realising farmers rights to crop genetic resources success stories and best practices

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Realising Farmers Rights To Crop Genetic Resources

Author : Regine Andersen
ISBN : 9781136157684
Genre : Law
File Size : 77. 71 MB
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Farmers' Rights are essential for maintaining crop genetic diversity, which is the basis of all food and agricultural production in the world. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture recognizes Farmers' Rights and provides for relevant measures. However, implementation is slow, and in many countries there is resistance. This book shows the necessity of realizing Farmers' Rights for poverty alleviation and food security, the practical possibilities of doing so, and the potential gains for development and society at large. It provides decision-makers and practitioners with a conceptual framework for understanding Farmers’ Rights and success stories showing how each of the elements of Farmers' Rights can be realized in practice. The success stories have brought substantial achievements as regards one or more of the four elements of Farmers' Rights: the rights of farmers to save, use, exchange and sell farm-saved seed; the protection of traditional knowledge; benefit- sharing; and participation in decision-making. This does not mean that these examples are perfect. Challenges encountered on the way are conveyed and offer important lessons. The stories represent different regions and localities, including Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America, as well as various categories of stakeholders and types of initiatives and policies.

Trips Plus 20

Author : Hanns Ullrich
ISBN : 9783662481073
Genre : Law
File Size : 63. 35 MB
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This book examines the impact and shortcomings of the TRIPS Agreement, which was signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. Over the last 20 years, the framework conditions have changed fundamentally. New technologies have emerged, markets have expanded beyond national borders, some developing states have become global players, the terms of international competition have changed, and the intellectual property system faces increasing friction with public policies. The contributions to this book inquire into whether the TRIPS Agreement should still be seen only as part of an international trade regulation, or whether it needs to be understood – or even reconceptualized – as a framework regulation for the international protection of intellectual property. The purpose, therefore, is not to define the terms of an outright revision of the TRIPS Agreement but rather to discuss the framework conditions for an interpretative evolution that could make the Agreement better suited to the expectations and needs of today’s global economy.

Farmers Rights

Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
ISBN : 9789251099322
Genre : Juvenile Fiction
File Size : 80. 25 MB
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Farmers’ rights refer to rights arising from the past, present and future contributions of farmers in conserving, improving, and making available plant genetic resources. This educational module explains the foundation of the concept and outlines the important role played by farmers and local and indigenous communities in the conservation and sustainable management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.

Research Handbook On Intellectual Property And The Life Sciences

Author : Duncan Matthews
ISBN : 9781783479450
Genre :
File Size : 33. 63 MB
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Intellectual property (IP) is a key component of the life sciences, one of the most dynamic and innovative fields of technology today. At the same time, the relationship between IP and the life sciences raises new public policy dilemmas. The Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and the Life Sciences comprises contributions by leading experts from academia and industry to provide in-depth analyses of key topics including pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and genes, plant innovations, stem cells, the role of competition law and access to medicines. The Research Handbook focuses on the relationship between IP and the life sciences in Europe and the United States, complemented by country-specific case studies on Australia, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Kenya, South Africa and Thailand to provide a truly international perspective.

Governing Agrobiodiversity

Author : Regine Andersen
ISBN : 9781317125747
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 41. 21 MB
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Plant genetic diversity is crucial to the breeding of food crops and is therefore a central precondition for food security. Diverse genetic resources provide the genetic traits required to deal with crop pests and diseases, as well as changing climate conditions. Plant genetic diversity is also essential for traditional small-scale farming, and is therefore an indispensable factor in the fight against poverty. However, the diversity of domesticated plant varieties is disappearing at an alarming rate while interest in the commercial use of genetic resources has increased in line with bio-technologies, followed by demands for intellectual property rights. This important book contributes to our understanding of how international regimes affect the management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in developing countries. It identifies entry points to shape a better governance of agrobiodiversity and provides the first comprehensive analysis of how the international agreements pertaining to crop genetic resources affect the management of these vital resources for food security and poverty eradication in developing countries.

Community Seed Banks

Author : Ronnie Vernooy
ISBN : 9781134608539
Genre : Nature
File Size : 76. 31 MB
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Community seed banks first appeared towards the end of the 1980s, established with the support of international and national non-governmental organizations. This book is the first to provide a global review of their development and includes a wide range of case studies. Countries that pioneered various types of community seed banks include Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nicaragua, the Philippines and Zimbabwe. In the North, a particular type of community seed bank emerged known as a seed-savers network. Such networks were first established in Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA before spreading to other countries. Over time, the number and diversity of seed banks has grown. In Nepal, for example, there are now more than 100 self-described community seed banks whose functions range from pure conservation to commercial seed production. In Brazil, community seed banks operate in various regions of the country. Surprisingly, despite 25 years of history and the rapid growth in number, organizational diversity and geographical coverage of community seed banks, recognition of their roles and contributions has remained scanty. The book reviews their history, evolution, experiences, successes and failures (and reasons why), challenges and prospects. It fills a significant gap in the literature on agricultural biodiversity and conservation, and their contribution to food sovereignty and security.

Plant Genetic Resources And Food Security

Author : Christine Frison
ISBN : 9781136536830
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 48. 77 MB
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The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) is a pivotal piece of recent legislation, providing a route map for the use of such resources for sustainable agriculture and food security. Plant Genetic Resources and Food Security explains clearly the different interests and views at stake between all players in the global food chain. It touches upon many issues such as international food governance and policy, economic aspects of food and seed trade, conservation and sustainable use of food and agricultural biodiversity, hunger alleviation, ecological concerns, consumers' protection, fairness and equity between nations and generations, plant breeding techniques and socio-economic benefits related to food local economies. The book shows that despite the conflicting interests at stake, players managed to come to an agreement on food and agriculture for the sake of food security and hunger alleviation in the world. Published with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and with Bioversity International.

Broadening The Genetic Base Of Crop Production

Author : H. David Cooper
ISBN : 9780851994116
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 21. 52 MB
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This book focuses on the previously neglected interface between the conservation of plant genetic resources and their utilization. Only through utilization can the potential value of conserved genetic resources be realized. However, as this book shows, much conserved germplan has to be subjected to long term pre-breeding and genetic enhancement before it can be used in plant breeding programs. The authors explore the rationale and approaches for such pre-breeding efforts as the basis for broadening the genetic bases of crop production. Examples from a range of major food crops are presented and issues are analyzed by leading authorities from around the world.

Agrobiodiversity And The Law

Author : Juliana Santilli
ISBN : 9781136580024
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 89 MB
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A wide range of crop genetic resources is vital for future food security. Loss of agricultural biodiversity increases the risk of relying on a limited number of staple food crops. However, many laws, such as seed laws, plant varieties protection and access and benefit-sharing laws, have direct impacts on agrobiodiversity, and their effects have been severely underestimated by policy-makers. This is of concern not only to lawyers, but also to agronomists, biologists, and social scientists, all of whom need clear guidance as to the relevance of the law to their work. This book analyzes the impact of the legal system on agrobiodiversity (or agricultural biodiversity) – the diversity of agricultural species, varieties, and ecosystems. Using an interdisciplinary approach, it takes up the emerging concept of agrobiodiversity and its relationship with food security, nutrition, health, environmental sustainability, and climate change. It assesses the impacts on agrobiodiversity of key legal instruments, including seeds laws, the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, plant breeders’ rights, the Convention on Biological Diversity (regarding specifically its impact on agrobiodiversity), and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. It also reviews the options for the implementation of these instruments at the national level in several countries. It discusses the interfaces between the free software movement, the ‘commons’ movement, and seeds, as well as the legal instruments to protect cultural heritage and their application to safeguard agrobiodiversity-rich systems. Finally, it analyzes the role of protected areas and the possibility of using geographical indications to enhance the value of agrobiodiversity products and processes.

Global Governance Of Genetic Resources

Author : Sebastian Oberthür
ISBN : 9781135135485
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 47. 56 MB
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This book analyses the status and prospects of the global governance of Access Benefit Sharing (ABS) in the aftermath of 2010’s Nagoya Protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The CBD’s initial 1992 framework of global ABS governance established the objective of sharing the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources fairly between countries and communities. Since then, ABS has been a contested issue in international politics – not least due to the failure of effective implementation of the original CBD framework. The Nagoya Protocol therefore aims to improve and enhance this framework. Compared to the slow rate of progress on climate change, it has been considered a major achievement of global environmental governance, but it has also been coined a ‘masterpiece of ambiguity’. This book analyses the role of a variety of actors in the emergence of the Nagoya Protocol and provides an up-to-date assessment of the core features of the architecture of global ABS governance. This book offers a central resource regarding ABS governance for those working on and interested in global environmental governance. This is achieved by focusing on two broad themes of the wider research agenda on global environmental governance, namely architecture and agency. Furthermore, individual chapter contributions relate and link ABS governance to other prominent debates in the field, such as institutional complexes, compliance, market-based approaches, EU leadership, the role of small states, the role of non-state actors and more. Partly due to its seeming technical complexity, ABS governance has so far not been at the centre of attention of scholars and practitioners of global environmental governance. In this book, care is taken to provide an accessible account of key functional features of the governance system which enables non-specialists to gain a grasp on the main issues involved, allowing the issue of ABS governance to move centre-stage and be more fully recognised in discussions on global environmental governance.

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