reciprocity in international law its impact and function routledge research in international law

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Reciprocity In International Law

Author : Shahrad Nasrolahi Fard
ISBN : 9781317312185
Genre : Law
File Size : 40. 63 MB
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In international relations, reciprocity describes an environment in which States support one another for short- or long-term advantage through the balancing of rights, duties and interests. This book examines reciprocity in the context of international law. It considers the role reciprocity plays in the creation and development of international law as well as in the interpretation and application of international law. The book illuminates the reciprocal framework of international law and international relations by examining the role reciprocity plays in different types of States’ obligations, including bilateral, bilateralisable multilateral, non-bilateralisable multilateral and obligations erga omnes. The book examines how reciprocity is intertwined with the principle of equality, as the rights and obligations of States are equal irrespective of size and economic or military strength, and the beneficial effects of reciprocity in creating stability and cooperation amongst States.

Latin America And The International Court Of Justice

Author : Paula Wojcikiewicz Almeida
ISBN : 9781317511366
Genre : Law
File Size : 69. 23 MB
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This book aims to evaluate the contribution of Latin America to the development of international law at the International Court of Justice (ICJ). This contemporary approach to international adjudication includes the historical contribution of the region to the development of international law through the emergence of international jurisdictions, as well as the procedural and material contribution of the cases submitted by or against Latin American states to the ICJ to the development of international law. The project then conceives international jurisdictions from a multifunctional perspective, which encompasses the Court as both an instrument of the parties and an organ of a value-based international community. This shows how Latin American states have become increasingly committed to the peaceful settlement of disputes and to the promotion of international law through adjudication. It culminates with an expansion of the traditional understanding of the function of the ICJ by Latin American states, including an analysis of existing challenges in the region. The book will be of interest to all those interested in international dispute resolution, including academic libraries, the judiciary, practitioners in international law, government institutions, academics, and students alike.

The Rule Of Unwritten International Law

Author : Peter G. Staubach
ISBN : 9781351207294
Genre : Law
File Size : 58. 64 MB
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This book seeks to re-appreciate the concept of customary international law as a form of spontaneous societal self-organisation, and to develop the methodological consequences that ensue from this conception for the practice of its application. In pursuing this aim, the author draws from three different strands of scholarship that have not yet been considered in connection with one another: First, general jurisprudential theories of customary law; second, theories of customary international law, especially as they relate to international relations scholarship; and third, methodological approaches to the interpretation of international law. This expansive, philosophical layout of the book enables the author to put the conceptual enigmas of customary international law into a broader perspective. Among the issues discussed in the book are the dichotomy of its traditional and modern forms and the respective benefits and disadvantages of inductive and deductive approaches to its ascertainment. In the course of this analysis, the author draws insights from Friedrich August Hayek’s theory of law as a ‘spontaneous order’, an information-processing device which enables the participants of a legal system to make use of decentralised knowledge. The book argues that the major advantage of custom as a source of international law lies in the fact that it is the result of a gradual process of trial and error, rather than the product of deliberate planning. This makes it a particularly apposite source of law in a time of seismic shifts in the distribution of power within a vastly diverse community of States, when a new global order is expected to emerge, the contours of which are not yet clearly discernible. This book applies general concepts of legal philosophy to explain the continuing relevance of custom as a source of international law while at the same time inferring from this theoretical framework concrete practical and methodological consequences, the most important of which is the special role that purposive interpretation plays with respect to rules of international custom. Given this broad approach, the book will be of interest to several groups of potential readers including academics interested in the philosophy of customary law in general, academic international lawyers and legal practitioners, especially judges, scholars of international relations and all those interested in how the international community of States organises itself.

Routledge Handbook Of The Law Of Armed Conflict

Author : Rain Liivoja
ISBN : 0415640377
Genre : Law
File Size : 24. 53 MB
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The law of armed conflict is a key element of the global legal order yet it is recognised that this branch of law is often honoured more in the breach than in the observance. The Routledge Handbook of the Law of Armed Conflict provides a unique perspective on the field covering all the key aspects of the law as well as identifying developing and often contentious areas of interest driven by the changes in the nature of warfare. The handbook will feature original pieces by international experts in the field, including academics, staff of relevant NGOs and former members of the armed forces. Made up of six parts in order to offer a comprehensive overview of the field, the structure of the handbooks is as follows: Part 1: Basics Part 2: Principles of distinction Part 3: Means and method of warfare Part 4: Specially protected persons and objects Part 5: Contemporary issues Part 6: Enforcement Throughout the book attention is paid to non-international conflicts as well as international conflicts with acknowledgement of the differences. The contributors also consider the relationship between the law of armed conflict and human rights law, looking at how the various rules and principles of human rights law interact with specific rules and principles of international humanitarian law in particular circumstances. The Routledge Handbook of the Law of Armed Conflict provides a fresh take on the contemporary laws of war and is written for advanced level students, academics, researchers, NGOs and policy-makers with an interest in the field.

Extracting Accountability From Non State Actors In International Law

Author : Lee James McConnell
ISBN : 9781317220565
Genre : Law
File Size : 69. 2 MB
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The human rights of communities in many resource-rich, weak governance States are adversely affected, not only by the acts of States and their agents, but also by powerful non-State actors. Contemporary phenomena such as globalisation, privatisation and the proliferation of internal armed conflict have all contributed to the increasing public influence of these entities and the correlative decline in State power. This book responds to the persistent challenges stemming from non-State actors linked to extractive industries. In light of the intersecting roles of multinational enterprises and non-State armed groups in this context, these actors are adopted as the primary analytical vehicles. The operations of these entities highlight the practical flaws of existing accountability regimes and permit an exploration of the theoretical challenges that preclude their direct legal regulation at the international level. Drawing insights from discursive democracy, compliance theories and the Pure Theory of Law, the book establishes a conceptual foundation for the creation of binding international obligations addressing non-State actors. Responding to the recent calls for a binding business and human rights treaty at the UN Human Rights Council, and the growing influence of armed non-State actors, the book makes a timely contribution to debates surrounding the direction of future developments in the field of international human rights law.

Educational Reciprocity And Adaptivity

Author : Abe W. Ata
ISBN : 9781351781923
Genre : Education
File Size : 73. 79 MB
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Educational Reciprocity and Adaptability challenges the common belief that adapting to new educational settings is the responsibility of international students alone. The book argues that reciprocal responses are required by students and stakeholders alike for an efficient and equitable accommodation of international students in educational settings. Considering how international students negotiate academic challenges and social tensions, it presents both theoretical frameworks and practical tools to work around the tension regarding ethical academic practices. Crucially exploring these issues across a range of geographical and institutional contexts, and therefore offering critical insights into significant developments in international education across the world, the much-needed research in this edited collection explores: institutional educational policies regarding international students and stakeholders; institutional practices and how they are received; educational adaptability and responses from different stakeholders; the experiences of international students and institutions in negotiating academic and social tensions. This important contribution to research on the experiences of international students in different geographical and educational contexts is of great interest to academics, researchers and postgraduate students in the fields of international education, comparative education, sociology of education, youth studies, intercultural studies, migration studies and TESOL.

Humanization Of Arms Control

Author : Daniel Rietiker
ISBN : 9781315399690
Genre :
File Size : 69. 21 MB
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Despite clear legal rules and political commitments, no significant progress has been made in nuclear disarmament for two decades. Moreover, not even the use of these weapons has been banned to date. New ideas and strategies are therefore necessary. The author explores an alternative approach to arms control focusing on the human dimension rather than on States' security: "humanization" of arms control! The book explores the preparatory work on arms control treaties and in particular the role of civil society. It analyzes the positive experiences of the movements against chemical weapons, anti-personnel mines, and cluster munitions, as well as the recent conclusion of the Arms Control Treaty. The author examines the question of whether civil society will be able to replicate the success strategies that have been used, in particular, in the field of anti-personnel mines (Ottawa Convention) and cluster munitions (Oslo Convention) in the nuclear weapons field. Is there any reason why the most destructive weapons should not be outlawed by a legally binding instrument? The book also explains the effects of weapons, especially nuclear weapons, on human beings, the environment, and global development, thereby focusing on vulnerable groups, such as indigenous peoples, women, and children. It takes a broad approach to human rights, including economic, social, and cultural rights. The author concludes that the use of nuclear weapons is illegal under international humanitarian and human rights law and, moreover, constitutes international crimes under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. In his general conclusions, the author makes concrete proposals for the progress toward a world without nuclear weapons.

Improving International Investment Agreements

Author : Armand De Mestral
ISBN : 9781136260704
Genre : Law
File Size : 76. 42 MB
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This book presents the reflections of a group of researchers interested in assessing whether the law governing the promotion and protection of foreign investment reflects sound public policy. Whether it is the lack of "checks and balances" on investor rights or more broadly the lack of balance between public rights and private interests, the time is ripe for an in-depth discussions of current challenges facing the international investment law regime. Through a survey of the evolution in IIA treaty-making and an evaluation from different perspectives, the authors take stock of developments in international investment law and analyze potential solutions to some of the criticisms that plague IIAs. The book takes a multidisciplinary approach to the subject, with expert analysis from legal, political and economic scholars. The first part of the book traces the evolution of IIA treaty-making whilst the other three parts are organised around the concepts of efficiency, legitimacy and sustainability. Each contributor analyzes one or more issues related to substance, treaty negotiation, or dispute resolution, with the ultimate aim of improving IIA treaty-making in these respects. Improving International Investment Agreements will be of particular interest to students and academics in the fields of International Investment Law, International Trade Law, Business and Economics.

Regulating Tobacco Alcohol And Unhealthy Foods

Author : Tania Voon
ISBN : 9781317910848
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 64. 76 MB
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The need to reduce disability and premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasingly engaging international organisations and national and sub-national governments. In this book, experts from a range of backgrounds provide insights into the legal implications of regulating tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods, all of which are risk factors for NCDs. As individual countries and the international community move to increase targeting of these risk factors, affected industries are turning to national and international law to challenge the resulting regulations. This book explores how the effective regulation of tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods can be achieved within the context of international health law, international trade and investment law, international human rights law, international intellectual property law, and domestic laws on constitutional and other matters. Its contributors consider the various tensions that arise in regulating NCD risk factors, as well as offering an original analysis of the relationship between evidence and health regulation. Covering a range of geographical areas, including the Americas, the European Union, Africa and Oceania, the book offers lessons for health and policy practitioners and scholars in navigating the complex legal fields in which the regulation of tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods takes place.

The International Criminal Court And Global Social Control

Author : Nerida Chazal
ISBN : 9781317589662
Genre : Law
File Size : 39. 1 MB
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The International Criminal Court was established in 2002 to prosecute war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. At its genesis the ICC was expected to help prevent atrocities from arising or escalating by ending the impunity of leaders and administering punishment for the commission of international crimes. More than a decade later, the ICC’s ability to achieve these broad aims has been questioned, as the ICC has reached only two guilty verdicts. In addition, some of the world’s major powers, including the United States, Russia and China, are not members of the ICC. These issues underscore a gap between the ideals of prevention and deterrence and the reality of the ICC’s functioning. This book explores the gaps, schisms, and contradictions that are increasingly defining the International Criminal Court, moving beyond existing legal, international relations, and political accounts of the ICC to analyse the Court from a criminological standpoint. By exploring the way different actors engage with the ICC and viewing the Court through the framework of late modernity, the book considers how gaps between rhetoric and reality arise in the work of the ICC. Contrary to much existing research, the book examines how such gaps and tensions can be productive as they enable the Court to navigate a complex, international environment driven by geopolitics. The International Criminal Court and Global Social Control will be of interest to academics, researchers, and advanced practitioners in international law, international relations, criminology, and political science. It will also be of use in upper-level undergraduate and postgraduate courses related to international criminal justice and globalization.

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