randomized phase ii cancer clinical trials chapman hall crc biostatistics series

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Randomized Phase Ii Cancer Clinical Trials

Author : Sin-Ho Jung
ISBN : 9781439871850
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 36. 97 MB
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In cancer research, a traditional phase II trial is designed as a single-arm trial that compares the experimental therapy to a historical control. This simple trial design has led to several adverse issues, including increased false positivity of phase II trial results and negative phase III trials. To rectify these problems, oncologists and biostatisticians have begun to use a randomized phase II trial that compares an experimental therapy with a prospective control therapy. Randomized Phase II Cancer Clinical Trials explains how to properly select and accurately use diverse statistical methods for designing and analyzing phase II trials. The author first reviews the statistical methods for single-arm phase II trials since some methodologies for randomized phase II trials stem from single-arm phase II trials and many phase II cancer clinical trials still use single-arm designs. The book then presents methods for randomized phase II trials and describes statistical methods for both single-arm and randomized phase II trials. Although the text focuses on phase II cancer clinical trials, the statistical methods covered can also be used (with minor modifications) in phase II trials for other diseases and in phase III cancer clinical trials. Suitable for cancer clinicians and biostatisticians, this book shows how randomized phase II trials with a prospective control resolve the shortcomings of traditional single-arm phase II trials. It provides readers with numerous statistical design and analysis methods for randomized phase II trials in oncology.

Bayesian Adaptive Methods For Clinical Trials

Author : Scott M. Berry
ISBN : 1439825513
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 47. 54 MB
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Already popular in the analysis of medical device trials, adaptive Bayesian designs are increasingly being used in drug development for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, from Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis to obesity, diabetes, hepatitis C, and HIV. Written by leading pioneers of Bayesian clinical trial designs, Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials explores the growing role of Bayesian thinking in the rapidly changing world of clinical trial analysis. The book first summarizes the current state of clinical trial design and analysis and introduces the main ideas and potential benefits of a Bayesian alternative. It then gives an overview of basic Bayesian methodological and computational tools needed for Bayesian clinical trials. With a focus on Bayesian designs that achieve good power and Type I error, the next chapters present Bayesian tools useful in early (Phase I) and middle (Phase II) clinical trials as well as two recent Bayesian adaptive Phase II studies: the BATTLE and ISPY-2 trials. In the following chapter on late (Phase III) studies, the authors emphasize modern adaptive methods and seamless Phase II–III trials for maximizing information usage and minimizing trial duration. They also describe a case study of a recently approved medical device to treat atrial fibrillation. The concluding chapter covers key special topics, such as the proper use of historical data, equivalence studies, and subgroup analysis. For readers involved in clinical trials research, this book significantly updates and expands their statistical toolkits. The authors provide many detailed examples drawing on real data sets. The R and WinBUGS codes used throughout are available on supporting websites. Scott Berry talks about the book on the CRC Press YouTube Channel.

Modern Adaptive Randomized Clinical Trials

Author : Oleksandr Sverdlov
ISBN : 9781482239898
Genre : Mathematics
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Is adaptive randomization always better than traditional fixed-schedule randomization? Which procedures should be used and under which circumstances? What special considerations are required for adaptive randomized trials? What kind of statistical inference should be used to achieve valid and unbiased treatment comparisons following adaptive randomization designs? Modern Adaptive Randomized Clinical Trials: Statistical and Practical Aspects answers these questions and more. From novel designs to cutting-edge applications, this book presents several new and key developments in adaptive randomization. It also offers a fresh and critical look at a number of already-classical topics. Featuring contributions from statisticians, clinical trialists, and subject-matter experts in academia and the pharmaceutical industry, the text: Clarifies the taxonomy of the concept of adaptive randomization Discusses restricted, covariate-adaptive, response-adaptive, and covariate-adjusted response-adaptive (CARA) randomization designs, as well as randomized designs with treatment selection Gives an exposition to many novel adaptive randomization techniques such as brick tunnel randomization, targeted least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-based CARA randomization, multi-arm multi-stage (MAMS) designs, to name a few Addresses the issues of statistical inference following covariate-adaptive and response-adaptive randomization designs Describes a successful implementation of a single pivotal phase II/III adaptive trial in infants with proliferating hemangioma Explores some practical aspects of phase II dose-ranging studies and examines statistical monitoring and interim analysis issues in response-adaptive randomized clinical trials Modern Adaptive Randomized Clinical Trials: Statistical and Practical Aspects covers a wide spectrum of topics related to adaptive randomization designs in contemporary clinical trials. The book provides a thorough exploration of the merits of adaptive randomization and aids in identifying when it is appropriate to apply such designs in practice.

Bayesian Designs For Phase I Ii Clinical Trials

Author : Ying Yuan
ISBN : 9781498709569
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 60. 89 MB
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Reliably optimizing a new treatment in humans is a critical first step in clinical evaluation since choosing a suboptimal dose or schedule may lead to failure in later trials. At the same time, if promising preclinical results do not translate into a real treatment advance, it is important to determine this quickly and terminate the clinical evaluation process to avoid wasting resources. Bayesian Designs for Phase I–II Clinical Trials describes how phase I–II designs can serve as a bridge or protective barrier between preclinical studies and large confirmatory clinical trials. It illustrates many of the severe drawbacks with conventional methods used for early-phase clinical trials and presents numerous Bayesian designs for human clinical trials of new experimental treatment regimes. The first two chapters minimize the technical language to make them accessible to non-statisticians. These chapters discuss the severe drawbacks of the conventional paradigm used for early-phase clinical trials and explain the phase I–II paradigm for optimizing dose, or more general treatment regimes, based on both efficacy and toxicity. The remainder of the book covers a wide variety of clinical trial methodologies, including designs to optimize the dose pair of a two-drug combination, jointly optimize dose and schedule, identify optimal personalized doses, optimize novel molecularly targeted agents, and choose doses in two treatment cycles. Written by research leaders from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, this book shows how Bayesian designs for early-phase clinical trials can explore, refine, and optimize new experimental treatments. It emphasizes the importance of basing decisions on both efficacy and toxicity.

Advances In Clinical Trial Biostatistics

Author : Nancy L. Geller
ISBN : 0824790324
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 46. 78 MB
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From aspects of early trials to complex modeling problems, Advances in Clinical Trial Biostatistics summarizes current methodologies used in the design and analysis of clinical trials. Its chapters, contributed by internationally renowned methodologists experienced in clinical trials, address topics that include Bayesian methods for phase I clinical trials, adaptive two-stage clinical trials, and the design and analysis of cluster randomization trials, trials with multiple endpoints, and therapeutic equivalence trials. Other discussions explore Bayesian reporting, methods incorporating compliance in treatment evaluation, and statistical issues emerging from clinical trials in HIV infection.

Statistical Design And Analysis Of Clinical Trials

Author : Weichung Joe Shih
ISBN : 9781482250503
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 22. 98 MB
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Statistical Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Principles and Methods concentrates on the biostatistics component of clinical trials. Developed from the authors’ courses taught to public health and medical students, residents, and fellows during the past 15 years, the text shows how biostatistics in clinical trials is an integration of many fundamental scientific principles and statistical methods. Teach Your Students How to Design, Monitor, and Analyze Clinical Trials The book begins with ethical and safety principles, core trial design concepts, the principles and methods of sample size and power calculation, and analysis of covariance and stratified analysis. It then focuses on sequential designs and methods for two-stage Phase II cancer trials to Phase III group sequential trials, covering monitoring safety, futility, and efficacy. The authors also discuss the development of sample size reestimation and adaptive group sequential procedures, explain the concept of different missing data processes, and describe how to analyze incomplete data by proper multiple imputations. Turn Your Students into Better Clinical Trial Investigators This text reflects the academic research, commercial development, and public health aspects of clinical trials. It gives students a multidisciplinary understanding of the concepts and techniques involved in designing and analyzing various types of trials. The book’s balanced set of homework assignments and in-class exercises are appropriate for students in (bio)statistics, epidemiology, medicine, pharmacy, and public health.

Clinical Trial Biostatistics And Biopharmaceutical Applications

Author : Walter R. Young
ISBN : 9781482212181
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 66. 14 MB
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Since 1945, "The Annual Deming Conference on Applied Statistics" has been an important event in the statistics profession. In Clinical Trial Biostatistics and Biopharmaceutical Applications, prominent speakers from past Deming conferences present novel biostatistical methodologies in clinical trials as well as up-to-date biostatistical applications from the pharmaceutical industry. Divided into five sections, the book begins with emerging issues in clinical trial design and analysis, including the roles of modeling and simulation, the pros and cons of randomization procedures, the design of Phase II dose-ranging trials, thorough QT/QTc clinical trials, and assay sensitivity and the constancy assumption in noninferiority trials. The second section examines adaptive designs in drug development, discusses the consequences of group-sequential and adaptive designs, and illustrates group sequential design in R. The third section focuses on oncology clinical trials, covering competing risks, escalation with overdose control (EWOC) dose finding, and interval-censored time-to-event data. In the fourth section, the book describes multiple test problems with applications to adaptive designs, graphical approaches to multiple testing, the estimation of simultaneous confidence intervals for multiple comparisons, and weighted parametric multiple testing methods. The final section discusses the statistical analysis of biomarkers from omics technologies, biomarker strategies applicable to clinical development, and the statistical evaluation of surrogate endpoints. This book clarifies important issues when designing and analyzing clinical trials, including several misunderstood and unresolved challenges. It will help readers choose the right method for their biostatistical application. Each chapter is self-contained with references.

Sample Size Calculations In Clinical Research Third Edition

Author : Shein-Chung Chow
ISBN : 9781351727112
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 36. 81 MB
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Praise for the Second Edition: "... this is a useful, comprehensive compendium of almost every possible sample size formula. The strong organization and carefully defined formulae will aid any researcher designing a study." -Biometrics "This impressive book contains formulae for computing sample size in a wide range of settings. One-sample studies and two-sample comparisons for quantitative, binary, and time-to-event outcomes are covered comprehensively, with separate sample size formulae for testing equality, non-inferiority, and equivalence. Many less familiar topics are also covered ..." – Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Third Edition presents statistical procedures for performing sample size calculations during various phases of clinical research and development. A comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical concepts and practical applications, this book includes a well-balanced summary of current and emerging clinical issues, regulatory requirements, and recently developed statistical methodologies for sample size calculation. Features: Compares the relative merits and disadvantages of statistical methods for sample size calculations Explains how the formulae and procedures for sample size calculations can be used in a variety of clinical research and development stages Presents real-world examples from several therapeutic areas, including cardiovascular medicine, the central nervous system, anti-infective medicine, oncology, and women’s health Provides sample size calculations for dose response studies, microarray studies, and Bayesian approaches This new edition is updated throughout, includes many new sections, and five new chapters on emerging topics: two stage seamless adaptive designs, cluster randomized trial design, zero-inflated Poisson distribution, clinical trials with extremely low incidence rates, and clinical trial simulation. ?

Fundamental Concepts For New Clinical Trialists

Author : Scott Evans
ISBN : 9781498767101
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 84. 55 MB
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Fundamental Concepts for New Clinical Trialists describes the core scientific concepts of designing, data monitoring, analyzing, and reporting clinical trials as well as the practical aspects of trials not typically discussed in statistical methodology textbooks. The first section of the book provides background information about clinical trials. It defines and compares clinical trials to other types of research studies and discusses clinical trial phases, registration, the protocol document, ethical issues, product development, and regulatory processes. It also includes a special chapter outlining the valuable attributes that statisticians can develop to maximize their contributions to a clinical trial. The second section examines scientific issues faced in each progressive step of a clinical trial. It covers issues in trial design, such as randomization, blinding, control-group selection, endpoint selection, superiority versus noninferiority, and parallel group versus crossover designs; data monitoring; analyses of efficacy, safety, and benefit-risk; and the reporting/publication of clinical trial results. As clinical trials remain the gold standard research studies for evaluating the effects of a medical intervention, newcomers to the field must have a fundamental understanding of the concepts to tackle real-world issues in all stages of trials. Drawing on their experiences in academia and industry, the authors provide a foundation for understanding the fundamental concepts necessary for working in clinical trials.

Data And Safety Monitoring Committees In Clinical Trials

Author : Jay Herson
ISBN : 9781351722377
Genre : Medical
File Size : 39. 16 MB
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Focusing on the practical clinical and statistical issues that arise in pharmaceutical industry trials, this book summarizes the author’s experience in serving on many data monitoring committees (DMCs) and in heading up a contract research organization that provided statistical support to nearly seventy-five DMCs. It explains the difference in DMC operations between the pharmaceutical industry and National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored trials. Leading you through the types of reports for adverse events and lab values, the author presents the statistical requirements of data monitoring committees and gives advice on how statisticians can best interact with physician members of these committees. He also shows how physicians think differently about safety data than statisticians, proving that both views are needed.

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