principles of soil chemistry fourth edition books in soils plants and the environment

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Principles Of Soil Chemistry Fourth Edition

Author : Kim H. Tan
ISBN : 9781439813959
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 16 MB
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Learn the secrets of soil chemistry and its role in agriculture and the environment. Examine the fundamental laws of soil chemistry, how they affect dissolution, cation and anion exchange, and other reactions. Explore how water can form water-bridges and hydrogen bonding, the most common forces in adsorption, chelation, and more. Discover how electrical charges develop in soils creating electrochemical potentials forcing ions to move into the plant body through barriers such as root membranes, nourishing crops and plants. You can do all this and more with Principles of Soil Chemistry, Fourth Edition. Since the first edition published in 1982, this resource has made a name for itself as a textbook for upper level undergraduates and as a handy reference for professionals and scientists. This fourth edition reexamines the entire reach of soil chemistry while maintaining the clear, concise style that made previous editions so user-friendly. By completely revising, updating, and incorporating a decade’s worth of new information, author Kim Tan has made this edition an entirely new and better book. See what's new in the Fourth Edition Reexamines atoms as the smallest particle that will enter into chemical reactions by probing new advances testifying the presence of subatomic particles and concepts such as string theory Underscores oxygen as the key element in soil air and atmosphere for life on earth Reevaluates the idea of transformation of orthoclase into albite by simple cation exchange reactions as misleading and bending scientific concepts of ion exchange over the limit of truth Examines the role of fertilizers, sulfur, pyrite, acid rain, and nitrogen fixation in soil acidity, underscoring the controversial effect of nitrification on increasing soil acidity over time Addresses the old and new approaches to humic acids by comparing the traditional operational concept against the currently proposed supramolecular and pseudomicellar concept Proposes soil organics, such as nucleic acids of DNA and others, to also adsorb cation ions held as diffusive ion clouds around the polymers Tan explains, in easy and simple language, the chemical make-up of the four soil constituents, their chemical reactions and interactions in soils as governed by basic chemical laws, and their importance in agriculture, industry, and the environment. He differentiates soil chemistry from geochemistry and physical chemistry. Containing more than 200 equations, 123 figures, and 38 tables, this popular text and resource supplies a comprehensive treatment of soil chemistry that builds a foundation for work in environmental pollution, organic and inorganic soil contamination, and potential ecological health and environmental health risks.

Functional Plant Ecology Second Edition

Author : Francisco Pugnaire
ISBN : 1420007629
Genre : Nature
File Size : 86. 91 MB
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Following in the footsteps of the successful first edition, Functional Plant Ecology, Second Edition remains the most authoritative resource in this multidisciplinary field. Extensively revised and updated, this book investigates plant structure and behavior across the ecological spectrum. It features the ecology and evolution of plant crowns and addresses approaches to generalization in functional plant ecology, including the species-sampling problem, plant ecology strategy schemes, and phylogeny. The book follows a bottom-up approach, from the more specific, detailed studies focusing on plant organs to the broadest ecosystem approaches. It offers the latest findings and research breakthroughs in plant ecology, as well as consideration of classic topics in environmental science and ecology. A wide-ranging compendium, the book investigates plant structure and behavior across the ecological spectrum, from the leaf to the ecosystem levels.

Soil Science Simplified

Author : Helmut Kohnke
ISBN : 9781478609308
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 65. 8 MB
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A concise, inexpensive treatment! Soil Science Simplified, 4/E was written to acquaint students with the basic concepts and scientific principles of soils without the burden of an extensive study. This useful, well-priced handbook includes discussions of soil classification, soil morphology, and soil and the environment. In addition, a chapter on soil surveys helps readers understand soil resources and apply the information presented in soil surveys to managing the soil environment. Outstanding features: 1) provides essential coverage of factors of soil formation; 2) outlines the most current principles of soil taxonomy; 3) provides an assortment of helpful tables, maps, and line drawings; 4) includes an expanded glossary.

The Chemistry Of Soils

Author : Garrison Sposito
ISBN : 9780199886098
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 57 MB
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There have been many advances in soil chemistry since Oxford published the first edition of The Chemistry of Soils in 1989. The physical-chemistry approach to soil chemistry taken in the book, groundbreaking for its time, has been adopted by nearly every soil chemistry book published since. This book offers a thorough update of all topics covered in the previous edition. In the last 16 years, soil chemistry as a discipline has assumed major significance in connection with global climate change. The 2nd edition addresses the emergent issue of global climate change by exploring the interaction between organic carbon and soil. The largest repository of organic carbon on earth is still soil, and the process by which organic carbon is sequestered by soil, thus preventing the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, is one of the proper concerns of soil chemistry. Thus, the revision provides a rigorous discussion of soil chemistry in its broader environmental and biogeochemical contexts.

Ecology And Management Of Forest Soils

Author : Dan Binkley
ISBN : 9781118422328
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 66 MB
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Forest soils are the foundation of the entire forest ecosystem and complex, long-term interactions between trees, soil animals, and the microbial community shape soils in was that are very distinct from agricultural soils. The composition, structure, and processes in forest soils at any given time reflect current conditions, as well as the legacies of decades (and even millennia) of interactions that shape each forest soil. Reciprocal interactions are fundamental; vegetation alters soil physical properties, which influence soil biology and chemistry, which in turn influence the growth and success of plants. These dynamic systems may be strongly influenced by intentional and unintentional management, ranging from fire to fertilization. Sustaining the long-term fertility of forest soils depends on insights about a diverse array of soil features and changes over space and time. Since the third edition of this successful book many new interests in forest soils and their management have arisen, including the role of forest soils in sequestering carbon, and how management influences rates of carbon accumulation. This edition also expands the consideration of how soils are sampled and characterized, and how tree species differ in their influence on soil development. Clearly structured throughout, the book opens with the origins of forest soil science and ends with the application of soil science principles to land management. This new edition provides: A completely revised and updated Fourth Edition of this classic textbook in the field A coherent overview of the major issues surrounding the ecology and management of forest soils Global in scope with coverage of soil types ranging from the tropical rainforest soils of Latin America to the boreal forest soils of Siberia New chapters on Management: Carbon sequestration; Evidence-based approaches and applications of geostatistics, GIS and taxonomies A clear overview of each topic, informative examples/case studies, and an overall context for helping readers think clearly about forest soils An introduction to the literature of forest soil science and to the philosophy of forest soil science research This coherent overview of the major issues surrounding the ecology and management of forest soils will be particularly useful to students taking courses in soil science, forestry, agronomy, ecology, natural resource management, environmental management and conservation, as well as professionals in forestry dealing with the productivity of forests and functioning of watersheds.

Soil And Water Chemistry

Author : Michael E. Essington
ISBN : 9781466573239
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 40 MB
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The second edition of a bestseller, Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrative Approach maintains the balanced perspective that made the first edition a hugely popular textbook. The second edition includes new figures and tables, new chapters, and expanded exercises in each chapter. It covers topics including soil chemical environment, soil minerals, soil organic matter, cation exchange, oxidation-reduction, mineral weathering and solubility, surface chemistry and adsorption reactions, acidity and salinity in soil materials, and chemical thermodynamics applied to soil systems. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Extensive section that details the sources, speciation, and the general behavior of elements in soils Expanded section on crystal structure, updated phyllosillcates classifications scheme, inclusion of sepiolite-palygorskite group, and expanded x-ray diffraction section Discussion of surface runoff losses of phosphorus from soil and description of the inductivity coupled argon plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analytical technique for determining elemental concentrations in soil solution Coverage of the influence of redox processes on the soil chemistry of nonelectroactive elements Description of the electrokinetic phenomenon and investigation of the influence of temperature on adsorption Expanded discussion on the application of chemical thermodynamics to soil systems A solutions manual is available upon qualifying course adoption. Still one of the only texts on this subject, this book provides a comprehensive, modern, and balanced coverage of the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soils and their chemical processes. It contains more information and topic coverage than required for an average, single-semester course. This extensive coverage is by design, giving you the latitude to pick your own essential topics while providing additional information or a more advanced treatment when needed. Figures and tables make the information accessible and each problem has been tested and is relevant and doable, but asks more of students than to simply generate a number. This format allows students to understand the concepts and recognize that their computations have physical meaning.

Handbook Of Environmental Health Fourth Edition Volume Ii

Author : Herman Koren
ISBN : 9780849378003
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 15 MB
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The Handbook of Environmental Health-Pollutant Interactions in Air, Water, and Soil includes Nine Chapters on a variety of topics basically following a standard chapter outline where applicable with the exception of Chapters 8 and 9. The outline is as follows: 1. Background and status 2. Scientific, technological and general information 3. Statement of the problem 4. Potential for intervention 5. Some specific resources 6. Standards, practices, and techniques 7. Modes of surveillance and evaluation 8. Various controls 9. Summary of the chapter 10. Research needs for the future Chapter 1, Air Quality Management discusses various clean air acts, toxic air pollutants, the various types of pollutants, the composition of the atmosphere, global warming, ozone depletion, various atmospheric regions, air currents and movement, air temperature, inversions, urban and topographic effects, weather, physical properties of gases including various laws, psychometric properties of air, particulate matter, settling velocity of particles, particle retention in lungs, alteration and transportation of particulate matter, bubble concept. It also discusses various regulated air pollutants including nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, a range of hydrocarbons both aliphatic and aromatic, photochemical oxidants, organic gaseous discharges, simplified reactions in the atmosphere, ozone, methyl bromide, lead, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, mercury, fluorides, odors. Air pollutants from incinerators, cement kilns, backyard burning, external combustion, internal combustion, attrition, evaporation, incineration, pulp and paper mills, iron and steel mills, petroleum refineries, metallurgical industries, chemical manufacturers, power plants, food and agricultural industries are also included. Air toxics and hazardous air pollutants are of considerable significance. Major source categories of air pollutants are discussed. There is a significant amount of material on disease and injury potential from air pollutants and a discussion of the respiratory system, the eye, systemic effect, digestive system. Economic effects are discussed including problems of visibility, acid deposition, global atmospheric changes. The latest standards, practices and techniques used for all of the air pollutants discussed as well as modes of surveillance and evaluation are in the text. Air pollution controls and state-of-the-art graphics are utilized to better understand how to control various air pollutants. Chapter 2, Solid and Hazardous Waste Management discusses residential waste, commercial waste, municipal waste, institutional and research laboratory waste, infectious and medical waste, industrial waste, food waste, yard waste, food processing waste, metal waste, paper, plastics, glass, wood, aluminum, chemical waste, rubber, radioactive waste, mining waste, agricultural waste, recreational waste, abandoned automobiles, packaging materials, refuse-derived fuels, heavy metals, toxic releases. It also discusses in detail pollution prevention and waste minimization, municipal solid waste reduction, Hazardous Waste and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, solid waste storage systems, on-site volume reduction systems, central volume reduction systems. Various collections systems, individual, community, industrial, agricultural are included. Sanitary landfills and the attendant problems are discussed in detail. Other concerns include types and properties of solid waste, hydrology and climatology, soils and geology, planning and design of landfills, site selection, types of soils, equipment, converting landfill gas and electricity. Incineration of various types are discussed including air emissions, general design of equipment, residue analysis and, incinerator process water, special waste handling. Composting and biological treatment includes physical and chemical processes, biological processes, different compost systems, innovative uses of compost. Pyrolysis includes pyrolysis oils, carbon black, reclamation and recycling. The disposal of solid waste includes the problems of land pollution, water pollution, air pollution, spread of disease through the waste and by means of insects and rodents. Chemical hazards in the human environment include endocrine disruptors, dioxins, other hazardous waste, injuries and occupational hazards. Types of hazardous waste include ignitable, corrosive, reactive, toxic waste. Hazardous waste transportation, waste discharge hazards, underground storage tanks are also discussed. Toxics release inventory, material handling technologies are significant. Redeveloping Brownfields are important. Standards, practices, and techniques are available for all forms of solid and hazardous waste disposal. The Superfund and the various acts related to it, are discussed. Study and evaluation techniques as well as controls and treatment techniques are an essential part of the material. Employee protection programs as well as other solid and hazardous waste programs and integrated techniques of disposal are part of the material. Chapter 3, Private and Public Water Supplies discusses the most recent laws and water quality. It also discusses the hydrologic cycle, human impact on the water cycle, hydrogeology, geographic information system, EnviroMapper, global positioning system. There is an extensive discussion of water treatment including chemical reactions, dosage and concentration terminology, environmental concerns, water distribution, wells, ponds or lakes, springs, rivers. Water treatment plants include state-of-the-art graphics of water intake, aeration, sedimentation, filtration, chlorination, storage including reservoirs where discussions of hypochlorination of water, ozone, aeration, chlorine, chlorine dioxide are described. Water supply problems include physical problems, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, groundwater and surface water relationships, groundwater contamination, public water system contamination by injection wells, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, gasoline. There is a discussion of risk assessment and risk management of water supplies. Biological factors include waterborne disease outbreaks, E. Coli 0157: H7 and Campylobacter outbreaks. Standards, practices, and procedures are established for safe drinking water. There’s a discussion and state-of-the-art graphics of dug or bored wells, driven wells, plumbing, drilled wells, well construction, well pumps, storage of well water, well testing, well disinfection, chlorination equipment, filters. Water treatment plant surveys, mapping programs for groundwater supplies, waterborne disease investigation are essential. Appropriate survey forms and US EPA studies and techniques are included. New technologies in water treatment are important. Chapter 4, Swimming Areas discusses water treatment, sources of water supply, pool hydraulic system, disinfection, swimming pool chemistry, chemistry of ozone in water, swimming pool calculations, therapeutic pools, bathing beaches and microbiological characteristics, recent outbreaks of disease, potential safety problems, current standards, practices and techniques, pool plans review, pool equipment, filtration systems, chemical feed, water testing, inspection techniques all accompanied by appropriate state-of-the-art graphics. Chapter 5, Plumbing discusses basic principles of plumbing related to environmental health, principles of hydraulics, cross connections, black flow, plumbing problems of public health significance, interceptors, separators, backwater valves, indirect and special waste, water supply and distribution systems, drainage systems, liquid medical waste, geothermal heat pump systems, tests and maintenance, means of preventing backflow, uniform plumbing code. Chapter 6, Private and Public Sewage Disposal and Soils discusses sources of sewage, appearance and composition of sewage, dissolved gases, biological composition of sewage, oxygen demand in sewage, chemical changes in sewage composition, decomposition of organic matter in sewage, biological sludges, sewage disposal concepts, sewage contaminants in groundwater, holding tank concept, sewage system infrastructure, primary treatment, secondary sewage treatment techniques including trickling filter systems, activated sludge process, rotating biological contactors, contact aeration process, intermittent sand filters, stabilization ponds, chlorination of sewage. Sludge digestion, treatment, and disposal techniques are discussed in depth. Advanced water treatment techniques, suspended solids removal, adsorption, oxidation, foam separation, distillation, electrodialysis, freezing, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, phosphate removal, nitrate removal are discussed. Package treatment plants are included. There is a substantial discussion of the topic of soils including soil profile, soil formation and composition, properties and qualities of soils, soil texture, permeability, soil structure, shrink-swell potential, classification and naming of soils, characteristic used to differentiate soils, effluents from septic tanks and soils, reduction of sewage effluent by soil, evapotranspiration and climate, soil-clogging effects of septic tank effluents, soil cleaning technologies, soil surveys. Equipment and systems are described in depth including septic tanks, aerobic tank systems, dosing tanks, soil absorption systems, and all forms of municipal treatment systems. State-of-the-art graphics is used throughout the chapter to highlight the information. Chapter 7, Water Pollution and Water Quality Controls discusses all of the federal laws related to water, water pollution, water quality and clean water. It also discusses wetlands, coastal waters, estuaries, the ocean, the effects of heat, acidity and alkalinity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand-biological oxygen demand-dissolved oxygen relationships, solids and water pollution, nutrients and water pollution, water resource problems, pollutants and their sources, municipal waste, ocean pollution, National Eutrophication Study, non-point source pollution of all types, pesticides. There is a substantial discussion of the major point sources of pollution, techniques used to measure the levels of pollution and appropriate controls. The type of pollutants include oxygen-depleting wastes, toxic and hazardous wastes, waste causing physical damage, waste producing tastes and odors, waste containing inorganic dissolved solids, plant nutrients, radioactive wastes, corrosive wastes, pathogenic wastes, thermal pollution, dredging waste, sedimentation wastes, oil, mining drainage, feedlot pollution, waste from watercraft, irrigation. Public health aspects of water pollution include a large variety of biological hazards, bacterial, viral, protozoa, helminths, microorganisms in shellfish and microorganisms in wastewater aerosols. Chemical hazards include a large number of chemical substances potentially hazardous to humans through either drinking water or the food chain. They are trihalomethanes, MTBE and other airborne volatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, other organic compounds, potential mutagens in wastewater and sludge, toxic organics from homes, organics found in raw municipal wastewater, organics found in raw municipal sludge, organics found in soil and groundwater, heavy metals in sludge, detergents. Standards, practices and techniques related to fish and wildlife areas, swimming areas are included. Public water supplies are discussed in Chapter 3. There is a significant presentation on proper sludge disposal as well as land application of sewage sludge. Wastewater treatment techniques are provided for biological waste and chemical waste. Chapter 8, Terrorism and Environmental Health Emergencies discusses the nature of terrorism, various types of terrorist acts including biological, chemical, nuclear, radiological, electrical systems, agricultural, cyber. The Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response and the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism which was published December 15, 2000 is discussed in detail. Also included is the Strategic Plan of the Centers for Disease Control from the year 2000 as well as US Government Interagency Domestic Terrorism Concept of Operations Plan of January 2001. In addition disasters and how best to deal with them including earthquakes, floods, forest fires, hurricanes, landslides, radiological spills, tornadoes and windstorms are part of the chapter. There is a discussion of the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Law, Federal Emergency Management Agency, emergency management at the state level, National Disaster Medical System, disaster response guidelines for ambulance providers, community disaster plans, hospital disaster plans, emergency vehicles and emergency communications systems, environmental response teams, mental health needs and disasters. Specific environmental health measures are established for housing, food, water, insect and rodent control, sewage, solid and hazardous waste, radiation. Chapter 9, Major Instrumentation for Environmental Evaluation of Ambient Air, Water, and Soil discusses techniques for collecting soil samples, water samples, air samples for particulates, air samples for gases and vapors, remote monitoring of gases, vapors, and particulates, stack sampling for gases, vapors and particulates. Sample analysis techniques are presented for soil and water samples. State of the art graphics are utilized to help understand sampling techniques. A large and current bibliography by chapter is included at the end of the book. The state-of-the-art computerized graphics produced by internationally acclaimed artist, can be found throughout the book. A comprehensive index of both volume II and volume I is at the end of the book to aid the reader in easily finding necessary information. The reader is referred to volume I when appropriate. The book is user-friendly to a variety of individuals including generalists professionals as well as specialists, industrial hygiene personnel, health and medical personnel, the media, supervisors and managers of environmental health and occupational health areas, and students. Individuals can easily gain appropriate and applicable standards, rules and regulations to help the individual increase knowledge in a given area or solve actual problems. The book is utilized to help individuals also prepare for registration examinations. The book is co–published with the National Environmental Health Association.

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