pressure through law

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Pressure Through Law

Author : Carol Harlow
ISBN : 9781134980048
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 86. 42 MB
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Group litigation has been recognised by political scientists in the States as a useful method of gaining ground and attracting publicity for pressure groups since the turn of the century. In Britain however, recognition that the courts fill such a role has come more slowly. Despite this lack of recognition, pressure through law is far from a modern phenomenon. As the authors show, such cases can be identified in Britain as early as 1749 when abolitionists used the court to test conflicting views of slavery in common law. This book looks at the extent to which pressure groups in Britain use litigation, presenting a view of the courts as a target for campaigners and a vehicle for campaigning. It begins with a description of the tradition of pressure through law in Britain, tracing the development of a parallel tradition in the United States, which has been influential in shaping current British attitudes. The authors analyse the significance of the political environment in Britain in test-case strategy. In contrast with America, Britain has no written constitution and no Bill of Rights and its lack of Freedom of Information legislation makes both litigation and the monitoring of its effects very difficult. However, the centralised character of the British government means that the effects of lobbying are rather more visible in the corridors of power. The authors examine a large number of case studies in order to analyse current practice, and they look at the rapidly changing European and international scene, discussing transnational law, the European community and the Council of Europe. They also look at the campaign tactics of global organisations such as Amnesty and Greenpeace. Carol Harlow and Richard Rawlings are experienced in public law and familiar with political science literature. They are therefore able to relate legal systems to the political process, in a book designed to be accessible and important to lawyers, to political scientists and to lobby group activists.

Introduction To Chemical Physics

Author :
ISBN : HARVARD:32044020419487
Genre :
File Size : 51. 3 MB
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Law And Administration In Europe

Author : Carol Harlow
ISBN : 0199265372
Genre : Law
File Size : 48. 70 MB
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The contributions to this volume address central issues in public law. There are chapters dealing with the general theoretical foundations of public law, including the relationship of theory and values, and discussion of the central idea of representation. The nature of the public-private divide continues to be of importance as a result of changes in the nature of government, and as a consequence of the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA). Closely related to this is the contractualisation of government. The relationship between the courts, Parliament, and the executive has always been a central concern for public lawyers. It has been brought to the fore by the passage of the HRA, leading to discussions about the extent to which the courts should show deference to executive and legislative choices when engaging in judicial review. This vexed issue is especially apparent when it comes to deciding how Parliament, the executive, and the courts should treat 'non-citizens' orthose who might threaten the security of the state. It is of course impossible to discuss public law without considering European Union law. There is discussion of core issues relating to the legitimacy of the EU, and its constitutional foundations. The role of courts in the process of integration is analysed, and the desirability of judicial review over rule-making is considered. The relationship between public and private modes of enforcing EU law is reviewed. In addition, there is a discussion of the way in which different levels of government inter-relate, viewed through the lens of devolution in the UK.

Convergence In Shareholder Law

Author : Mathias M. Siems
ISBN : 9781139468404
Genre : Law
File Size : 54. 23 MB
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On the one hand, it can be argued that the increasing economic and political interdependence of countries has led to the convergence of national legal systems. On the other hand, advocates of the counterhypothesis maintain that this development is both unrealistic and unnecessary. Mathias Siems examines the company law of the UK, the USA, Germany, France, Japan and China to see how this issue affects shareholder law. The author subsequently analyses economic and political factors which may or may not lead to convergence, and assesses the extent of this development. Convergence of Shareholder Law not only provides a thorough comparative legal analysis but also shows how company law interconnects with political forces and economic development and helps in evaluating whether harmonisation and shareholder protection should be enhanced.

E O Level Physics Learning Through Diagrams

Author : S.H. Chan
ISBN : 9789814387408
Genre : Education
File Size : 54. 99 MB
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You will find this book interesting: Physics concepts presented in a diagrammatic form. Specially written to ease learning and to stimulate interest in Physics, this book will help students in acquiring and reinforcing Physics concepts, and especially the difficult ones, more easily and effectively. This book makes learning easier through the following features: Learning Outcomes - Learning outcomes on the header point out the concepts that you should focus on in the process of learning. Important Concepts and Key Terms - The important concepts and key terms are presented clearly in simple language. Further explanations linked to the diagrams help you better understand the concepts. Interesting Visuals - Visual aids such as concept maps, flow charts and annotated diagrams are integrated to make the concepts easier to understand and remember. Real-life Examples - These examples show real-life application of concepts and explain the inquiries on the phenomena that happen in our everyday lives. Worked Examples - Step-by-step worked examples help to reinforce your skills in solving problems. Instant Facts - These are extra information that can help you acquire a more in-depth understanding of the topic under discussion. This book complements the school curriculum and will certainly help in your preparation for the examinations.

The Kinetic Theory Of Gases

Author : Leonard B. Loeb
ISBN : 0486495728
Genre : Science
File Size : 71. 73 MB
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A pioneering text in its field, this comprehensive study is one of the most valuable texts and references available. The author explores the classical kinetic theory in the first four chapters, with discussions of the mechanical picture of a perfect gas, the mean free path, and the distribution of molecular velocities. Tbhe fifth chapter deals with the more accurate equations of state, or Van der Waals' equation, and later chapters examine viscosity, heat conduction, surface phenomena, and Browninan movements. The text surveys the application of quantum theory to the problem of specific heats and the contributions of kinetic theory to knowledge of electrical and magnetic properties of molecules, concluding with applications of the kinetic theory to the conduction of electricity in gases. 1934 edition.

The Enforcement Of Eu Law

Author : Stine Andersen
ISBN : 9780191650055
Genre : Law
File Size : 27. 12 MB
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A comprehensive analysis of the European Commission's general role in supervising member state compliance with EU law, this book provides a detailed assessment of centralized EU enforcement. It starts out by asking whether it is viable to establish stronger Commission powers of enforcement at this point in time. Against this backdrop, and as a means of exploring the role of the Commission, the chapters examine a number of different aspects pertaining to enforcement of EU law. Beginning with an appraisal of the Commission's function under the general EU infringement procedure stipulated in Articles 258 and 260 TFEU, the volume argues that the EU lacks independent self-sustained regime authority. Moreover, this is reflected in both substantive EU law and procedural law, including the general EU infringement procedure. Chapter two makes the case that Article 258 TFEU can usefully be explained in terms of managerialism. Chapter three analyses Article 260 TFEU concerning repetitive infringements. In particular, it asserts, EU member state sanctions sustain the managerial approach. It then goes on to examine the Commission's unsuccessful attempts to gain sharper enforcement powers through secondary legislation, and identifies the effective points of functional overlap between enforcement powers and certain types of implementing tools. Finally, it discusses the Commission's role under various non-binding, ad hoc arrangements. The concluding chapter places the general EU infringement procedure in the broader context of a comprehensive (negotiated) policy process. It argues that the enforcement stage shares many features with earlier steps in the legislative process, including flexibility and deliberation.

International Human Rights Law

Author : Daniel Moeckli
ISBN : 9780199654574
Genre : Law
File Size : 25. 73 MB
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International Human Rights Law offers a thought-provoking consideration of the subject, from its philosophical foundations to contemporary challenges, with contributions from leading experts. Critical and detailed, it covers all elements of a traditional international human rights course and is suitable for use as a stand-alone textbook.

Through Measurement To Knowledge The Inaugural Lecture Of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes 1882

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ISBN : 1422318648
Genre :
File Size : 64. 21 MB
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Socializing States

Author : Ryan Goodman
ISBN : 9780199301010
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 23. 89 MB
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The role of international law in global politics is as poorly understood as it is important. But how can the international legal regime encourage states to respect human rights? Given that international law lacks a centralized enforcement mechanism, it is not obvious how this law matters at all, and how it might change the behavior or preferences of state actors. In Socializing States, Ryan Goodman and Derek Jinks contend that what is needed is a greater emphasis on the mechanisms of law's social influence--and the micro-processes that drive each mechanism. Such an emphasis would make clearer the micro-foundations of international law. This book argues for a greater specification and a more comprehensive inventory of how international law influences relevant actors to improve human rights conditions. Substantial empirical evidence suggests three conceptually distinct mechanisms whereby states and institutions might influence the behavior of other states: material inducement, persuasion, and what Goodman and Jinks call acculturation. The latter includes social and cognitive forces such as mimicry, status maximization, prestige, and identification. The book argues that (1) acculturation is a conceptually distinct, empirically documented social process through which state behavior is influenced; and (2) acculturation-based approaches might occasion a rethinking of fundamental regime design problems in human rights law. This exercise not only allows for reexamination of policy debates in human rights law; it also provides a conceptual framework for assessing the costs and benefits of various design principles. While acculturation is not necessarily the most important or most desirable approach to promoting human rights, a better understanding of all three mechanisms is a necessary first step in the development of an integrated theory of international law's influence. Socializing States provides the critical framework to improve our understanding of how norms operate in international society, and thereby improve the capacity of global and domestic institutions to build cultures of human rights,

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