prohibiting plunder how norms change

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Prohibiting Plunder

Author : Wayne Sandholtz
ISBN : 0199725470
Genre : Art
File Size : 45. 13 MB
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For much of history, the rules of war decreed that "to the victor go the spoils." The winners in warfare routinely seized for themselves the artistic and cultural treasures of the defeated; plunder constituted a marker of triumph. By the twentieth century, international norms declared the opposite, that cultural monuments should be shielded from destruction or seizure. Prohibiting Plunder traces and explains the emergence of international rules against wartime looting of cultural treasures, and explores how anti-plunder norms have developed over the past 200 years. The book covers highly topical events including the looting of thousands of antiquities from the Iraqi National Museum in Baghdad, and the return of "Holocaust Art" by prominent museums, including the highly publicized return of five Klimt paintings from the Austrian Gallery to a Holocaust survivor. The historical narrative includes first-hand reports, official documents, and archival records. Equally important, the book uncovers the debates and negotiations that produced increasingly clear and well-defined anti-plunder norms. The historical accounts in Prohibiting Plunder serve as confirming examples of an important dynamic of international norm change. Rules evolve in cycles; in each cycle, specific actions trigger arguments about the meaning and application of rules, and those arguments in turn modify the rules. International norms evolve through a succession of such cycles, each one drawing on previous developments and each one reshaping the normative context for subsequent actions and disputes. Prohibiting Plunder shows how historical episodes interlinked to produce modern, treaty-based rules against wartime plunder of cultural treasures.

International Norms And Cycles Of Change

Author : Wayne Sandholtz
ISBN : STANFORD:36105131760451
Genre : Law
File Size : 26. 66 MB
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Wayne Sandholtz and Kendall Stiles sketch the primary theoretical perspectives on international norm change, the 'legalisation' and 'transnational activist' approaches, and argue that both are limited by their focus on international rules as outcomes.

Norm Antipreneurs And The Politics Of Resistance To Global Normative Change

Author : Alan Bloomfield
ISBN : 9781317479574
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 27. 36 MB
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Over recent decades International Relations scholars have investigated norm dynamics processes at some length, with the ‘norm entrepreneur’ concept having become a common reference point in the literature. The focus on norm entrepreneurs has, however, resulted in a bias towards investigating the agents and processes of successful normative change. This book challenges this inherent bias by explicitly focusing on those who resist normative change - norm ‘antipreneurs’. The utility of the norm antipreneur concept is explored through a series of case studies encompassing a range of issue areas and contributed by a mix of well-known and emergent scholars of norm dynamics. In examining the complexity of norm resistance, particular attention is paid to the nature and intent of the actors involved in norm-contestation, the sites and processes of resistance, the strategies and tactics antipreneurs deploy to defend the values and interests they perceive to be threatened by the entrepreneurs, and whether it is the entrepreneurs or the antipreneurs who enjoy greater inherent advantages. This text will therefore be of interest to scholars and students of International Relations, International Law, Political Science, Sociology and History.

How Interpretation Makes International Law

Author : Ingo Venzke
ISBN : 9780191631955
Genre : Law
File Size : 46. 2 MB
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Challenging the classic narrative that sovereign states make the law that constrains them, this book argues that treaties and other sources of international law form only the starting point of legal authority. Interpretation can shift the meaning of texts and, in its own way, make law. In the practice of interpretation actors debate the meaning of the written and customary laws, and so contribute to the making of new law. In such cases it is the actor's semantic authority that is key - the capacity for their interpretation to be accepted and become established as new reference points for legal discourse. The book identifies the practice of interpretation as a significant space for international lawmaking, using the key examples of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the Appellate Body of the WTO to show how international institutions are able to shape and develop their constituent instruments by adding layers of interpretation, and moving the terms of discourse. The book applies developments in linguistics to the practice of international legal interpretation, building on semantic pragmatism to overcome traditional explanations of lawmaking and to offer a fresh account of how the practice of interpretation makes international law. It discusses the normative implications that arise from viewing interpretation in this light, and the implications that the importance of semantic changes has for understanding the development of international law. The book tests the potential of international law and its doctrine to respond to semantic change, and ultimately ponders how semantic authority can be justified democratically in a normative pluriverse.

Looting And Rape In Wartime

Author : Tuba Inal
ISBN : 9780812244762
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 42. 33 MB
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Looting and Rape in Wartime examines the causes of the hundred-year gap between the prohibition against wartime looting and that against rape, theorizing the conditions necessary for the emergence of a global prohibition regime in which a particular practice is not tolerated.

Plunder

Author : Ugo Mattei
ISBN : 9780470695807
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 71. 38 MB
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Plunder examines the dark side of the Rule of Law and explores how it has been used as a powerful political weapon by Western countries in order to legitimize plunder – the practice of violent extraction by stronger political actors victimizing weaker ones. Challenges traditionally held beliefs in the sanctity of the Rule of Law by exposing its dark side Examines the Rule of Law's relationship with 'plunder' – the practice of violent extraction by stronger political actors victimizing weaker ones – in the service of Western cultural and economic domination Provides global examples of plunder: of oil in Iraq; of ideas in the form of Western patents and intellectual property rights imposed on weaker peoples; and of liberty in the United States Dares to ask the paradoxical question – is the Rule of Law itself illegal?

Plunder And Blunder

Author : Dean Baker
ISBN : 9781459626300
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 41. 79 MB
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Plunder and Blunder chronicles the growth and collapse of the stock and housing bubbles, explains how policy changes since 1980 laid the groundwork for catastrophic - but completely predictable - market meltdowns, and offers prescriptions for avoiding these disasters in the future. Dean Baker argues not only that competent economists should have recognized the developing housing bubble, but also that policy makers and the media cheerfully neglected those economists who did predict danger. Baker doesn't engage in 20 - 20 hindsight, but thoroughly documents how fundamental policy shifts destabilized the economy and eroded the broad prosperity of the post - war period. His expert analysis explains the outcomes clearly so we can prevent similar financial disasters. ''Dean Baker warned us what was coming. Now we can read why Dean got it right when so many experts were blind. The story is intriguing - and deeply disturbing.'' - William Greider, national affairs correspondent, The Nation, and author of Come Home, America

A Flexible History Of Fluxus Facts And Fictions

Author : Emmett Williams
ISBN : UOM:39015047884302
Genre : Art
File Size : 35. 39 MB
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Explores the roots and fruits of this radical art movement. Here Emmett Williams turns cartoonist, in the footsteps of Lyonel Feininger, Rube Goldberg, and Ad Reinhardt. His pseudo-historical collage-drawings, digitally remastered by Ann Noel for this edition, are peopled with often-irreverent images of his real-life friends and colleagues. Williams, the oldest living member of Fluxus, assumes the role of know-it-all ringmaster in a three-ring circus that highlights the fanciful antics of the stars of Fluxus, Happenings, and Performance Art: George Maciunas, John Cage, Claes Oldenburg, Yoko Ono, Nam June Paik, Joseph Beuys, Christo and Jeanne-Claude, and Williams and Noel themselves. On the left-hand pages, opposite each cartoon, are documents from the author's personal archives relating some of the amusing and unexpected things that really happened in Fluxus events over the years. 140 color illustrations.

Firsting And Lasting

Author : Jean M. Obrien
ISBN : 9781452915258
Genre : History
File Size : 80. 72 MB
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Across nineteenth-century New England, antiquarians and community leaders wrote hundreds of local histories about the founding and growth of their cities and towns. Ranging from pamphlets to multivolume treatments, these narratives shared a preoccupation with establishing the region as the cradle of an Anglo-Saxon nation and the center of a modern American culture. They also insisted, often in mournful tones, that New England’s original inhabitants, the Indians, had become extinct, even though many Indians still lived in the very towns being chronicled. InFirsting and Lasting, Jean M. O’Brien argues that local histories became a primary means by which European Americans asserted their own modernity while denying it to Indian peoples. Erasing and then memorializing Indian peoples also served a more pragmatic colonial goal: refuting Indian claims to land and rights. Drawing on more than six hundred local histories from Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island written between 1820 and 1880, as well as censuses, monuments, and accounts of historical pageants and commemorations, O’Brien explores how these narratives inculcated the myth of Indian extinction, a myth that has stubbornly remained in the American consciousness. In order to convince themselves that the Indians had vanished despite their continued presence, O’Brien finds that local historians and their readers embraced notions of racial purity rooted in the century’s scientific racism and saw living Indians as “mixed” and therefore no longer truly Indian. Adaptation to modern life on the part of Indian peoples was used as further evidence of their demise. Indians did not—and have not—accepted this effacement, and O’Brien details how Indians have resisted their erasure through narratives of their own. These debates and the rich and surprising history uncovered in O’Brien’s work continue to have a profound influence on discourses about race and indigenous rights.

The Role Of Law In International Politics

Author : Michael Byers
ISBN : 0199244022
Genre : Law
File Size : 30. 3 MB
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This interdisciplinary volume examines the highly topical issue of the role international law plays in international politics today.

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