production of ethanol from sugarcane in brazil from state intervention to a free market 43 natural resource management and policy

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Production Of Ethanol From Sugarcane In Brazil

Author : Márcia Azanha Ferraz Dias de Moraes
ISBN : 9783319031408
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 78. 87 MB
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The success of Brazil in the large-scale production and use of fuel ethanol has been widely discussed and analyzed by other countries interested in adopting policies designed to encourage the use of biofuels. Within this context, certain questions arise: Could the Brazilian experience be replicated in other countries? What were the conditions that enabled the creation of the Brazilian Proálcool (National Ethanol Program and what lessons can be learned? To examine these issues, it is important to understand the functioning of the key, interconnected markets (those for sugarcane, sugar and ethanol), which, from their inception, were the objects of extensive government intervention until 1999. Two main conditions enabled the creation of Proálcool: robust production of sugarcane and sugar (tightly regulated by the government, which applied the numerous regulations then in place); and the military regime that was in place at the time, whose decision-making and enforcement powers were quite broad, facilitating the carrying out of the necessary actions, as well as making it easier to coordinate the activities of the various stakeholders and sectors involved. This book increases understanding of the functioning of the sugarcane supply chain in Brazil, not only during the phase of government intervention but also in recent years (in the free-market environment). The lessons, positive and negative, gleaned from the Brazilian experience can contribute to reflection on and the development of alternative modalities of biofuel production in other countries, making the book of interest to scholars and policy-makers concerned with biofuel and renewable resources as well as economic development.

Bioenergy Development

Author : Elizabeth Cushion
ISBN : 0821381296
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 40. 14 MB
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This book provides an overview of current and future bioenergy developments, describes the impacts related to poverty and the environment, assesses the opportunities and challenges and outlines how future World Bank activities related to bioenergy may be linked to poverty alleviation and environmental protection.

The International Sugar Trade

Author : A. C. Hannah
ISBN : 0471190543
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 66. 97 MB
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Once considered a rare and exotic sweetener, sugar was not always as widely available or important as it is today. As part of the human diet for nearly all of recorded history, sugar has evolved over time, becoming quite a common commodity. Yet the very simplicity of this common sweetener masks the highly complex and elaborate global trade that has developed around it. Now, The International Sugar Trade offers the only comprehensive reference guide to the worldwide market. A sweeping analysis of the entire sugar industry, it covers everything from the product’s historical beginnings to the complex geopolitical and financial forces that have dominated the worldwide sugar trade during recent decades. Over the past fifty years, especially, the international trade in sugar has changed dramatically. Since it is either imported or exported by every country on earth, sugar has become an integral component of the economic relationships among nations. Because of that unique position, the trade in sugar has both reflected—and been affected by—a wide range of divergent forces, including global politics, health consciousness, the emergence of developing nations as suppliers and consumers, and many others. Perhaps the greatest change in the international sugar trade has been the trend toward price stabilization. Historically at the mercy of everything from war to weather, the price of sugar has always been extremely volatile. But, following such trends as the development of sugar substitutes, an overall decline in per capita consumption, and an increase in the overall amount of sugar on the open market, the price of sugar has leveled off considerably. This comparatively recent stability has profoundly altered the manner in which sugar is traded on the world market, and while this has created new opportunities to profit in sugar, it has also made trading in sugar commodities more complex than ever before. In this important new reference, A. C. Hannah and Donald Spence explore the broad scope of the entire sugar market, providing an essential global tour of the international sugar trade in all its intricacy. Everything is here, from cultivation and refinement to importing and exporting, from commodity trading and tariffs to substitutes and consumption. The International Sugar Trade provides comprehensive coverage of: • The history of sugar—from cultivation and refining to end use •Trends in world production, consumption, and international trade • Crucial information on export marketing, contracts, trade, and prices • The policies of the world’s major sugar producers—with particular attention focused on likely developments in Eastern Europe, Asia, and Cuba • The impact of existing sugar substitutes and those under development • The sugar trade cycle and marketing chain, descriptions of key players, and detailed coverage of the sugar futures markets The International Sugar Trade contains the most essential and up-to-date information currently available. It includes numerous tables and graphs describing production, consumption, and trade for nearly every country. It also includes five complete appendices exploring sugar and the environment; sugar and health; the Brazilian Alcohol Programme; international sugar agreements; and historical statistics covering the period from 1955 to 1994. It is a vital resource for anyone involved in the international sugar trade.

Land Use Trends And Environmental Governance Policies In Brazil

Author : Andrew Miccolis
ISBN : 9786021504659
Genre :
File Size : 90. 18 MB
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Historically, the policy framework in Brazil has played a decisive role in shaping land use and changes in the rural landscape. Over the last three decades, the country has made impressive gains on socioeconomic, environmental and rural development policy fronts. Nonetheless, an overall analysis of Brazil’s policy framework pertaining to land use shows contradictions and constraints that need to be addressed in the long run. One such contradiction is given by disparities in rural credit and finance policies, with greater amounts favoring large-scale farming as opposed to family farming, despite the key role of smallholders in food production and job creation, and still low resources allocated to programs promoting low-carbon agricultural practices. Another contradiction is the dichotomy between climate change policies and mainstream agricultural and rural development policies. Brazil’s overriding challenge is harmonizing and effectively coordinating these different policy agendas at their various levels of implementation so as to effectively manage trade-offs. The question is what measures can be put in place to enable continued growth of agricultural production while also reducing its negative social and environmental costs? The answer lies partly in increasing support for implementing and up-scaling initiatives to promote low emissions agriculture and providing other economic incentives for adopting more sustainable use and conservation-oriented agricultural and land-use practices. Ultimately, reconciling agricultural production with conservation and rural livelihoods requires greater coordination and harmonization among sectoral policies at various levels of government. Achieving this goal requires the adoption of a combination of a value chain-based and territorial approach to land-use planning with more integrated farming systems in order to enable making improved decisions according to multiple trade-offs and impacts.

Socioeconomic And Environmental Impacts Of Biofuels

Author : Alexandros Gasparatos
ISBN : 9781107009356
Genre : Law
File Size : 86. 91 MB
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Comprehensive, multidisciplinary volume on biofuels in developing countries for academics, practitioners and policy makers.

El Desarrollo Sostenible Una Gu A Sobre Nuestro Futuro Com N

Author : World Commission on Environment and Development
ISBN : 019282080X
Genre : Nature
File Size : 52. 36 MB
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Discusses population growth, food production, energy, industry, and urban development, and suggests ways to promote economic growth while protecting the environment.

Biofuels And Food Security

Author : Tatsuji Koizumi
ISBN : 9783319056456
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 78. 99 MB
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Examining the relationship between biofuels and food security, this book presents an economic analysis of the competition between biofuels and food. It covers the historical and current situation of biofuels and food security in Brazil, China, Japan, USA, EU, Thailand, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and other countries. Furthermore it demonstrates that not only feedstock of agricultural product-based biofuels, but also cellulose-based biofuels can compete with food-related demand and agricultural resources. The issue of whether this competition is good or bad for food security is explored, and this topic is examined at global, national, sub-national and household levels. In order to deal with energy security, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and to strengthen agricultural/rural development, biofuel production and utilization is increasing all over the world. One of the most crucial problems is the competition for resources between biofuel and food. This biofuel and food security discussion is expected to continue into the future, and this book proposes the action that is needed to deal with this issue on various levels. Biofuel and Food Security provides a valuable resource to undergraduates and researchers of economics, agricultural economics and renewable science, and also policy makers involved in government or international organizations. It will additionally be of interest to those employed in renewable energy and agriculture in an industrial capacity.

Global Agricultural Trade And Developing Countries

Author : M. Ataman Aksoy
ISBN : 0821383493
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 26. 84 MB
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Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries presents research findings based on a series of commodity studies of significant economic importance to developing countries. The book sets the stage with background chapters and investigations of cross-cutting issues. It then describes trade and domestic policy regimes affecting agricultural and food markets, and assesses the resulting patterns of production and trade. The book continues with an analysis of product standards and costs of compliance and their effects on agricultural and food trade. The book also investigates the impact of preferences given to selected countries and their effectiveness, then reviews the evidence on the attempts to decouple agricultural support from agricultural output. The last background chapter explores the robustness of the global gains of multilateral agricultural and food trade liberalization. Given this context, the book presents detailed commodity studies for coffee, cotton, dairy, fruits and vegetables, groundnuts, rice, seafood products, sugar, and wheat. These markets feature distorted policy regimes among industrial or middle-income countries. The studies analyze current policy regimes in key producing and consuming countries, document the magnitude of these distortions and estimate the distributional impacts - winners and losers - of trade and domestic policy reforms. By bringing the key issues and findings together in one place, Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries aids policy makers and researchers, both in their approach to global negotiations and in evaluating their domestic policies on agriculture. The book also complements the recently published Agriculture and the WTO, which focuses primarily on the agricultural issues within the context of the WTO negotiations.

Conflicts Over Natural Resources In The Global South

Author : Maarten Bavinck
ISBN : 9781315778464
Genre : Nature
File Size : 31. 42 MB
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Inhabitants of poor, rural areas in the Global South heavily depend on natural resources in their immediate vicinity. Conflicts over and exploitation of these resources – whether it is water, fish, wood fuel, minerals, or land – severely affect their livelihoods. The contributors to this volume leave behind the polarised debate, previously surrounding the relationship between natural resources and conflict, preferring a more nuanced approach that allows for multiple causes at various levels. The contributions cover a wide array of resources, geographical contexts (Africa, Asia and Latin America), and conflict dynamics. Most are of a comparative nature, exploring experiences of conflict as well as cooperation in multiple regions. This volume finds its origin in an innovative research programme with the acronym CoCooN, steered by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO/WOTRO) and involving universities and civil society partners in many countries. It presents the conceptual approaches adhered to by each of seven interdisciplinary projects, ranging from green criminology and political ecology to institutional analysis, legal pluralism and identity politics. The volume will be of interest to academics and practitioners concerned with an understanding of conflict as well as cooperation over natural resources.

Global Brazil And U S Brazil Relations

Author : Senior Fellow and Deputy Director Latin America Program Julia E Sweig
ISBN : 9780876095041
File Size : 87. 7 MB
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July 12, 2011-Over the course of a generation, Brazil has emerged as both a driver of growth in South America and as an active force in world politics. A new Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)-sponsored Independent Task Force report asserts "that it is in the interest of the United States to understand Brazil as a complex international actor whose influence on the defining global issues of the day is only likely to increase."Brazil currently ranks as the world's fifth-largest landmass, fifth-largest population, and expects to soon be ranked the fifth largest economy. The report, Global Brazil and U.S.-Brazil Relations, recommends that "U.S. policymakers recognize Brazil's standing as a global actor, treat its emergence as an opportunity for the United States, and work with Brazil to develop complementary policies."The Task Force is chaired by former secretary of energy Samuel W. Bodman and former president of the World Bank James D. Wolfensohn, and directed by CFR Senior Fellow and Director for Latin America Studies, and Director of the Global Brazil Initiative Julia E. Sweig.Recognizing Brazil's global role, the report recommends that the Obama administration now fully endorse the country's bid for a seat as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). It argues that "a formal endorsement from the United States for Brazil would go far to overcome lingering suspicion within the Brazilian government that the U.S. commitment to a mature relationship between equals is largely rhetorical."Domestically, Brazil's "inclusive growth has translated into a significant reduction of inequality, an expansion of the middle class, and a vibrant economy, all framed within a democratic context." Consequently, Brazil has been able to use its economic bona fides to leverage a stronger position in the international, commercial, and diplomatic arena.The report stresses the importance of regular communication between the presidents of both countries. "Cooperation between the United States and Brazil holds too much promise for miscommunication or inevitable disagreements to stand in the way of potential gains." A mature, working relationship means that "the United States and Brazil can help each other advance mutual interests even without wholesale policy agreements between the two," notes the report.The Task Force further recommends that- the U.S. Congress "include an elimination of the ethanol tariff in any bill regarding reform to the ethanol and biofuel tax credit regime."- the United States "take the first step to waive visa requirements for Brazilians by immediately reviewing Brazil's criteria for participation in the Visa Waiver Program."- the U.S. State Department create an Office for Brazilian Affairs and the National Security Council (NSC) centralize its efforts under a NSC director for Brazil in order to better coordinate the current decentralized U.S. policy.The bipartisan Task Force includes thirty distinguished experts on Brazil who represent a range of perspectives and backgrounds. The report includes a number of additional views by Task Force members, including one that notes, "We believe that a more gradual approach [regarding Brazil's inclusion as a full UNSC member] would likely have more success in navigating the diplomatic complexities presented by U.S. support for Brazil." Another view asserts, "If the United States supports, as the Obama administration has said it does, leadership structures in international institutions that are more reflective of international realities, it must support without qualifications Brazil's candidacy [for the UNSC]."

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