19 MB
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Precipitation plays a significant role in the climate system, and this book is the first to provide a comprehensive examination of the processes involved in the generation of clouds, rain, snow and hail; how precipitation is measured; how its distribution has changed over time; and how we still need to make improvements to the way precipitation is measured. It traces our attempts to understand what clouds are, from ancient Greeks to the present day. It also discusses developments in the measurement of precipitation, from rain gauges to satellite techniques, and how these measurements have enabled researchers to estimate global trends, totals, variability and extremes of precipitation. This will be a valuable and fascinating reference for academic researchers in the fields of environmental science and climatology. It will also be of great interest to professionals in water resource and flood management.

Rainfall

Author : Firat Y. Testik
ISBN : 9781118671542
Genre : Science
File Size : 48. 22 MB
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 191. Rainfall: State of the Science offers the most up-to-date knowledge on the fundamental and practical aspects of rainfall. Each chapter, self-contained and written by prominent scientists in their respective fields, provides three forms of information: fundamental principles, detailed overview of current knowledge and description of existing methods, and emerging techniques and future research directions. The book discusses Rainfall microphysics: raindrop morphodynamics, interactions, size distribution, and evolution Rainfall measurement and estimation: ground-based direct measurement (disdrometer and rain gauge), weather radar rainfall estimation, polarimetric radar rainfall estimation, and satellite rainfall estimation Statistical analyses: intensity-duration-frequency curves, frequency analysis of extreme events, spatial analyses, simulation and disaggregation, ensemble approach for radar rainfall uncertainty, and uncertainty analysis of satellite rainfall products The book is tailored to be an indispensable reference for researchers, practitioners, and graduate students who study any aspect of rainfall or utilize rainfall information in various science and engineering disciplines.

The Weather Observer S Handbook

Author : Stephen Burt
ISBN : 9781139537063
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 83 MB
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The Weather Observer's Handbook provides a comprehensive, practical and independent guide to all aspects of making weather observations. Automatic weather stations today form the mainstay of both amateur and professional weather observing networks around the world and yet – prior to this book – there existed no independent guide to their selection and use. Traditional and modern weather instruments are covered, including how best to choose and to site a weather station, how to get the best out of your equipment, how to store and analyse your records and how to share your observations with other people and across the Internet. From amateur observers looking for help in choosing their first weather instruments on a tight budget to professional observers looking for a comprehensive and up-to-date guide covering World Meteorological Organization recommendations on observing methods and practices, all will welcome this handbook.

The Climatology Of Air Mass And Frontal Extreme Precipitation

Author : Ewa Łupikasza
ISBN : 9783319314785
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 91 MB
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Based on a data series of more than 50 years, this book discusses spatial and seasonal variability in air-mass and frontal extreme precipitation frequency and as well as the relationship between their occurrence and atmospheric circulation. The climatology of air-mass and frontal extreme precipitation is presented for the first time on a European scale. Since there is no robust, automatic method of locating atmospheric fronts, this challenging task has to be performed manually. Moreover, there is limited availability of the complex sub-daily data that is necessary to recognize the dynamic of meteorological fronts. The results show a clear regional and seasonal variety in the relationship between extreme precipitation occurrence and atmospheric circulation depending on precipitation origin. The probability of air-mass and frontal precipitation occurrence provides crucial information for studies in predictability and modeling. This book is intended for students, specialists in the field of climatology and climate change, climate process modelers, and other experts for whom extreme precipitation is important.x

Entropy Applications In Environmental And Water Engineering

Author : Huijuan Cui
ISBN : 9783038972228
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 61. 26 MB
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Entropy theory has wide applications to a range of problems in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including river hydraulic geometry, fluvial hydraulics, water monitoring network design, river flow forecasting, floods and droughts, river network analysis, infiltration, soil moisture, sediment transport, surface water and groundwater quality modeling, ecosystems modeling, water distribution networks, environmental and water resources management, and parameter estimation. Such applications have used several different entropy formulations, such as Shannon, Tsallis, Rényi, Burg, Kolmogorov, Kapur, configurational, and relative entropies, which can be derived in time, space, or frequency domains. More recently, entropy-based concepts have been coupled with other theories, including copula and wavelets, to study various issues associated with environmental and water resources systems. Recent studies indicate the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including establishing and explaining physical connections between theory and reality. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for compiling important recent and current research on the applications of entropy theory in environmental and water engineering. The contributions to this Special Issue have addressed many aspects associated with entropy theory applications and have shown the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering.

Lognormal Distributions

Author : Crow
ISBN : 0824778030
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 84. 42 MB
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Observation Theory And Modeling Of Atmospheric Variability

Author : Xun Zhu
ISBN : 9812387048
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 92 MB
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This book contains tutorial and review articles as well as specific research letters that cover a wide range of topics: (1) dynamics of atmospheric variability from both basic theory and data analysis, (2) physical and mathematical problems in climate modeling and numerical weather prediction, (3) theories of atmospheric radiative transfer and their applications in satellite remote sensing, and (4) mathematical and statistical methods. The book can be used by undergraduates or graduate students majoring in atmospheric sciences, as an introduction to various research areas; and by researchers and educators, as a general review or quick reference in their fields of interest.

Education And Training In Indoor Air Sciences

Author : Nadia Boschi
ISBN : 9789401145114
Genre : Science
File Size : 76. 1 MB
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Many buildings fail to perform adequately, causing illness and productivity loss among the inhabitants. The growing impact of this problem on people and property values - and the increasing litigation to which it gives rise - clearly reveals the limitations in and piecemeal character of the current education of building and health professionals in addressing the relationship between a building and its occupants. Education and Training in Indoor Air Sciences introduces examples of existing educational programs that seek to bridge the gap between health and building sciences. The contributors - selected among architects, engineers, clinicians, physicists, psychologists and policymakers - discuss the design of a core curriculum for all those holding a degree within building design, construction, operation and maintenance, investigation, and all occupational / environmental health and general practitioners. The book also examines the obstacles to such a curriculum and ways to overcome them.

Handbook Of Applied Hydrology Second Edition

Author : Vijay P. Singh
ISBN : 9780071835107
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 46. 48 MB
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Fully Updated Hydrology Principles, Methods, and Applications Thoroughly revised for the first time in 50 years, this industry-standard resource features chapter contributions from a “who’s who” of international hydrology experts. Compiled by a colleague of the late Dr. Chow, Chow’s Handbook of Applied Hydrology, Second Edition, covers scientific and engineering fundamentals and presents all-new methods, processes, and technologies. Complete details are provided for the full range of ecosystems and models. Advanced chapters look to the future of hydrology, including climate change impacts, extraterrestrial water, social hydrology, and water security. Chow’s Handbook of Applied Hydrology, Second Edition, covers: · The Fundamentals of Hydrology · Data Collection and Processing · Hydrology Methods · Hydrologic Processes and Modeling · Sediment and Pollutant Transport · Hydrometeorologic and Hydrologic Extremes · Systems Hydrology · Hydrology of Large River and Lake Basins · Applications and Design · The Future of Hydrology

Hydraulic Research In The United States

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015086578732
Genre : Hydraulic engineering
File Size : 56. 46 MB
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