preventing bullying through science policy and practice

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Preventing Bullying Through Science Policy And Practice

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309440677
Genre : Law
File Size : 24. 87 MB
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Bullying has long been tolerated as a rite of passage among children and adolescents. There is an implication that individuals who are bullied must have "asked for" this type of treatment, or deserved it. Sometimes, even the child who is bullied begins to internalize this idea. For many years, there has been a general acceptance and collective shrug when it comes to a child or adolescent with greater social capital or power pushing around a child perceived as subordinate. But bullying is not developmentally appropriate; it should not be considered a normal part of the typical social grouping that occurs throughout a child's life. Although bullying behavior endures through generations, the milieu is changing. Historically, bulling has occurred at school, the physical setting in which most of childhood is centered and the primary source for peer group formation. In recent years, however, the physical setting is not the only place bullying is occurring. Technology allows for an entirely new type of digital electronic aggression, cyberbullying, which takes place through chat rooms, instant messaging, social media, and other forms of digital electronic communication. Composition of peer groups, shifting demographics, changing societal norms, and modern technology are contextual factors that must be considered to understand and effectively react to bullying in the United States. Youth are embedded in multiple contexts and each of these contexts interacts with individual characteristics of youth in ways that either exacerbate or attenuate the association between these individual characteristics and bullying perpetration or victimization. Recognizing that bullying behavior is a major public health problem that demands the concerted and coordinated time and attention of parents, educators and school administrators, health care providers, policy makers, families, and others concerned with the care of children, this report evaluates the state of the science on biological and psychosocial consequences of peer victimization and the risk and protective factors that either increase or decrease peer victimization behavior and consequences.

Preventing Bullying Through Science Policy And Practice

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309440707
Genre : Law
File Size : 74. 30 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
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Bullying has long been tolerated as a rite of passage among children and adolescents. There is an implication that individuals who are bullied must have "asked for" this type of treatment, or deserved it. Sometimes, even the child who is bullied begins to internalize this idea. For many years, there has been a general acceptance and collective shrug when it comes to a child or adolescent with greater social capital or power pushing around a child perceived as subordinate. But bullying is not developmentally appropriate; it should not be considered a normal part of the typical social grouping that occurs throughout a child's life. Although bullying behavior endures through generations, the milieu is changing. Historically, bulling has occurred at school, the physical setting in which most of childhood is centered and the primary source for peer group formation. In recent years, however, the physical setting is not the only place bullying is occurring. Technology allows for an entirely new type of digital electronic aggression, cyberbullying, which takes place through chat rooms, instant messaging, social media, and other forms of digital electronic communication. Composition of peer groups, shifting demographics, changing societal norms, and modern technology are contextual factors that must be considered to understand and effectively react to bullying in the United States. Youth are embedded in multiple contexts and each of these contexts interacts with individual characteristics of youth in ways that either exacerbate or attenuate the association between these individual characteristics and bullying perpetration or victimization. Recognizing that bullying behavior is a major public health problem that demands the concerted and coordinated time and attention of parents, educators and school administrators, health care providers, policy makers, families, and others concerned with the care of children, this report evaluates the state of the science on biological and psychosocial consequences of peer victimization and the risk and protective factors that either increase or decrease peer victimization behavior and consequences.

Building Capacity To Reduce Bullying

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309304016
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57. 33 MB
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Bullying - long tolerated as just a part of growing up - finally has been recognized as a substantial and preventable health problem. Bullying is associated with anxiety, depression, poor school performance, and future delinquent behavior among its targets, and reports regularly surface of youth who have committed suicide at least in part because of intolerable bullying. Bullying also can have harmful effects on children who bully, on bystanders, on school climates, and on society at large. Bullying can occur at all ages, from before elementary school to after high school. It can take the form of physical violence, verbal attacks, social isolation, spreading rumors, or cyberbullying. Increased concern about bullying has led 49 states and the District of Columbia to enact anti-bullying legislation since 1999. In addition, research on the causes, consequences, and prevention of bullying has expanded greatly in recent decades. However, major gaps still exist in the understanding of bullying and of interventions that can prevent or mitigate the effects of bullying. Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying is the summary of a workshop convened by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council in April 2014 to identify the conceptual models and interventions that have proven effective in decreasing bullying, examine models that could increase protective factors and mitigate the negative effects of bullying, and explore the appropriate roles of different groups in preventing bullying. This report reviews research on bullying prevention and intervention efforts as well as efforts in related areas of research and practice, implemented in a range of contexts and settings, including schools, peers, families, communities, laws and public policies, and technology. Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying considers how involvement or lack of involvement by these sectors influences opportunities for bullying, and appropriate roles for these sectors in preventing bullying. This report highlights current research on bullying prevention, considers what works and what does not work, and derives lessons learned.

Bullying Prevention And Intervention

Author : Susan M. Swearer
ISBN : 9781462509812
Genre : Education
File Size : 73. 85 MB
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Grounded in research and extensive experience in schools, this engaging book describes practical ways to combat bullying at the school, class, and individual levels. Step-by-step strategies are presented for developing school- and districtwide policies, coordinating team-based prevention efforts, and implementing targeted interventions with students at risk. Special topics include how to involve teachers, parents, and peers in making schools safer; ways to address the root causes of bullying and victimization; the growing problem of online or cyberbullying; and approaches to evaluating intervention effectiveness. In a large-size format with convenient lay-flat binding, the book features helpful reproducibles, concrete examples, and questions for reflection and discussion. This book is in The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series, edited by T. Chris Riley-Tillman.

Preventing Bullying In Schools

Author : Chris Lee
ISBN : 0761944729
Genre : Education
File Size : 68. 79 MB
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This resource offers tried-and-tested strategies based on the author's school-based research and regular work in schools training staff who deal with incidents of bullying.

Education And Delinquency

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309171526
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 75. 78 MB
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The Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control convened a workshop on October 2, 1998, to explore issues related to educational performance, school climate, school practices, learning, student motivation and commitment to school, and their relationship to delinquency. The workshop was designed to bring together researchers and practitioners with a broad range of perspectives on the relationship between such specific issues as school safety and academic achievement and the development of delinquent behavior. Education and Delinquencyreviews recent research findings, identifies gaps in knowledge and promising areas of future research, and discusses the need for program evaluation and the integration of empirical research findings into program design.

Studying Media Effects On Children And Youth

Author : Program Committee for a Workshop on Improving Research on Interactive Media and Children's Health
ISBN : 9780309102759
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 26. 22 MB
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The presence and intensity of media influences television, radio, music, computers, films, videos, and the Internet are increasingly recognized as an important part of the social ecology of children and youth, and these influences have become more visible and volatile in recent decades. Research that explores the level and effects of media influences calls for measurements of the quantity and character of exposure to a variety of potentially overlapping media sources, an analysis of the content of the media output, and examination of the social context and relationships that are associated with the media experience. Recognizing the importance of this research, the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, under the auspices of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, and with the sponsorship of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, held a workshop in March 2006. Its purpose was twofold: to examine the quality of the measures used in studies of the effects of media on children's health and development and to identify gaps in both research and practice. The goal was for a variety of experts to consider steps and strategies that could move this research forward and improve its utility for helping parents, practitioners, and policy makers guide young people in navigating a media-rich environment. Studying Media Effects on Children and Youth provides a summary of that discussion, supplemented with information from two papers prepared for the workshop. It begins with an examination of the potential impact of media exposure, followed by a description of the basic research questions and the methods currently used to study them. Methodological questions and challenges and theoretical approaches are described; they are discussed from the perspective of other kinds of epidemiological research. This report closes with a discussion of future directions for the field.

Deadly Lessons

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309169569
Genre : Medical
File Size : 78. 42 MB
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The shooting at Columbine High School riveted national attention on violence in the nation’s schools. This dramatic example signaled an implicit and growing fear that these events would continue to occurâ€"and even escalate in scale and severity. How do we make sense of the tragedy of a school shooting or even draw objective conclusions from these incidents? Deadly Lessons is the outcome of the National Research Council’s unique effort to glean lessons from six case studies of lethal student violence. These are powerful stories of parents and teachers and troubled youths, presenting the tragic complexity of the young shooter’s social and personal circumstances in rich detail. The cases point to possible causes of violence and suggest where interventions may be most effective. Readers will come away with a better understanding of the potential threat, how violence might be prevented, and how healing might be promoted in affected communities. For each case study, Deadly Lessons relates events leading up to the violence, provides quotes from personal interviews about the incident, and explores the impact on the community. The case studies center on: Two separate incidents in East New York in which three students were killed and a teacher was seriously wounded. A shooting on the south side of Chicago in which one youth was killed and two wounded. A shooting into a prayer group at a Kentucky high school in which three students were killed. The killing of four students and a teacher and the wounding of 10 others at an Arkansas middle school. The shooting of a popular science teacher by a teenager in Edinboro, Pennsylvania. A suspected copycat of Columbine in which six students were wounded in Georgia For everyone who puzzles over these terrible incidents, Deadly Lessons offers a fresh perspective on the most fundamental of questions: Why?

Proactive Policing

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309467131
Genre : Law
File Size : 81. 74 MB
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Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. In response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. This report uses the term “proactive policing†to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred. Proactive policing is distinguished from the everyday decisions of police officers to be proactive in specific situations and instead refers to a strategic decision by police agencies to use proactive police responses in a programmatic way to reduce crime. Today, proactive policing strategies are used widely in the United States. They are not isolated programs used by a select group of agencies but rather a set of ideas that have spread across the landscape of policing. Proactive Policing reviews the evidence and discusses the data and methodological gaps on: (1) the effects of different forms of proactive policing on crime; (2) whether they are applied in a discriminatory manner; (3) whether they are being used in a legal fashion; and (4) community reaction. This report offers a comprehensive evaluation of proactive policing that includes not only its crime prevention impacts but also its broader implications for justice and U.S. communities.

Understanding School Bullying

Author : Peter K. Smith
ISBN : 9781473905436
Genre : Education
File Size : 81. 24 MB
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'This extraordinarily comprehensive book authored by the leading international authority in the field integrates research, theory and practice on the topic of school bullying. In an already research saturated field Peter Smith's writing captures the humanity of why this topic strikes such a chord in the community. He reminds us in a thoughtful, practical and caring manner why we must continue to advocate on all levels for those impacted by bullying.' -Professor Phillip T. Slee, Flinders University, Australia 'Understanding School Bullying offers a refreshingly clear account of the wealth of insights gained over a quarter of a century of research. As Smith's comprehensive review convincingly shows, much has been learned and much of this has been put to good use in improving children's wellbeing. This is surely essential reading for any researcher concerned with bullying, childhood or life at school.' -Sonia Livingstone, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK, author of Children, Risk and Safety Online 'Peter Smith's new book will occupy a prominent place on my bookshelf. It provides a thorough and highly readable discussion of the breadth of research on school bullying. Dr. Smith includes discussions of important challenges related to research on this topic along with an excellent review of important studies and findings. This unique volume has influenced my thinking about the direction of my own research. The book will be an invaluable resource for researchers, consumers of research, and others who seek a research-based understanding of this important topic.' -Sheri Bauman, Ph.D., Professor at University of Arizona Bullying involves the repeated abuse of power in relationships. Bullying in schools can blight the lives of victims and damage the climate of the school. Over the last 25 years a burgeoning research program on school bullying has led to new insights into effective ways of dealing with it, as well as new challenges such as the advent of cyberbullying. This new book, by a leading international expert on the topic, brings together the cumulative knowledge acquired and the latest research findings in the area, with a global perspective especially covering research in Europe, North America, Australasia, and Asia. It will appeal to those taking academic courses in psychology, social work, educational psychology, child clinical psychology and psychiatry, and teacher training, but it will also be of interest to parents and teachers.

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