reviews of accelerator science and technology volume 8 accelerator applications in energy and security

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Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W Chao
ISBN : 9789813108912
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 41 MB
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' As accelerator science and technology progressed over the past several decades, the accelerators themselves have undergone major improvements in multiple performance factors: beam energy, beam power, and beam brightness. As a consequence, accelerators have found applications in a wide range of fields in our life and in our society. The current volume is dedicated to applications in energy and security, two of the most important and urgent topics in today''s world. This volume makes an effort to provide a review as complete and up to date as possible of this broad and challenging subject. It contains overviews on each of the two topics and a series of articles for in-depth discussions including heavy ion accelerator driven inertial fusion, linear accelerator-based ADS systems, circular accelerator-based ADS systems, accelerator-reactor interface, accelerators for fusion material testing, cargo inspection, proton radiography, compact neutron generators and detectors. It also has a review article on accelerator science and technology in Canada with a focus on the TRIUMF laboratory, and an article on the life of Bruno Touschek, a renowned accelerator physicist. Contents:Overview of Accelerator Applications in Energy (R W Garnett and R L Sheffield)Overview of Accelerator Applications for Security and Defense (A J Antolak)Heavy Ion Accelerator–Driven Inertial Fusion (I Hofmann)ADS Based on Linear Accelerators (W-M Pan and J-P Dai)Cyclotrons and FFAG Accelerators as Drivers for ADS (L Calabretta and F Méot)Accelerator–Reactor Coupling for Energy Production in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (F Heidet, N R Brown and M Haj Tahar)Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing (J Knaster and Y Okumura)Low Energy Accelerators for Cargo Inspection (C-X Tang)Flash Proton Radiography (F E Merrill)Compact Neutron Sources for Energy and Security (M Uesaka and H Kobayashi)Detectors for Accelerator-Based Security Applications (G A Warren, S C Stave and E A Miller)Accelerator Science and Technology in Canada — From the Microtron to TRIUMF, Superconducting Cyclotrons and the Canadian Light Source (M K Craddock and R E Laxdal)Bruno Touschek: From Betatrons to Electron–Positron Colliders (C Bernardini, G Pancheri and C Pellegrini) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:Accelerator Applications in Energy;Accelerator Applications in Security;Accelerator–Reactor Interface;ADS System;Fusion Material Testing;Proton Radiography;TRIUMF Lab;Bruno Touschek'

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology Volume 9 Technology And Applications Of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

Author : Chao Alexander Wu
ISBN : 9789813209596
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 63 MB
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Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the implication of bringing two different communities — accelerator and laser — to join forces and work together. It will have profound impact on the future of our field. Also included are two special articles, one on "Particle Accelerators in China' which gives a comprehensive overview of the rapidly growing accelerator community in China. The other features the person-of-the-issue who was well-known nuclear physicist Jerome Lewis Duggan, a pioneer and founder of a huge community of industrial and medical accelerators in the US.

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alex Chao
ISBN : 9789812835208
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 67 MB
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Particle accelerators are a major invention of the 20th century. In the last eight decades, they have evolved enormously and have fundamentally changed the way we live, think and work.Accelerators are the most powerful microscopes for viewing the tiniest inner structure of cells, genes, molecules, atoms and their constituents such as protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and quarks. This opens up a whole new world for materials science, chemistry and molecular biology. Accelerators with megawatt beam power may ultimately solve a critical problem faced by our society, namely, the treatment of nuclear waste and the supply of an alternative type of energy.There are also tens of thousands of small accelerators all over the world. They are used every day for medical imaging, cancer therapy, radioisotope production, high-density chip-making, mass spectrometry, cargo x-ray/gamma-ray imaging, detection of explosives and illicit drugs, and weapons. This volume provides a comprehensive review of this driving and fascinating field.The poster (also available in 1118 x 406 mm size) which illustrates the history and development of particle accelerators from 1919 to the future can be purchased separately

Space Charge Physics For Particle Accelerators

Author : Ingo Hofmann
ISBN : 9783319621579
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 94 MB
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Understanding and controlling the physics of space charge effects in linear and circular proton and ion accelerators are essential to their operation, and to future high-intensity facilities. This book presents the status quo of this field from a theoretical perspective, compares analytical approaches with multi-particle computer simulations and – where available – with experiments. It discusses fundamental concepts of phase space motion, matched beams and modes of perturbation, along with mathematical models of analysis – from envelope to Vlasov-Poisson equations. The main emphasis is on providing a systematic description of incoherent and coherent resonance phenomena; parametric instabilities and sum modes; mismatch and halo; error driven resonances; and emittance exchange due to anisotropy, as well as the role of Landau damping. Their distinctive features are elaborated in the context of numerous sample simulations, and their potential impacts on beam quality degradation and beam loss are discussed. The book is intended for advanced beginners in accelerator research, and for experts interested in the mechanisms of direct space charge interaction and their modeling.

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W. Chao
ISBN : 9789814340380
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 13 MB
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Over the last half century we have witnessed tremendous progress in the production of high-quality photons by electrons in accelerators. This dramatic evolution has seen four generations of accelerators as photon sources. The 1st generation used the electron storage rings built primarily for high-energy physics experiments, and the synchrotron radiation from the bending magnets was used parasitically. The 2nd generation involved rings dedicated to synchrotron radiation applications, with the radiation again from the bending magnets. The 3rd generation, currently the workhorse of these photon sources, is dedicated advanced storage rings that employ not only bending magnets but also insertion devices (wigglers and undulators) as the source of the radiation. The 4th generation, which is now entering operation, is photon sources based on the free electron laser (FEL), an invention made in the early 1970s. Each generation yielded growths in brightness and time resolution that were unimaginable just a few years earlier. In particular, the progression from the 3rd to 4th generation is a true revolution; the peak brilliance of coherent soft and hard x-rays has increased by 7-10 orders of magnitude, and the image resolution has reached the angstrom (1  = 10-10 meters) and femto-second (1 fs = 10-15 second) scales. These impressive capabilities have fostered fundamental scientific advances and led to an explosion of numerous possibilities in many important research areas including material science, chemistry, molecular biology and the life sciences. Even more remarkably, this field of photon source invention and development shows no signs of slowing down. Studies have already been started on the next generation of x-ray sources, which would have a time resolution in the atto-second (1 as = 10-18 second) regime, comparable to the time of electron motion inside atoms. It can be fully expected that these photon sources will stand out among the most powerful future science research tools. The physics community as well as the entire scientific community will hear of many pioneering and groundbreaking research results using these sources in the coming years. This volume contains fifteen articles, all written by leading scientists in their respective fields. It is aimed at the designers, builders and users of accelerator-based photon sources as well as general audience who are interested in this topic.

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W Chao
ISBN : 9789814452793
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 33 MB
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Since their debut in the late 1920s, particle accelerators have evolved into a backbone for the development of science and technology in modern society. Of about 30,000 accelerators at work in the world today, a majority is for applications in industry (about 20,000 systems worldwide). There are two major categories of industrial applications: materials processing and treatment, and materials analysis. Materials processing and treatment includes ion implantation (semi-conductor materials, metals, ceramics, etc.) and electron beam irradiation (sterilization of medical devices, food pasteurization, treatment of carcasses and tires, cross-linking of polymers, cutting and welding, curing of composites, etc.). Materials analysis covers ion beam analysis (IBA), non-destructive detection using photons and neutrons, as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All the products that are processed, treated and inspected using beams from particle accelerators are estimated to have a collective value of US$500 billion per annum worldwide. Accelerators are also applied for environment protection, such as purifying drinking water, treating waste water, disinfecting sewage sludge and removing pollutants from flue gases. Industrial accelerators continue to evolve, in terms of new applications, qualities and capabilities, and reduction of their costs. Breakthroughs are encountered whenever a new product is made, or an existing product becomes more cost effective. Their impact on our society continues to grow with the potential to address key issues in economics or the society of today. This volume contains fourteen articles, all authored by renowned scientists in their respective fields. Contents:Trends for Electron Beam Accelerator Applications in Industry (Sueo Machi)Ion Implantation for Semiconductor Doping and Materials Modification (Lawrence A Larson, Justin M Williams and Michael I Current)Ion Beam Analysis: A Century of Exploiting the Electronic and Nuclear Structure of the Atom for Materials Characterisation (Chris Jeynes, Roger P Webb and Annika Lohstroh)Neutrons and Photons in Non-Destructive Detection (J F Harmon, D P Wells and A W Hunt)Review of Cyclotrons for the Production of Radioactive Isotopes for Medical and Industrial Applications (Paul Schmor)Development of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Its Applications (Jiaer Chen, Zhiyu Guo, Kexin Liu and Liping Zhou)Electron Accelerators for Environment Protection (Andrzej G Chmielewski)Studying Radiation Damage in Structural Materials by Using Ion Accelerators (Peter Hosemann)Direct Current Accelerators for Industrial Applications (Ragnar Hellborg and Harry J Whitlow)Radio-Frequency Electron Accelerators for Industrial Applications (Marshall R Cleland)Accelerators for Neutron Generation and Their Applications (Guenter Mank, Guenter Bauer and Françoise Mulhauser)Prospects for Accelerator Technology (Alan Todd)CERN: From Birth to Success (Herwig Schopper)Simon van der Meer (1925–2011): A Modest Genius of Accelerator Science (Vinod C Chohan) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:Particle Accelerators;Materials Processing and Treatment;Materials Analysis;Industrial Accelerators;LHC;EnvironmentReviews: "The book is a very helpful way to be introduced in the world of accelerators as powerful tools to carry out quite a big number of applications that play a significant role in common life." IL Nuovo Saggiatore

Industrial Accelerators And Their Applications

Author : Robert W Hamm
ISBN : 9789814434614
Genre :
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This unique new book is a comprehensive review of the many current industrial applications of particle accelerators, written by experts in each of these fields. Readers will gain a broad understanding of the principles of these applications, the extent to which they are employed, and the accelerator technology utilized. The book also serves as a thorough introduction to these fields for non-experts and laymen. Due to the increased interest in industrial applications, there is a growing interest among accelerator physicists and many other scientists worldwide in understanding how accelerators are used in various applications. The government agencies that fund scientific research with accelerators are also seeking more information on the many commercial applications that have been or can be developed with the technology developments they are funding. Many industries are also doing more research on how they can improve their products or processes using particle beams Contents: Introduction to the Beam Business (Robert W Hamm and Marianne E Hamm)Ion Implantation for Fabrication of Semiconductor Devices and Materials (Michael I Current)Electron Beam Materials Processing (Donald E Powers)Electron Beam Materials Irradiators (Marshall R Cleland)Accelerator Production of Radionuclides (David J Schlyer and Thomas J Ruth)Industrial Aspects of Ion Beam Analysis (Ragnar Hellborg and Harry J Whitlow)Production and Applications of Neutrons Using Particle Accelerators (David L Chichester)Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Using Electron Linacs (William A Reed)Industrial Use of Synchrotron Radiation: Love at Second Sight (Josef Hormes and Jeffrey Warner) Readership: Physicists, engineers and practitioners in accelerator technology and applications.

Accelerator Physics Technology And Applications

Author : Alexander Wu Chao
ISBN : 9789814482998
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 88 MB
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Originally invented for generating the first artificial nuclear reactions, particle accelerators have undergone, during the past 80 years, a fascinating development that is an impressive example of the inventiveness and perseverance of scientists and engineers. Since the early 1980s, accelerator science and technology has been booming. Today, accelerators are the prime tool for high energy physics to probe the structure of matter to an unknown depth. They are also, as synchrotron radiation sources, the most versatile tool for characterizing materials and processes and for producing micro- and nanostructured devices. The determination of the structure of large biomolecules is presently among the best examples of the application of synchrotron radiation. Finally, accelerators have grown more and more important for medicine, which is relying on them for advanced cancer therapy and radio-surgery. And there are more applications, including the generation of neutrons for materials science, the transmutation of nuclear waste with simultaneous production of electrical power, the sterilization of medical supplies and of foodstuff, and the inspection of trucks by customs or security services. This book is meant to provide basic training in modern accelerators for students, teachers, and interested scientists and engineers working in other fields. It is a result of the 3rd International Accelerator School, held in 2002 in Singapore under the auspices of the Overseas Chinese Physics Association (OCPA). Reputable experts, including a recent prize-winner, cover the field of cyclic and linear accelerators from the basic theoretical tools to forefront developments such as the X-ray free electron laser or the latest proton therapy facilities under construction. Accelerators, the art of building them, and the science for understanding their function have become a very exciting field of research. This book conveys the excitement of the experts to the reader. The proceedings have been selected for coverage in: • Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings® (ISTP® / ISI Proceedings) • Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings (ISTP CDROM version / ISI Proceedings) • CC Proceedings — Engineering & Physical Sciences Contents:Particle Accelerators: An Introduction (C Zhang)A Guided Survey of Synchrotron Radiation Sources (H O Moser)Transverse Beam Dynamics: Linear Optics (Q Qin)Transverse Beam Dynamics: Closed Orbit Correction and Injection (C-C Kuo)Transverse Beam Dynamics: Dynamic Aperture (Q Qin)Longitudinal Beam Dynamics — Energy Oscillation in an Electron Storage Ring (Y Jin)Photoinjectors (I Ben-Zvi)Synchrotron Radiation (C T Lee)Lattice Design for Synchrotron Radiation Source Storage Rings (Y Jin)Spallation Neutron Source and Other High Intensity Proton Sources (W Chou)RF Electron Linac and Microton (S-H Wang)Collective Beam Effects in Storage Rings (Z Guo)Designing Superconducting Cavities for Accelerators (H Padamsee)Accelerator Magnets: Dipole, Quadrupole and Sextupole (C S Hwang)Emittance and Cooling (C T Lee)RF Systems for Light Source Storage Rings (Z T Zhao)Vacuum System (J R Chen)RFQ Design and Performance (J Fang)Insertion Devices: Wigglers and Undulators (C S Hwang)Medical and Industrial Applications of Electron Accelerators (Y Lin)High Gain Free Electron Lasers (L H Yu)Proton Therapy: Accelerator Aspects and Procedures (H-U Klein & D Krischel)Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation Applications (H O Moser et al.) Readership: Researchers, practitioners, academics and graduate students in accelerator physics. Keywords:Accelerator Physics;Particle Accelerators Synchrotron Radiation;Micro and Nanostructured Devices;Electron Laser X-Ray Free

Crystal Channeling And Its Application At High Energy Accelerators

Author : Valery M. Biryukov
ISBN : 3540607692
Genre : Science
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"Nature performs not hing vainly, and makes nothing unnecessary" Aristotle Interest in the passage of charged particles through crystals first appeared at the beginning of this century following experiments on x-ray diffraction in crystallattices, which provided the proof of an ordered distribution of atoms in a crystal. Stark [1] put forward the hypothesis that certain directions in a crystal should be relatively transparent to charged particles. These first ideas on the channeling of charged particles in crystals were forgotten but became topical again in the early 1960s when the channeling effect was rediscovered by computer simulation [2] and in experiments [3] that revealed anomalously long ion ranges in crystals. The orientational ef fects during the passage of charged particles through crystals have been found for a whole range of processes characterized by small impact parameters for collisions between particles and atoms: nuclear reactions, large-angle scatter ing, energy losses. Lindhard explained the channeling of charged particles in crystals [4]. The results of the numerous investigations into the channeling of low-energy (amounting to several MeV) charged particles in crystals have been summarized in several monographs and reviews [5~8l.

Beam Dynamics In High Energy Particle Accelerators

Author : Andrzej Wolski
ISBN : 9781783262793
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 62 MB
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Particle accelerators are essential tools for scientific research in fields as diverse as high energy physics, materials science and structural biology. They are also widely used in industry and medicine. Producing the optimum design and achieving the best performance for an accelerator depends on a detailed understanding of many (often complex and sometimes subtle) effects that determine the properties and behavior of the particle beam. Beam Dynamics in High Energy Particle Accelerators provides an introduction to the concepts underlying accelerator beam line design and analysis, taking an approach that emphasizes the elegance of the subject and leads into the development of a range of powerful techniques for understanding and modeling charged particle beams. Contents:Electromagnetism and Classical Mechanics:Electromagnetic Fields in Accelerator ComponentsHamiltonian for a Particle in an Accelerator Beam LineSingle-Particle Linear Dynamics:Linear Transfer Maps for Common ComponentsLinear Optics in Uncoupled Beam LinesCoupled OpticsLinear Imperfections in Storage RingsEffects of Synchrotron RadiationSingle-Particle Nonlinear Dynamics:Examples of Nonlinear Effects in Accelerator Beam LinesRepresentations of Transfer MapsSymplectic IntegratorsMethods for Analysis of Single-Particle DynamicsCollective Effects:Space ChargeScattering EffectsWake Fields, Wake Functions and ImpedanceCoherent Instabilities Readership: Undergraduate students who are looking for an introduction to beam dynamics, and graduate students and researchers in the field. Key Features:Basic ideas are introduced from the start using an approach that leads logically into the development of more advanced concepts and techniques. In particular, linear dynamics is treated consistently using a Hamiltonian formalism, which provides a suitable foundation not only for perturbation theory, but also for more modern techniques based on Lie operators. The use of a consistent approach makes the progress from introductory to advanced material as straightforward as possibleThe treatment of nonlinear dynamics using Lie operators provides a number of powerful techniques for the analysis of accelerator beam lines. Lie operators are generally found only in more advanced and specialized treatments of nonlinear dynamics. Beam Dynamics in High Energy Particle Accelerators provides an accessible introduction to the subject, and illustrates the use of techniques such as Lie transforms and normal form analysis through examples of particular relevance for beam dynamicsAs well as providing a clear description of the important topics in beam dynamics and an explanation of the physical principles, attention is given to techniques of particular importance for computer modeling of beam dynamics. For example, there is a chapter on symplectic integration that gives explicit formulae for methods that are of some importance in accelerator modeling codes, but have not previously been presented in a book of this kindKeywords:Accelerator Physics;Beam Dynamics;Particle AcceleratorsReviews: “This is a recommendable addition to the literature, covering its topics clearly and thoroughly.” CERN Courier

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