reviews of accelerator science and technology volume 9 technology and applications of advanced accelerator concepts

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Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology Volume 9 Technology And Applications Of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

Author : Chao Alexander Wu
ISBN : 9789813209596
Genre : Science
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Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the implication of bringing two different communities — accelerator and laser — to join forces and work together. It will have profound impact on the future of our field. Also included are two special articles, one on "Particle Accelerators in China' which gives a comprehensive overview of the rapidly growing accelerator community in China. The other features the person-of-the-issue who was well-known nuclear physicist Jerome Lewis Duggan, a pioneer and founder of a huge community of industrial and medical accelerators in the US.

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology Volume 9 Technology And Applications Of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

Author : Alexander Wu Chao
ISBN : 9813209577
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 1 MB
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Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) -- their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the implication of bringing two different communities -- accelerator and laser -- to join forces and work together. It will have profound impact on the future of our field. Also included are two special articles, one on "Particle Accelerators in China' which gives a comprehensive overview of the rapidly growing accelerator community in China. The other features the person-of-the-issue who was well-known nuclear physicist Jerome Lewis Duggan, a pioneer and founder of a huge community of industrial and medical accelerators in the US.

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W. Chao
ISBN : 9789814340380
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 44 MB
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Over the last half century we have witnessed tremendous progress in the production of high-quality photons by electrons in accelerators. This dramatic evolution has seen four generations of accelerators as photon sources. The 1st generation used the electron storage rings built primarily for high-energy physics experiments, and the synchrotron radiation from the bending magnets was used parasitically. The 2nd generation involved rings dedicated to synchrotron radiation applications, with the radiation again from the bending magnets. The 3rd generation, currently the workhorse of these photon sources, is dedicated advanced storage rings that employ not only bending magnets but also insertion devices (wigglers and undulators) as the source of the radiation. The 4th generation, which is now entering operation, is photon sources based on the free electron laser (FEL), an invention made in the early 1970s. Each generation yielded growths in brightness and time resolution that were unimaginable just a few years earlier. In particular, the progression from the 3rd to 4th generation is a true revolution; the peak brilliance of coherent soft and hard x-rays has increased by 7-10 orders of magnitude, and the image resolution has reached the angstrom (1  = 10-10 meters) and femto-second (1 fs = 10-15 second) scales. These impressive capabilities have fostered fundamental scientific advances and led to an explosion of numerous possibilities in many important research areas including material science, chemistry, molecular biology and the life sciences. Even more remarkably, this field of photon source invention and development shows no signs of slowing down. Studies have already been started on the next generation of x-ray sources, which would have a time resolution in the atto-second (1 as = 10-18 second) regime, comparable to the time of electron motion inside atoms. It can be fully expected that these photon sources will stand out among the most powerful future science research tools. The physics community as well as the entire scientific community will hear of many pioneering and groundbreaking research results using these sources in the coming years. This volume contains fifteen articles, all written by leading scientists in their respective fields. It is aimed at the designers, builders and users of accelerator-based photon sources as well as general audience who are interested in this topic.

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W Chao
ISBN : 9789814452793
Genre : Science
File Size : 44. 92 MB
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Since their debut in the late 1920s, particle accelerators have evolved into a backbone for the development of science and technology in modern society. Of about 30,000 accelerators at work in the world today, a majority is for applications in industry (about 20,000 systems worldwide). There are two major categories of industrial applications: materials processing and treatment, and materials analysis. Materials processing and treatment includes ion implantation (semi-conductor materials, metals, ceramics, etc.) and electron beam irradiation (sterilization of medical devices, food pasteurization, treatment of carcasses and tires, cross-linking of polymers, cutting and welding, curing of composites, etc.). Materials analysis covers ion beam analysis (IBA), non-destructive detection using photons and neutrons, as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All the products that are processed, treated and inspected using beams from particle accelerators are estimated to have a collective value of US$500 billion per annum worldwide. Accelerators are also applied for environment protection, such as purifying drinking water, treating waste water, disinfecting sewage sludge and removing pollutants from flue gases. Industrial accelerators continue to evolve, in terms of new applications, qualities and capabilities, and reduction of their costs. Breakthroughs are encountered whenever a new product is made, or an existing product becomes more cost effective. Their impact on our society continues to grow with the potential to address key issues in economics or the society of today. This volume contains fourteen articles, all authored by renowned scientists in their respective fields. Contents:Trends for Electron Beam Accelerator Applications in Industry (Sueo Machi)Ion Implantation for Semiconductor Doping and Materials Modification (Lawrence A Larson, Justin M Williams and Michael I Current)Ion Beam Analysis: A Century of Exploiting the Electronic and Nuclear Structure of the Atom for Materials Characterisation (Chris Jeynes, Roger P Webb and Annika Lohstroh)Neutrons and Photons in Non-Destructive Detection (J F Harmon, D P Wells and A W Hunt)Review of Cyclotrons for the Production of Radioactive Isotopes for Medical and Industrial Applications (Paul Schmor)Development of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Its Applications (Jiaer Chen, Zhiyu Guo, Kexin Liu and Liping Zhou)Electron Accelerators for Environment Protection (Andrzej G Chmielewski)Studying Radiation Damage in Structural Materials by Using Ion Accelerators (Peter Hosemann)Direct Current Accelerators for Industrial Applications (Ragnar Hellborg and Harry J Whitlow)Radio-Frequency Electron Accelerators for Industrial Applications (Marshall R Cleland)Accelerators for Neutron Generation and Their Applications (Guenter Mank, Guenter Bauer and Françoise Mulhauser)Prospects for Accelerator Technology (Alan Todd)CERN: From Birth to Success (Herwig Schopper)Simon van der Meer (1925–2011): A Modest Genius of Accelerator Science (Vinod C Chohan) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:Particle Accelerators;Materials Processing and Treatment;Materials Analysis;Industrial Accelerators;LHC;EnvironmentReviews: "The book is a very helpful way to be introduced in the world of accelerators as powerful tools to carry out quite a big number of applications that play a significant role in common life." IL Nuovo Saggiatore

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W. Chao
ISBN : 9814651486
Genre : Science
File Size : 49. 3 MB
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High energy colliding beams; What is their future? / B. Richter -- Proton-proton and proton-antiproton colliders / W. Scandale -- Electron-positron circular colliders / K. Oide -- Ion colliders / W. Fischer and J. M. Jowett -- Electron-proton and electron-Ion colliders / I. Ben-Zvi and V. Ptitsyn -- Linear colliders / A. Yamamoto and K. Yokoya -- Muon colliders / R. B. Palmer -- The photon collider / J. Gronberg -- Collider beam physics / F. Zimmermann -- Collision technologies for circular colliders / E. Levichev -- Andy Sessler: The full life of an accelerator physicist / K.-J. Kim, R. J. Budnitz and H. Winick

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W Chao
ISBN : 9789813108912
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 15 MB
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' As accelerator science and technology progressed over the past several decades, the accelerators themselves have undergone major improvements in multiple performance factors: beam energy, beam power, and beam brightness. As a consequence, accelerators have found applications in a wide range of fields in our life and in our society. The current volume is dedicated to applications in energy and security, two of the most important and urgent topics in today''s world. This volume makes an effort to provide a review as complete and up to date as possible of this broad and challenging subject. It contains overviews on each of the two topics and a series of articles for in-depth discussions including heavy ion accelerator driven inertial fusion, linear accelerator-based ADS systems, circular accelerator-based ADS systems, accelerator-reactor interface, accelerators for fusion material testing, cargo inspection, proton radiography, compact neutron generators and detectors. It also has a review article on accelerator science and technology in Canada with a focus on the TRIUMF laboratory, and an article on the life of Bruno Touschek, a renowned accelerator physicist. Contents:Overview of Accelerator Applications in Energy (R W Garnett and R L Sheffield)Overview of Accelerator Applications for Security and Defense (A J Antolak)Heavy Ion Accelerator–Driven Inertial Fusion (I Hofmann)ADS Based on Linear Accelerators (W-M Pan and J-P Dai)Cyclotrons and FFAG Accelerators as Drivers for ADS (L Calabretta and F Méot)Accelerator–Reactor Coupling for Energy Production in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (F Heidet, N R Brown and M Haj Tahar)Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing (J Knaster and Y Okumura)Low Energy Accelerators for Cargo Inspection (C-X Tang)Flash Proton Radiography (F E Merrill)Compact Neutron Sources for Energy and Security (M Uesaka and H Kobayashi)Detectors for Accelerator-Based Security Applications (G A Warren, S C Stave and E A Miller)Accelerator Science and Technology in Canada — From the Microtron to TRIUMF, Superconducting Cyclotrons and the Canadian Light Source (M K Craddock and R E Laxdal)Bruno Touschek: From Betatrons to Electron–Positron Colliders (C Bernardini, G Pancheri and C Pellegrini) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:Accelerator Applications in Energy;Accelerator Applications in Security;Accelerator–Reactor Interface;ADS System;Fusion Material Testing;Proton Radiography;TRIUMF Lab;Bruno Touschek'

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W Chao
ISBN : 9789814583268
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 80 MB
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As particle accelerators strive forever increasing performance, high intensity particle beams become one of the critical demands requested across the board by a majority of accelerator users (proton, electron and ion) and for most applications. Much effort has been made by our community to pursue high intensity accelerator performance on a number of fronts. Recognizing its importance, we devote this volume to Accelerators for High Intensity Beams. High intensity accelerators have become a frontier and a network for innovation. They are responsible for many scientific discoveries and technological breakthroughs that have changed our way of life, often taken for granted. A wide range of topics is covered in the fourteen articles in this volume. Contents:Beams for the Intensity Frontier of Particle Physics (R S Tschirhart)Intensity Frontier of Accelerators for Nuclear Physics (K Imai)Radioactive Ion Beams and Radiopharmaceuticals (R E Laxdal, A C Morton and P Schaffer)Spallation Neutron Sources and Accelerator Driven Systems (S D Henderson)Accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy Production (R O Bangerter, A Faltens and P A Seidl)Particle Beam Radiography (K Peach and C Ekdahl)Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons and Accumulator Rings for High-Intensity Hadron Beams (J-Y Tang)Superconducting Hadron Linacs (P Ostroumov and F Gerigk)Ion Injectors for High Intensity Accelerators (M P Stockli and T Nakagawa)Charge Strippers of Heavy Ions for High-Intensity Accelerators (J A Nolen and F Marti)Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction (E Noah)High Intensity Neutron Beamlines (P M Bentley, C P Cooper-Jensen and K H Andersen)Beam-Materials Interactions (N V Mokhov)John Adams and CERN: Personal Recollections (G Brianti and D E Plane) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:High-Intensity Accelerators;High-Intensity Beams;Hadron Linacs;Fusion Energy

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W Chao
ISBN : 9789814449960
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 3 MB
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Over the past several decades major advances in accelerators have resulted from breakthroughs in accelerator science and accelerator technology. After the introduction of a new accelerator physics concept or the implementation of a new technology, a leap in accelerator performance followed. A well-known representation of these advances is the Livingston chart, which shows an exponential growth of accelerator performance over the last seven or eight decades. One of the breakthrough accelerator technologies that support this exponential growth is superconducting technology. Recognizing this major technological advance, we dedicate Volume 5 of Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology (RAST) to superconducting technology and its applications. Two major applications are superconducting magnets (SC magnets) and superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. SC magnets provide much higher magnetic field than their room-temperature counterparts, thus allowing accelerators to reach higher energies with comparable size as well as much reduced power consumption. SRF technology allows field energy storage for continuous wave applications and energy recovery, in addition to the advantage of tremendous power savings and better particle beam quality. In this volume, we describe both technologies and their applications. We also include discussion of the associated R&D in superconducting materials and the future prospects for these technologies. Contents:Overview of Superconductivity and Challenges in Applications (Rene Flükiger)Superconducting Materials and Conductors: Fabrication and Limiting Parameters (Luca Bottura and Arno Godeke)Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators (Lucio Rossi and Luca Bottura)Superconducting Magnets for Particle Detectors and Fusion Devices (Akira Yamamoto and Thomas Taylor)Superconducting Radio-Frequency Fundamentals for Particle Accelerators (Alex Gurevich)Superconducting Radio-Frequency Systems for High-β Particle Accelerators (Sergey Belomestnykh)Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities for Low-Beta Particle Accelerators (Michael Kelly)Cryogenic Technology for Superconducting Accelerators (Kenji Hosoyama)Superconductivity in Medicine (Jose R Alonso and Timothy A Antaya)Industrialization of Superconducting RF Accelerator Technology (Michael Peiniger, Michael Pekeler and Hanspeter Vogel)Superconducting Radio-Frequency Technology R&D for Future Accelerator Applications (Charles E Reece and Gianluigi Ciovati)Educating and Training Accelerator Scientists and Technologists for Tomorrow (William Barletta, Swapan Chattopadhyay and Andrei Seryi)Pursuit of Accelerator Projects at KEK in Japan (Yoshitaka Kimura and Nobukazu Toge) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:Particle Accelerators;Superconducting;Superconducting Materials;Superconducting TechnologyReviews: “This latest volume looks at the role of superconductivity in particle accelerators and how this intriguing phenomenon has been harnessed in the pursuit of ever-increasing beam energy or intensity. It also considers the application of superconducting technology beyond the realm of accelerators, for example in medical scanners and fusion devices. As well as containing much technical detail it is also full of fascinating facts.” CERN Courier

Unifying Physics Of Accelerators Lasers And Plasma

Author : Andrei Seryi
ISBN : 9781482240597
Genre : Science
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Unifying Physics of Accelerators, Lasers and Plasma introduces the physics of accelerators, lasers and plasma in tandem with the industrial methodology of inventiveness, a technique that teaches that similar problems and solutions appear again and again in seemingly dissimilar disciplines. This unique approach builds bridges and enhances connections between the three aforementioned areas of physics that are essential for developing the next generation of accelerators. Boasting more than 200 illustrations, this highly visual text: Employs TRIZ to amalgamate and link different areas of science Avoids heavy mathematics, using back-of-the-envelope calculations to convey key principles Includes end-of-chapter exercises focusing on physics and on applications of the inventiveness method Solutions manual available with qualifying course adoption Unifying Physics of Accelerators, Lasers and Plasma outlines a path from idea to practical implementation of scientific and technological innovation. The book is suitable for students at the senior undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as for senior scientists interested in enhancing their abilities to work successfully on the development of the next generation of facilities, devices and scientific instruments manufactured from the synergy of accelerators, lasers and plasma.

Optical Trapping And Manipulation Of Neutral Particles Using Lasers

Author : Arthur Ashkin
ISBN : 9810240570
Genre : Science
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This important volume contains selected papers and extensive commentaries on laser trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using radiation pressure forces. Such techniques apply to a variety of small particles, such as atoms, molecules, macroscopic dielectric particles, living cells, and organelles within cells. These optical methods have had a revolutionary impact on the fields of atomic and molecular physics, biophysics, and many aspects of nanotechnology.In atomic physics, the trapping and cooling of atoms down to nanokelvins and even picokelvin temperatures are possible. These are the lowest temperatures in the universe. This made possible the first demonstration of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic and molecular vapors. Some of the applications are high precision atomic clocks, gyroscopes, the measurement of gravity, cryptology, atomic computers, cavity quantum electrodynamics and coherent atom lasers.A major application in biophysics is the study of the mechanical properties of the many types of motor molecules, mechanoenzymes, and other macromolecules responsible for the motion of organelles within cells and the locomotion of entire cells. Unique in vitro and in vivo assays study the driving forces, stepping motion, kinetics, and efficiency of these motors as they move along the cell's cytoskeleton. Positional and temporal resolutions have been achieved, making possible the study of RNA and DNA polymerases, as they undergo their various copying, backtracking, and error correcting functions on a single base pair basis.Many applications in nanotechnology involve particle and cell sorting, particle rotation, microfabrication of simple machines, microfluidics, and other micrometer devices. The number of applications continues to grow at a rapid rate.The author is the discoverer of optical trapping and optical tweezers. With his colleagues, he first demonstrated optical levitation, the trapping of atoms, and tweezer trapping and manipulation of living cells and biological particles.This is the only review volume covering the many fields of optical trapping and manipulation. The intention is to provide a selective guide to the literature and to teach how optical traps really work.

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