pure inductive logic perspectives in logic

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Pure Inductive Logic

Author : Jeffrey Paris
ISBN : 9781316393079
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 30. 98 MB
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Pure inductive logic is the study of rational probability treated as a branch of mathematical logic. This monograph, the first devoted to this approach, brings together the key results from the past seventy years plus the main contributions of the authors and their collaborators over the last decade to present a comprehensive account of the discipline within a single unified context. The exposition is structured around the traditional bases of rationality, such as avoiding Dutch Books, respecting symmetry and ignoring irrelevant information. The authors uncover further rationality concepts, both in the unary and in the newly emerging polyadic languages, such as conformity, spectrum exchangeability, similarity and language invariance. For logicians with a mathematical grounding, this book provides a complete self-contained course on the subject, taking the reader from the basics up to the most recent developments. It is also a useful reference for a wider audience from philosophy and computer science.

Logic Without Borders

Author : Åsa Hirvonen
ISBN : 9781614516873
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 67. 6 MB
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In recent years, mathematical logic has developed in many directions, the initial unity of its subject matter giving way to a myriad of seemingly unrelated areas. The articles collected here, which range from historical scholarship to recent research in geometric model theory, squarely address this development. These articles also connect to the diverse work of Väänänen, whose ecumenical approach to logic reflects the unity of the discipline.

Proofs And Computations

Author : Helmut Schwichtenberg
ISBN : 9781139504164
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 20. 25 MB
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Driven by the question, 'What is the computational content of a (formal) proof?', this book studies fundamental interactions between proof theory and computability. It provides a unique self-contained text for advanced students and researchers in mathematical logic and computer science. Part I covers basic proof theory, computability and Gödel's theorems. Part II studies and classifies provable recursion in classical systems, from fragments of Peano arithmetic up to Π11–CA0. Ordinal analysis and the (Schwichtenberg–Wainer) subrecursive hierarchies play a central role and are used in proving the 'modified finite Ramsey' and 'extended Kruskal' independence results for PA and Π11–CA0. Part III develops the theoretical underpinnings of the first author's proof assistant MINLOG. Three chapters cover higher-type computability via information systems, a constructive theory TCF of computable functionals, realizability, Dialectica interpretation, computationally significant quantifiers and connectives and polytime complexity in a two-sorted, higher-type arithmetic with linear logic.

Logic In Reality

Author : JOSEPH BRENNER
ISBN : 9781402083754
Genre : Philosophy
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This book is both dif?cult and rewarding, affording a new perspective on logic and reality, basically seen in terms of change and stability, being and becoming. Most importantly it exemplifies a mode of doing philosophy of science that seems a welcome departure from the traditional focus on purely analytic arguments. The author approaches ontology, metaphysics, and logic as having offered a number of ways of constructing the description of reality, and aims at deepening their relationships in a new way. Going beyond the mere abstract and formal aspects of logical analysis, he offers a new architecture of logic that sees it as applied not only to the “reasoning processes” belonging to the first disciplinary group – ontology – but also directly concerned with en- ties, events, and phenomena studied by the second one – metaphysics. It is the task of the book to elaborate such a constructive logic, both by offering a lo- cal view of the structure of the reality in general and by proffering a wealth of models able to encompass its implications for science. In turning from the merely formal to the constructive account of logic Brenner overcomes the limitation of logic to linguistic concepts so that it can be not only a logic “of” reality but also “in” that reality which is constitutively characterized by a number of fundamental dualities (observer and observed, self and not-self, internal and external, etc.

Lectures On Inductive Logic

Author : Jon Williamson
ISBN : 9780199666478
Genre :
File Size : 67. 9 MB
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Logic is a field studied mainly by researchers and students of philosophy, mathematics and computing. Inductive logic seeks to determine the extent to which the premisses of an argument entail its conclusion, aiming to provide a theory of how one should reason in the face of uncertainty. It has applications to decision making and artificial intelligence, as well as how scientists should reason when not in possession of the full facts. In this book, Jon Williamson embarks on a quest to find a general, reasonable, applicable inductive logic (GRAIL), all the while examining why pioneers such as Ludwig Wittgenstein and Rudolf Carnap did not entirely succeed in this task. Along the way he presents a general framework for the field, and reaches a new inductive logic, which builds upon recent developments in Bayesian epistemology (a theory about how strongly one should believe the various propositions that one can express). The book explores this logic in detail, discusses some key criticisms, and considers how it might be justified. Is this truly the GRAIL? Although the book presents new research, this material is well suited to being delivered as a series of lectures to students of philosophy, mathematics, or computing and doubles as an introduction to the field of inductive logic

Lambda Calculus With Types

Author : Henk Barendregt
ISBN : 9781107276345
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 40. 50 MB
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This handbook with exercises reveals in formalisms, hitherto mainly used for hardware and software design and verification, unexpected mathematical beauty. The lambda calculus forms a prototype universal programming language, which in its untyped version is related to Lisp, and was treated in the first author's classic The Lambda Calculus (1984). The formalism has since been extended with types and used in functional programming (Haskell, Clean) and proof assistants (Coq, Isabelle, HOL), used in designing and verifying IT products and mathematical proofs. In this book, the authors focus on three classes of typing for lambda terms: simple types, recursive types and intersection types. It is in these three formalisms of terms and types that the unexpected mathematical beauty is revealed. The treatment is authoritative and comprehensive, complemented by an exhaustive bibliography, and numerous exercises are provided to deepen the readers' understanding and increase their confidence using types.

Metamathematics Of First Order Arithmetic

Author : Petr Hájek
ISBN : 9781316739457
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 50. 37 MB
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Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. This volume, the third publication in the Perspectives in Logic series, is a much-needed monograph on the metamathematics of first-order arithmetic. The authors pay particular attention to subsystems (fragments) of Peano arithmetic and give the reader a deeper understanding of the role of the axiom schema of induction and of the phenomenon of incompleteness. The reader is only assumed to know the basics of mathematical logic, which are reviewed in the preliminaries. Part I develops parts of mathematics and logic in various fragments. Part II is devoted to incompleteness. Finally, Part III studies systems that have the induction schema restricted to bounded formulas (bounded arithmetic).

Higher Recursion Theory

Author : Gerald E. Sacks
ISBN : 9781107168435
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 82. 4 MB
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Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. This volume, the second publication in the Perspectives in Logic series, is an almost self-contained introduction to higher recursion theory, in which the reader is only assumed to know the basics of classical recursion theory. The book is divided into four parts: hyperarithmetic sets, metarecursion, α-recursion, and E-recursion. This text is essential reading for all researchers in the field.

The Logic Of Scientific Discovery

Author : Karl Popper
ISBN : 9781134470020
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 90. 24 MB
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Described by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as post-war philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day.

The Principles Of Empirical Or Inductive Logic

Author : John Venn
ISBN : UOM:39015027804015
Genre : Induction (Logic)
File Size : 76. 39 MB
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