reviews of accelerator science and technology

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Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology Volume 2 Medical Applications Of Accelerators

Author : Alexander W. Chao
ISBN : 9789814299350
Genre : Medical
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The theme of this volume, “Medical Applications of Accelerators”, is of enormous importance to human health and has a deep impact on our society.The invention of particle accelerators in the early 20th century created a whole new world for producing energetic X-rays, electrons, protons, neutrons and other particle beams. Immediately these beams found revolutionary applications in medicine. There are two important yet distinct medical applications. On the one hand, accelerators produce radioisotopes for various nuclear medicines for millions of patients each year, and on the other hand, they also produce particle beams for radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. The particle beams can be X-rays (generated by high-energy electrons), protons, neutrons or heavy ions such as carbon. Today there are more than 5,000 accelerators routinely used in hospitals all over the world for nuclear medicine and cancer therapy. The great potential of accelerator applications in medicine can hardly be exaggerated.This volume contains 14 articles, all written by distinguished scholars.

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W Chao
ISBN : 9789814452793
Genre : Science
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Since their debut in the late 1920s, particle accelerators have evolved into a backbone for the development of science and technology in modern society. Of about 30,000 accelerators at work in the world today, a majority is for applications in industry (about 20,000 systems worldwide). There are two major categories of industrial applications: materials processing and treatment, and materials analysis. Materials processing and treatment includes ion implantation (semi-conductor materials, metals, ceramics, etc.) and electron beam irradiation (sterilization of medical devices, food pasteurization, treatment of carcasses and tires, cross-linking of polymers, cutting and welding, curing of composites, etc.). Materials analysis covers ion beam analysis (IBA), non-destructive detection using photons and neutrons, as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All the products that are processed, treated and inspected using beams from particle accelerators are estimated to have a collective value of US$500 billion per annum worldwide. Accelerators are also applied for environment protection, such as purifying drinking water, treating waste water, disinfecting sewage sludge and removing pollutants from flue gases. Industrial accelerators continue to evolve, in terms of new applications, qualities and capabilities, and reduction of their costs. Breakthroughs are encountered whenever a new product is made, or an existing product becomes more cost effective. Their impact on our society continues to grow with the potential to address key issues in economics or the society of today. This volume contains fourteen articles, all authored by renowned scientists in their respective fields. Contents:Trends for Electron Beam Accelerator Applications in Industry (Sueo Machi)Ion Implantation for Semiconductor Doping and Materials Modification (Lawrence A Larson, Justin M Williams and Michael I Current)Ion Beam Analysis: A Century of Exploiting the Electronic and Nuclear Structure of the Atom for Materials Characterisation (Chris Jeynes, Roger P Webb and Annika Lohstroh)Neutrons and Photons in Non-Destructive Detection (J F Harmon, D P Wells and A W Hunt)Review of Cyclotrons for the Production of Radioactive Isotopes for Medical and Industrial Applications (Paul Schmor)Development of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Its Applications (Jiaer Chen, Zhiyu Guo, Kexin Liu and Liping Zhou)Electron Accelerators for Environment Protection (Andrzej G Chmielewski)Studying Radiation Damage in Structural Materials by Using Ion Accelerators (Peter Hosemann)Direct Current Accelerators for Industrial Applications (Ragnar Hellborg and Harry J Whitlow)Radio-Frequency Electron Accelerators for Industrial Applications (Marshall R Cleland)Accelerators for Neutron Generation and Their Applications (Guenter Mank, Guenter Bauer and Françoise Mulhauser)Prospects for Accelerator Technology (Alan Todd)CERN: From Birth to Success (Herwig Schopper)Simon van der Meer (1925–2011): A Modest Genius of Accelerator Science (Vinod C Chohan) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:Particle Accelerators;Materials Processing and Treatment;Materials Analysis;Industrial Accelerators;LHC;EnvironmentReviews: "The book is a very helpful way to be introduced in the world of accelerators as powerful tools to carry out quite a big number of applications that play a significant role in common life." IL Nuovo Saggiatore

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology Volume 9 Technology And Applications Of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

Author : Chao Alexander Wu
ISBN : 9789813209596
Genre : Science
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Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the implication of bringing two different communities — accelerator and laser — to join forces and work together. It will have profound impact on the future of our field. Also included are two special articles, one on "Particle Accelerators in China' which gives a comprehensive overview of the rapidly growing accelerator community in China. The other features the person-of-the-issue who was well-known nuclear physicist Jerome Lewis Duggan, a pioneer and founder of a huge community of industrial and medical accelerators in the US.

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W Chao
ISBN : 9789814449960
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 25 MB
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Over the past several decades major advances in accelerators have resulted from breakthroughs in accelerator science and accelerator technology. After the introduction of a new accelerator physics concept or the implementation of a new technology, a leap in accelerator performance followed. A well-known representation of these advances is the Livingston chart, which shows an exponential growth of accelerator performance over the last seven or eight decades. One of the breakthrough accelerator technologies that support this exponential growth is superconducting technology. Recognizing this major technological advance, we dedicate Volume 5 of Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology (RAST) to superconducting technology and its applications. Two major applications are superconducting magnets (SC magnets) and superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. SC magnets provide much higher magnetic field than their room-temperature counterparts, thus allowing accelerators to reach higher energies with comparable size as well as much reduced power consumption. SRF technology allows field energy storage for continuous wave applications and energy recovery, in addition to the advantage of tremendous power savings and better particle beam quality. In this volume, we describe both technologies and their applications. We also include discussion of the associated R&D in superconducting materials and the future prospects for these technologies. Contents:Overview of Superconductivity and Challenges in Applications (Rene Flükiger)Superconducting Materials and Conductors: Fabrication and Limiting Parameters (Luca Bottura and Arno Godeke)Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators (Lucio Rossi and Luca Bottura)Superconducting Magnets for Particle Detectors and Fusion Devices (Akira Yamamoto and Thomas Taylor)Superconducting Radio-Frequency Fundamentals for Particle Accelerators (Alex Gurevich)Superconducting Radio-Frequency Systems for High-β Particle Accelerators (Sergey Belomestnykh)Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities for Low-Beta Particle Accelerators (Michael Kelly)Cryogenic Technology for Superconducting Accelerators (Kenji Hosoyama)Superconductivity in Medicine (Jose R Alonso and Timothy A Antaya)Industrialization of Superconducting RF Accelerator Technology (Michael Peiniger, Michael Pekeler and Hanspeter Vogel)Superconducting Radio-Frequency Technology R&D for Future Accelerator Applications (Charles E Reece and Gianluigi Ciovati)Educating and Training Accelerator Scientists and Technologists for Tomorrow (William Barletta, Swapan Chattopadhyay and Andrei Seryi)Pursuit of Accelerator Projects at KEK in Japan (Yoshitaka Kimura and Nobukazu Toge) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:Particle Accelerators;Superconducting;Superconducting Materials;Superconducting TechnologyReviews: “This latest volume looks at the role of superconductivity in particle accelerators and how this intriguing phenomenon has been harnessed in the pursuit of ever-increasing beam energy or intensity. It also considers the application of superconducting technology beyond the realm of accelerators, for example in medical scanners and fusion devices. As well as containing much technical detail it is also full of fascinating facts.” CERN Courier

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W. Chao
ISBN : 9789814449953
Genre : Science
File Size : 43. 66 MB
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This book is dedicated to superconducting technology and its applications, including superconducting magnets (SC magnets) and superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities.

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W Chao
ISBN : 9789813108912
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 8 MB
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' As accelerator science and technology progressed over the past several decades, the accelerators themselves have undergone major improvements in multiple performance factors: beam energy, beam power, and beam brightness. As a consequence, accelerators have found applications in a wide range of fields in our life and in our society. The current volume is dedicated to applications in energy and security, two of the most important and urgent topics in today''s world. This volume makes an effort to provide a review as complete and up to date as possible of this broad and challenging subject. It contains overviews on each of the two topics and a series of articles for in-depth discussions including heavy ion accelerator driven inertial fusion, linear accelerator-based ADS systems, circular accelerator-based ADS systems, accelerator-reactor interface, accelerators for fusion material testing, cargo inspection, proton radiography, compact neutron generators and detectors. It also has a review article on accelerator science and technology in Canada with a focus on the TRIUMF laboratory, and an article on the life of Bruno Touschek, a renowned accelerator physicist. Contents:Overview of Accelerator Applications in Energy (R W Garnett and R L Sheffield)Overview of Accelerator Applications for Security and Defense (A J Antolak)Heavy Ion Accelerator–Driven Inertial Fusion (I Hofmann)ADS Based on Linear Accelerators (W-M Pan and J-P Dai)Cyclotrons and FFAG Accelerators as Drivers for ADS (L Calabretta and F Méot)Accelerator–Reactor Coupling for Energy Production in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (F Heidet, N R Brown and M Haj Tahar)Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing (J Knaster and Y Okumura)Low Energy Accelerators for Cargo Inspection (C-X Tang)Flash Proton Radiography (F E Merrill)Compact Neutron Sources for Energy and Security (M Uesaka and H Kobayashi)Detectors for Accelerator-Based Security Applications (G A Warren, S C Stave and E A Miller)Accelerator Science and Technology in Canada — From the Microtron to TRIUMF, Superconducting Cyclotrons and the Canadian Light Source (M K Craddock and R E Laxdal)Bruno Touschek: From Betatrons to Electron–Positron Colliders (C Bernardini, G Pancheri and C Pellegrini) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:Accelerator Applications in Energy;Accelerator Applications in Security;Accelerator–Reactor Interface;ADS System;Fusion Material Testing;Proton Radiography;TRIUMF Lab;Bruno Touschek'

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

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ISBN : 9789814465397
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Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W Chao
ISBN : 9789814583268
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 73 MB
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As particle accelerators strive forever increasing performance, high intensity particle beams become one of the critical demands requested across the board by a majority of accelerator users (proton, electron and ion) and for most applications. Much effort has been made by our community to pursue high intensity accelerator performance on a number of fronts. Recognizing its importance, we devote this volume to Accelerators for High Intensity Beams. High intensity accelerators have become a frontier and a network for innovation. They are responsible for many scientific discoveries and technological breakthroughs that have changed our way of life, often taken for granted. A wide range of topics is covered in the fourteen articles in this volume. Contents:Beams for the Intensity Frontier of Particle Physics (R S Tschirhart)Intensity Frontier of Accelerators for Nuclear Physics (K Imai)Radioactive Ion Beams and Radiopharmaceuticals (R E Laxdal, A C Morton and P Schaffer)Spallation Neutron Sources and Accelerator Driven Systems (S D Henderson)Accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy Production (R O Bangerter, A Faltens and P A Seidl)Particle Beam Radiography (K Peach and C Ekdahl)Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons and Accumulator Rings for High-Intensity Hadron Beams (J-Y Tang)Superconducting Hadron Linacs (P Ostroumov and F Gerigk)Ion Injectors for High Intensity Accelerators (M P Stockli and T Nakagawa)Charge Strippers of Heavy Ions for High-Intensity Accelerators (J A Nolen and F Marti)Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction (E Noah)High Intensity Neutron Beamlines (P M Bentley, C P Cooper-Jensen and K H Andersen)Beam-Materials Interactions (N V Mokhov)John Adams and CERN: Personal Recollections (G Brianti and D E Plane) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:High-Intensity Accelerators;High-Intensity Beams;Hadron Linacs;Fusion Energy

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W Chao
ISBN : 9789814651509
Genre : Science
File Size : 44. 21 MB
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The idea of colliding two particle beams to fully exploit the energy of accelerated particles was first proposed by Rolf Wideröe, who in 1943 applied for a patent on the collider concept and was awarded the patent in 1953. The first three colliders — AdA in Italy, CBX in the US, and VEP-1 in the then Soviet Union — came to operation about 50 years ago in the mid-1960s. A number of other colliders followed. Over the past decades, colliders defined the energy frontier in particle physics. Different types of colliers — proton–proton, proton–antiproton, electron–positron, electron–proton, electron-ion and ion-ion colliders — have played complementary roles in fully mapping out the constituents and forces in the Standard Model (SM). We are now at a point where all predicted SM constituents of matter and forces have been found, and all the latest ones were found at colliders. Colliders also play a critical role in advancing beam physics, accelerator research and technology development. It is timely that RAST Volume 7 is dedicated to Colliders. Contents:High Energy Colliding Beams: What Is Their Future? (B Richter)Proton–Proton and Proton–Antiproton Colliders (W Scandale)Electron–Positron Circular Colliders (K Oide)Ion Colliders (W Fischer and J M Jowett) Electron–Proton and Electron–Ion Colliders (I Ben-Zvi and V Ptitsyn) Linear Colliders (A Yamamoto and K Yokoya)Muon Colliders (R B Palmer) The Photon Collider (J Gronberg)Collider Beam Physics (F Zimmermann)Collision Technologies for Circular Colliders (E Levichev)Andy Sessler: The Full Life of an Accelerator Physicist (K-J Kim, R J Budnitz and H Winick) Readership: Physicists and engineers in accelerator science and industry. Keywords:Colliders;Accelerator Physics;Andrew Sessder;Accelerator Research

Reviews Of Accelerator Science And Technology

Author : Alexander W. Chao
ISBN : 9789812835215
Genre : Betatrons
File Size : 79. 67 MB
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Particle accelerators are a major invention of the 20th century. In the last eight decades, they have evolved enormously and have fundamentally changed the way we live, think and work. Accelerators are the most powerful microscopes for viewing the tiniest inner structure of cells, genes, molecules, atoms and their constituents such as protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and quarks. This opens up a whole new world for materials science, chemistry and molecular biology. Accelerators with megawatt beam power may ultimately solve a critical problem faced by our society, namely, the treatment of nuclear waste and the supply of an alternative type of energy. There are also tens of thousands of small accelerators all over the world. They are used every day for medical imaging, cancer therapy, radioisotope production, high-density chip-making, mass spectrometry, cargo x-ray/gamma-ray imaging, detection of explosives and illicit drugs, and weapons. This volume provides a comprehensive review of this driving and fascinating field

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