reason s nearest kin philosophies of arithmetic from kant to carnap

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Reason S Nearest Kin

Author : Michael Potter
ISBN : 9780198250418
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 62. 27 MB
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How do we account for the truth of arithmetic? And if it does not depend for its truth on the way the world is, what constrains the world to conform to arithmetic? Reason's Nearest Kin is a critical examination of the astonishing progress made towards answering these questions from the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. In the space of fifty years Frege, Dedekind, Russell, Wittgenstein, Ramsey, Hilbert, and Carnap developed accounts of the content of arithmeticthat were brilliantly original both technically and philosophically. Michael Potter's innovative study presents them all as finding that content in various aspects of the complex linkage between experience, language, thought, and the world. Potter's reading places them all in Kant's shadow since it was hisattempt to ground arithmetic in the spatio-temporal structure of reality that they were reacting against; but it places us in Gödel's shadow since his incompleteness theorems supply us with a measure of the richness of the content they were trying to explain. This stimulating reassessment of some of the classic texts in the philosophy of mathematics reveals many unexpected connections and illuminating comparisons, and offers a wealth of ideas for future work in the subject.

The Oxford Handbook Of Philosophy Of Mathematics And Logic

Author : Stewart Shapiro
ISBN : 9780198033998
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 54. 70 MB
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Mathematics and logic have been central topics of concern since the dawn of philosophy. Since logic is the study of correct reasoning, it is a fundamental branch of epistemology and a priority in any philosophical system. Philosophers have focused on mathematics as a case study for general philosophical issues and for its role in overall knowledge- gathering. Today, philosophy of mathematics and logic remain central disciplines in contemporary philosophy, as evidenced by the regular appearance of articles on these topics in the best mainstream philosophical journals; in fact, the last decade has seen an explosion of scholarly work in these areas. This volume covers these disciplines in a comprehensive and accessible manner, giving the reader an overview of the major problems, positions, and battle lines. The 26 contributed chapters are by established experts in the field, and their articles contain both exposition and criticism as well as substantial development of their own positions. The essays, which are substantially self-contained, serve both to introduce the reader to the subject and to engage in it at its frontiers. Certain major positions are represented by two chapters--one supportive and one critical. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Math and Logic is a ground-breaking reference like no other in its field. It is a central resource to those wishing to learn about the philosophy of mathematics and the philosophy of logic, or some aspect thereof, and to those who actively engage in the discipline, from advanced undergraduates to professional philosophers, mathematicians, and historians.

The Limits Of Logical Empiricism

Author : Arthur Pap
ISBN : 1402042981
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 20. 52 MB
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Arthur Pap's work played an important role in the development of the analytic tradition. This role goes beyond the historical fact that Pap's views of dispositional and modal concepts were influential. His philosophical preoccupation, the concepts of necessity and possibility, provides solutions on issues of concern in the metaphysics of modality.

Set Theory And Its Philosophy

Author : Michael Potter
ISBN : 9780191556432
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 26. 69 MB
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Michael Potter presents a comprehensive new philosophical introduction to set theory. Anyone wishing to work on the logical foundations of mathematics must understand set theory, which lies at its heart. Potter offers a thorough account of cardinal and ordinal arithmetic, and the various axiom candidates. He discusses in detail the project of set-theoretic reduction, which aims to interpret the rest of mathematics in terms of set theory. The key question here is how to deal with the paradoxes that bedevil set theory. Potter offers a strikingly simple version of the most widely accepted response to the paradoxes, which classifies sets by means of a hierarchy of levels. What makes the book unique is that it interweaves a careful presentation of the technical material with a penetrating philosophical critique. Potter does not merely expound the theory dogmatically but at every stage discusses in detail the reasons that can be offered for believing it to be true. Set Theory and its Philosophy is a key text for philosophy, mathematical logic, and computer science.

Mathematical Reviews

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015056616694
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 28. 93 MB
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The Social Life Of Numbers

Author : Gary Urton
ISBN : 9780292786844
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 33. 44 MB
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Unraveling all the mysteries of the khipu—the knotted string device used by the Inka to record both statistical data and narrative accounts of myths, histories, and genealogies—will require an understanding of how number values and relations may have been used to encode information on social, familial, and political relationships and structures. This is the problem Gary Urton tackles in his pathfinding study of the origin, meaning, and significance of numbers and the philosophical principles underlying the practice of arithmetic among Quechua-speaking peoples of the Andes. Based on fieldwork in communities around Sucre, in south-central Bolivia, Urton argues that the origin and meaning of numbers were and are conceived of by Quechua-speaking peoples in ways similar to their ideas about, and formulations of, gender, age, and social relations. He also demonstrates that their practice of arithmetic is based on a well-articulated body of philosophical principles and values that reflects a continuous attempt to maintain balance, harmony, and equilibrium in the material, social, and moral spheres of community life.

The Concept Horse Paradox And Wittgensteinian Conceptual Investigations

Author : Dr Kelly Dean Jolley
ISBN : 9781409485483
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 87. 39 MB
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In The Foundations of Arithmetic, Gottlob Frege contended that the difference between concepts and objects was absolute. He meant that no object could be a concept and no concept an object. Benno Kerry disagreed; he contended that a concept could be an object, and that therefore the difference between concepts and objects was only relative. In this book, Jolley aims to understand the debate between Frege and Kerry. But Jolley's purpose is not so much to champion either side; rather, it is to utilize an understanding of the debate to shed light on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein-and vice versa. Jolley not only sifts through the debate between Frege and Kerry, but also through subsequent versions of the debate in J. J. Valberg and Wilfred Sellars. Jolley's goal is to show that the central notion of Philosophical Investigations, that of a 'conceptual investigation', is a legacy of the Frege/Kerry debate and also a contribution to it. Jolley concludes that the difference between concepts and objects is as absolute in its way in Philosophical Investigations as it was in The Foundations of Arithmetic and that recognizing the absoluteness of the difference in Philosophical Investigations provides a beginning for a 'resolute' reading of Wittgenstein's book.

Gottlob Frege Basic Laws Of Arithmetic

Author : Gottlob Frege
ISBN : 9780199281749
Genre : Mathematics
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This is the first complete English translation of Gottlob Frege's Grundgesetze der Arithmetik (originally published in two volumes, 1893 and 1903), with introduction and annotation. The importance of Frege's ideas within contemporary philosophy would be hard to exaggerate. He was, to allintents and purposes, the inventor of mathematical logic, and the influence exerted on modern philosophy of language and logic, and indeed on general epistemology, by the philosophical framework within which his technical contributions were conceived and developed has been so deep that he has astrong case to be regarded as the inventor of much of the agenda of modern analytical philosophy itself. Two of Frege's three principal books - the Begriffsschrift (1879) and Grundlagen der Arithmetik (1884) - have been available in English translation for many years, as have all the most important of his other, article-length writings. Grundgesetze was to have been the summit of Frege's life's work -a rigorous demonstration of how the fundamental laws of the classical pure mathematics of the natural and real numbers could be derived from principles which, in his view, were purely logical. A letter received from Bertrand Russell shortly before the publication of the second volume made Fregerealise that Axiom V of his system, governing identity for value-ranges, led to contradiction. But much of the main thrust of Frege's project can be salvaged. The continuing importance of the Grundgesetze lies not only in its bearing on issues in the foundations of mathematics but in its model of philosophical inquiry. Frege's ability to locate the essential questions, his integration of logical and philosophical analysis, and his rigorous approach tocriticism and argument in general are vividly in evidence in this, his most ambitious work.

Origins Of Objectivity

Author : Tyler Burge
ISBN : 9780199581405
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 51. 60 MB
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Tyler Burge's study investigates the most primitive ways in which individuals represent the physical world. By reflecting on the science of perception and related psychological and biological sciences, Burge outlines the constitutive conditions for perceiving the physical world, thus locating the origins of representational mind.

Ramsey S Legacy

Author : Hallvard Lillehammer
ISBN : 9780199279555
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 38. 79 MB
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The Cambridge philosopher Frank Ramsey (1903-1930) died tragically young, but had already established himself as one of the most brilliant minds of the twentieth century. Besides groundbreaking work in philosophy, particularly in logic, language, and metaphysics, he created modern decision theory and made substantial contributions to mathematics and economics. In these original essays, written to commemorate the centenary of Ramsey's birth, a distinguished international team ofcontributors offer fresh perspectives on his work and show how relevant it is to present-day concerns.Each of the ten essays addresses fundamental and contentious issues, including success semantics, propositions, infinity, conditionals, conceptual analysis, decision theory, and intergenerational justice. They also shed light on the intellectual context in which Ramsey developed his thought, including his relationship with such leading thinkers as John Maynard Keynes, Bertrand Russell, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. The volume will be indispensable reading for anyone interested in the recent historyof philosophy and economics, as well as for practitioners and students of logic, metaphysics, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of science, philosophy of mind, decision theory, and welfare economics.

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