psychological issues in eyewitness identification

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Psychological Issues In Eyewitness Identification

Author : Siegfried L. Sporer
ISBN : 9781317824633
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 77. 49 MB
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Why do police officers, investigators, prosecutors, judges, and others with an interest in eliciting accurate memory-based testimony need to inform themselves of the research literature in experimental psychology that addresses the question of witness memory? The answer is straightforward, from the perspective of a simple cost/benefit analysis. As with so many matters in the administration of public funds, effectiveness holds important rewards. Those who investigate crimes and decide which line of investigation to pursue and which line to postpone or set aside, necessarily make judgments about the likely guilt of suspects based on the information at hand. If they can make these judgments with a high degree of accuracy, everyone benefits. For many cases eyewitness identification is an important component of evidence, prosecution, and plea negotiation. If witness identification is correctly implemented, investigators and prosecutors can make their judgments effectively, and focus their resources more efficiently. A major component of effectiveness requires avoiding expending scarce resources on erroneous prosecutions. It is in everyone's interest to make the best use of the memory of witnesses: to preserve it without changing it; to render it maximally accessible; to provide an environment in which witnesses feel free to report their recollections; and to accurately assess the probable validity of the witness's report, regardless of the witness's certainty or doubts about its accuracy. This volume gathers evidence from various research domains on eyewitness testimony. Although many of the studies discussed deal with eyewitness identification, it is noteworthy that many of them also touch upon other areas of concern to eyewitness researchers, including chapters on: *voice recognition by humans and computers, with particularly detailed instructions on conducting voice "lineup," *differential aspects of recognition memory in children, *elderly eyewitness' memory, *problems of cross-racial identification, *psychological aspects of facial image reconstruction techniques, *person descriptions, *particular benefits of reinstating context as a means to improve eyewitness memory, *problems associated with various research paradigms in the eyewitness arena, and *recommendations on how to conduct lineups and photospreads and their proper evaluation. Differentiated from other literature on this topic by its non-technical language and accessibility to non-professionals, this volume covers a great deal of ground, raises a host of questions, settles some others, and points the way to more effective use and evaluation of what eyewitnesses have to say.

The Psychology Of Eyewitness Identification

Author : James M. Lampinen
ISBN : 9781848728837
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 28. 91 MB
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This volume provides a tutorial review and evaluation of scientific research on the accuracy and reliability of eyewitness identification. The book starts with the perspective that there are a variety of conceptual and empirical problems with eyewitness identification as a form of forensic evidence, just as there are a variety of problems with other forms of forensic evidence. There is then an examination of the important results in the study of eyewitness memory and the implications of this research for psychological theory and for social and legal policy. The volume takes the perspective that research on eyewitness identification can be seen as the paradigmatic example of how psychological science can be successfully applied to real-world problems.

Expert Testimony On The Psychology Of Eyewitness Identification

Author : Brian L. Cutler
ISBN : 0199736634
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 35. 78 MB
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Eyewitness testimony is highly compelling in a criminal trial, and can have an indelible impact on jurors. However, two decades of research on the subject have shown us that eyewitnesses are sometimes wrong, even when they are highly confident that they are making correct identifications. This book brings together an impressive group of researchers and practicing attorneys to provide current overviews and critiques of key topics in eyewitness testimony.

Handbook Of Eyewitness Psychology

Author : Michael P. Toglia
ISBN : 0805851518
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 50. 34 MB
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The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology presents a survey of research and legal opinions from international experts on the rapidly expanding scientific literature addressing the accuracy and limitations of eyewitnesses as a source of evidence for the courts. For the first time, extensive reviews of factors influencing witnesses of all ages—children, adults, and the elderly—are compiled in a single pair of volumes. The disparate research currently being conducted in eyewitness memory in psychology, criminal justice, and legal studies is coherently presented in this work. Controversial topics such as the use of hypnosis, false and recovered memories, the impact of stress, and the accuracy of psychologically impaired witnesses are expertly examined. Leading eyewitness researchers also discuss the subjects of conversational memory, alibi evidence, witness credibility, facial memory, earwitness testimony, lineup theory, and expert testimony. The impact of witness testimony in court is considered, and each volume concludes with a legal commentary chapter. The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology is an invaluable aid to researchers, legal scholars, and practicing lawyers who need access to the most recent research in the field, accompanied by the interpretations and commentary of many of the world's leading authorities on these topics.

Mistaken Identification

Author : Brian L. Cutler
ISBN : 0521445728
Genre : Law
File Size : 30. 55 MB
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Examines traditional safeguards against mistaken eyewitness identification.

The Psychology Of Eyewitness Testimony

Author : A. Daniel Yarmey
ISBN : UOM:39015000580913
Genre : Law
File Size : 65. 56 MB
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Reform Of Eyewitness Identification Procedures

Author : Brian L. Cutler
ISBN : 1433812835
Genre : Law
File Size : 38. 88 MB
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"Psychologists now have a solid understanding of such issues as the effects of suggestive questioning on eyewitness reports, the suggestibility of children, methods of improving eyewitness interviews, the effects of crime factors on identification accuracy, the relation between confidence and identification accuracy, methods of improving identification accuracy, and the effectiveness of safeguards designed to protect defendants from wrongful conviction in eyewitness cases. In this volume, authors focus narrowly on methods of improving identification accuracy. Several factors point to the need for a thorough treatment on this topic"--Introduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Eyewitness Testimony

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ISBN : 9994814648
Genre :
File Size : 43. 30 MB
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The Elderly Eyewitness In Court

Author : Michael P. Toglia
ISBN : 9781317803003
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 25. 23 MB
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The majority of research on eyewitness memory has traditionally studied children and young adults. By contrast, this volume is designed to provide an overview of empirical research on the cognitive, social, and health related factors that impact the accuracy of eyewitness testimony given by the elderly. The book takes a lifespan developmental perspective that incorporates research on witnesses of all ages, but uses the findings to focus on issues unique to the elderly. This includes research on recognition memory with lineup identifications and recall memory that occurs when an elderly witness is asked to describe an event in court. The Elderly Eyewitness also examines jurors’ reactions to the testimony of an elderly witness, and the legal and social policy issues that emerge when the elderly witness participate in legal proceedings. While reviewing what is known about the elderly witness, the book also provides a direction for future research into this new frontier of scientific inquiry. Its audience spans researchers in cognitive and developmental psychology, and professionals working in the growing area of psychology and law.

Conviction Of The Innocent

Author : Brian L. Cutler
ISBN : 1433810212
Genre : Law
File Size : 36. 41 MB
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Over the last several decades over 250 citizens convicted of major felonies were found innocent and were exonerated. Today, thanks to the work of psychologists and other criminal justice researchers, the psychological foundations that underlie conviction of the innocent are becoming clear. There is real hope that these findings can lead to positive reforms, reduce the risk of miscarriages of justice, and avoid the consequences of wrongful convictions to victims and society. In this book, Editor Brian Cutler presents a state-of-the-field review of current psychological research on conviction of the innocent. Chapter authors investigate how the roles played by suspects, investigators, eyewitnesses, and trial witnesses and how pervasive systemic issues contribute to conspire to increase the risk of conviction of the innocent. The chapters skillfully examine psychological perspectives on such topics as police interrogations, confessions, eyewitness identification, trial procedures, juries, and forensic science, as well as broader issues such as racism and tunnel vision within the justice system. This comprehensive volume represents an important milestone for research on miscarriages of justice. By bringing psychological theories and research to bear on this social problem, the authors derive compelling recommendations for future research and practical reform in police and legal procedures.

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