red brethren the brothertown and stockbridge indians and the problem of race in early america

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Red Brethren

Author : David J. Silverman
ISBN : 9781501704796
Genre : History
File Size : 64. 86 MB
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New England Indians created the multitribal Brothertown and Stockbridge communities during the eighteenth century with the intent of using Christianity and civilized reforms to cope with white expansion. In Red Brethren, David J. Silverman considers the stories of these communities and argues that Indians in early America were racial thinkers in their own right and that indigenous people rallied together as Indians not only in the context of violent resistance but also in campaigns to adjust peacefully to white dominion. All too often, the Indians discovered that their many concessions to white demands earned them no relief. In the era of the American Revolution, the pressure of white settlements forced the Brothertowns and Stockbridges from New England to Oneida country in upstate New York. During the early nineteenth century, whites forced these Indians from Oneida country, too, until they finally wound up in Wisconsin. Tired of moving, in the 1830s and 1840s, the Brothertowns and Stockbridges became some of the first Indians to accept U.S. citizenship, which they called "becoming white," in the hope that this status would enable them to remain as Indians in Wisconsin. Even then, whites would not leave them alone. Red Brethren traces the evolution of Indian ideas about race under this relentless pressure. In the early seventeenth century, indigenous people did not conceive of themselves as Indian. They sharpened their sense of Indian identity as they realized that Christianity would not bridge their many differences with whites, and as they fought to keep blacks out of their communities. The stories of Brothertown and Stockbridge shed light on the dynamism of Indians' own racial history and the place of Indians in the racial history of early America.

Colonial America

Author : Stanley Nider Katz
ISBN : 0415879566
Genre : History
File Size : 33. 69 MB
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Now in its sixth edition, Colonial America is the most respected and well-known anthology of readings by top scholars in the field of early American history. The collection offers an insightful and critical view of the colonial period, and exposes students to the most significant developments in recent American colonial history scholarship. The new edition features 17 new essays, emphasizing a comparative approach to colonial worlds, with added content on the Atlantic and North American interior. Drawing its material from a greater range of sources than ever before, the text also highlights the themes of race, gender, and family throughout the collection of articles. Colonial America includes: maps of the eighteenth century Atlantic World, West Indies, and British North American colonies new introductions to key essays from the fifth edition seventeen new essays with contextualizing introductions discussion questions for students recent scholarship on Indian-colonial relations, the Atlantic, comparative colonialism, gender, slavery and bound labor, and imperial history. With contributions from: Fred Anderson, T.H. Breen, Anne S. Brown, Denver Brunsman, Colin G. Calloway, Jared Diamond, David Eltis, Aaron S. Fogleman, Alan Gallay, David D. Hall, April Lee Hatfield, Frank Lambert, Barry J. Levy, Kenneth A. Lockridge, Brendan McConville, Peter N. Moogk, Philip D. Morgan, John M. Murrin, Jenny Hale Pulsipher, Martin H. Quitt, Daniel K. Richter, Brett Rushforth, David J. Silverman, Owen Stanwood, John K. Thornton, Alden T. Vaughan, Wendy Anne Warren, and David J. Weber, The sixth edition of Colonial America is the best resource on the market to give students a feel for the newest themes in colonial history, and to leave them with a sense of the conversation shared among early American historians. Stanley N. Katz is Director of the Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies at Princetonâe(tm)s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. He has written widely on political, legal, and constitutional history, and is the Editor in Chief of the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History. John M. Murrin is Professor Emeritus of History at Princeton University. He is co-author of Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People. Douglas Greenberg is Professor of History and Executive Dean of the School of Arts and Sciences at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. David J. Silverman is Associate Professor of History at The George Washington University. He is the author of Red Brethren: The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and the Problem of Race in Early America. Denver Brunsman is Assistant Professor of History at Wayne State University. He is the co-editor of Revolutionary Detroit: Portraits in Political and Cultural Change, 1760-1805.

The American Revolution Reader

Author : Denver Brunsman
ISBN : 0415537568
Genre : History
File Size : 83. 12 MB
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The American Revolution Reader is a collection of leading essays on the American revolutionary era from the eve of the imperial crisis through George Washington's presidency. Articles have been chosen to represent classic themes, such as the British-colonial relationship during the eighteenth century, the political and ideological issues underlying colonial protests, the military conflict, the debates over the Constitution, and the rise of political parties. The volume also captures how the field has been reshaped in recent years, including essays that cover class strife and street politics, the international context of the Revolution, and the roles of women, African Americans and Native Americans, as well as the reshaping of the British Empire after the war. With essays by Gordon S. Wood, Mary Beth Norton, T.H. Breen, John M. Murrin, Gary B. Nash, Woody Holton, Rosemarie Zagarri, John Shy, Alan Taylor, Maya Jasanoff, and many other prominent historians, the collection is ideal for classroom use and any student of the American Revolution.

To Do Good To My Indian Brethren

Author : Joseph Johnson
ISBN : 1558491279
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 66. 3 MB
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Joseph Johnson's writings and essays, written between 1771 and 1773, document daily life in the Indian Christian communities of Mohegan and Farmington, Connecticut. Commentary by Laura J. Murray illuminates the meaning of Johnson's writings in their historical context.

Professional Indian

Author : Michael Leroy Oberg
ISBN : 9780812292145
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 79. 76 MB
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Born in 1788, Eleazer Williams was raised in the Catholic Iroquois settlement of Kahnawake along the St. Lawrence River. According to some sources, he was the descendant of a Puritan minister whose daughter was taken by French and Mohawk raiders; in other tales he was the Lost Dauphin, second son to Louis XVI of France. Williams achieved regional renown as a missionary to the Oneida Indians in central New York; he was also instrumental in their removal, allying with white federal officials and the Ogden Land Company to persuade Oneidas to relocate to Wisconsin. Williams accompanied them himself, making plans to minister to the transplanted Oneidas, but he left the community and his young family for long stretches of time. A fabulist and sometime confidence man, Eleazer Williams is notoriously difficult to comprehend: his own record is complicated with stories he created for different audiences. But for author Michael Leroy Oberg, he is an icon of the self-fashioning and protean identity practiced by native peoples who lived or worked close to the centers of Anglo-American power. Professional Indian follows Eleazer Williams on this odyssey across the early American republic and through the shifting spheres of the Iroquois in an era of dispossession. Oberg describes Williams as a "professional Indian," who cultivated many political interests and personas in order to survive during a time of shrinking options for native peoples. He was not alone: as Oberg shows, many Indians became missionaries and settlers and played a vital role in westward expansion. Through the larger-than-life biography of Eleazer Williams, Professional Indian uncovers how Indians fought for place and agency in a world that was rapidly trying to erase them.

Dry Bones And Indian Sermons

Author : Kristina Bross
ISBN : 0801489385
Genre : History
File Size : 35. 99 MB
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Native converts to Christianity, dubbed "praying Indians" by seventeenth-century English missionaries, have long been imagined as benign cultural intermediaries between English settlers and "savages." More recently, praying Indians have been dismissed as virtual inventions of the colonists: "good" Indians used to justify mistreatment of "bad" ones. In a new consideration of this religious encounter, Kristina Bross argues that colonists used depictions of praying Indians to create a vitally important role for themselves as messengers on an evangelical "errand into the wilderness" that promised divine significance not only for the colonists who had embarked on the errand, but also for their metropolitan sponsors in London. In Dry Bones and Indian Sermons, Bross traces the response to events such as the English civil wars and Restoration, New England's Antinomian Controversy, and "King Philip's" war. Whatever the figure's significance to English settlers, praying Indians such as Waban and Samuel Ponampam used their Christian identity to push for status and meaning in the colonial order. Through her focused attention to early evangelical literature and to that literature's historical and cultural contexts, Bross demonstrates how the people who inhabited, manipulated, and consumed the praying Indian identity found ways to use it for their own, disparate purposes.

The Memory Lands

Author : Christine M. DeLucia
ISBN : 9780300201178
Genre : History
File Size : 56. 70 MB
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A powerful study of King Philip's War and its enduring effects on histories, memories, and places in Native New England from 1675 to the present

Anglicizing America

Author : Ignacio Gallup-Diaz
ISBN : 9780812246988
Genre : History
File Size : 71. 78 MB
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The thirteen mainland colonies of early America were arguably never more British than on the eve of their War of Independence from Britain. Though home to settlers of diverse national and cultural backgrounds, colonial America gradually became more like Britain in its political and judicial systems, material culture, economies, religious systems, and engagements with the empire. At the same time and by the same process, these politically distinct and geographically distant colonies forged a shared cultural identity--one that would bind them together as a nation during the Revolution. Anglicizing America revisits the theory of Anglicization, considering its application to the history of the Atlantic world, from Britain to the Caribbean to the western wildernesses, at key moments before, during, and after the American Revolution. Ten essays by senior historians trace the complex processes by which global forces, local economies, and individual motives interacted to reinforce a more centralized and unified social movement. They examine the ways English ideas about labor influenced plantation slavery, how Great Britain's imperial aspirations shaped American militarization, the influence of religious tolerance on political unity, and how Americans' relationship to Great Britain after the war impacted the early republic's naval and taxation policies. As a whole, Anglicizing America offers a compelling framework for explaining the complex processes at work in the western hemisphere during the age of revolutions. Contributors: Denver Brunsman, William Howard Carter, Ignacio Gallup-Diaz, Anthony M. Joseph, Simon P. Newman, Geoffrey Plank, Nancy L. Rhoden, Andrew Shankman, Jeremy A. Stern, David J. Silverman.

Race And Redemption In Puritan New England

Author : Richard A. Bailey
ISBN : 9780195366594
Genre : History
File Size : 85. 61 MB
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While much has been written about race in early America, scholars have generally focused on the southern colonies in the 18th century. Here, Bailey turns his gaze northward and to an earlier period, to the origins of puritan New England, and contends that as colonial New Englanders offered spiritual redemption to their neighbors they began creating raced identities for their Native American and African neighbors.

Ninigret Sachem Of The Niantics And Narrangansetts

Author : Julie A. Fisher
ISBN : 9780801470462
Genre : History
File Size : 51. 5 MB
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Ninigret was a sachem of the Niantic and Narragansett Indians of what is now Rhode Island from the mid-1630s through the mid-1670s. For Ninigret and his contemporaries, Indian Country and New England were multipolar political worlds shaped by ever-shifting intertribal rivalries. In the first biography of Ninigret, Julie A. Fisher and David J. Silverman assert that he was the most influential Indian leader of his era in southern New England. As such, he was a key to the balance of power in both Indian-colonial and intertribal relations. Ninigret was at the center of almost every major development involving southern New England Indians between the Pequot War of 1636–37 and King Philip’s War of 1675–76. He led the Narrangansetts’ campaign to become the region’s major power, including a decades-long war against the Mohegans led by Uncas, Ninigret’s archrival. To offset growing English power, Ninigret formed long-distance alliances with the powerful Mohawks of the Iroquois League and the Pocumtucks of the Connecticut River Valley. Over the course of Ningret’s life, English officials repeatedly charged him with plotting to organize a coalition of tribes and even the Dutch to roll back English settlement. Ironically, though, he refused to take up arms against the English in King Philip’s War. Ninigret died at the end of the war, having guided his people through one of the most tumultuous chapters of the colonial era.

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