science in the 20th century and beyond history of science

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Science In The 20th Century And Beyond

Author : Jon Agar
ISBN : 9780745634692
Genre : History
File Size : 89. 21 MB
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Surveying modern developments in science from 1900 to the present day, this fascinating volume explores Einstein's new physics, the Manhattan Project, eugenics, biotechnology, the Human Genome Project and much more.

Science

Author : Patricia Fara
ISBN : 9780191655579
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 80 MB
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Science: A Four Thousand Year History rewrites science's past. Instead of focussing on difficult experiments and abstract theories, Patricia Fara shows how science has always belonged to the practical world of war, politics, and business. Rather than glorifying scientists as idealized heroes, she tells true stories about real people - men (and some women) who needed to earn their living, who made mistakes, and who trampled down their rivals in their quest for success. Fara sweeps through the centuries, from ancient Babylon right up to the latest hi-tech experiments in genetics and particle physics, illuminating the financial interests, imperial ambitions, and publishing enterprises that have made science the powerful global phenomenon that it is today. She also ranges internationally, illustrating the importance of scientific projects based around the world, from China to the Islamic empire, as well as the more familiar tale of science in Europe, from Copernicus to Charles Darwin and beyond. Above all, this four thousand year history challenges scientific supremacy, arguing controversially that science is successful not because it is always right - but because people have said that it is right.

Making 20th Century Science

Author : Stephen G. Brush
ISBN : 9780190266943
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 90 MB
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Historically, the scientific method has been said to require proposing a theory, making a prediction of something not already known, testing the prediction, and giving up the theory (or substantially changing it) if it fails the test. A theory that leads to several successful predictions is more likely to be accepted than one that only explains what is already known but not understood. This process is widely treated as the conventional method of achieving scientific progress, and was used throughout the twentieth century as the standard route to discovery and experimentation. But does science really work this way? In Making 20th Century Science, Stephen G. Brush discusses this question, as it relates to the development of science throughout the last century. Answering this question requires both a philosophically and historically scientific approach, and Brush blends the two in order to take a close look at how scientific methodology has developed. Several cases from the history of modern physical and biological science are examined, including Mendeleev's Periodic Law, Kekule's structure for benzene, the light-quantum hypothesis, quantum mechanics, chromosome theory, and natural selection. In general it is found that theories are accepted for a combination of successful predictions and better explanations of old facts. Making 20th Century Science is a large-scale historical look at the implementation of the scientific method, and how scientific theories come to be accepted.

Science Policies And Twentieth Century Dictatorships

Author : Amparo Gómez
ISBN : 9781317058953
Genre : History
File Size : 54. 10 MB
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Making a fresh contribution to the political history of science, this book explores the connections between the science policies of three countries that each experienced considerable political upheaval in the twentieth century: Spain, Italy and Argentina. By focussing on these three countries, the contributors are able to present case studies that highlight the characteristics and specificities of the democratic and dictatorial political processes involved in the production of science and technology. The focus on dictatorship presents the opportunity to expand our knowledge -beyond the more extensive literature about science in Nazi Germany and Stalinist USSR -about the level of political involvement of scientists in non-democratic contexts and to what extent they act as politicians in different contexts. Key topics covered include the new forms of organization and institutionalization of science in the twentieth century; the involvement of scientific communities in the governance of science and its institutions; the role of ideology in scientific development; the scientific practices adopted by scientific communities in different contexts; and the characteristics of science and technology produced in these contexts.

Basic And Applied Research

Author : David Kaldewey
ISBN : 9781785338106
Genre : History
File Size : 43. 38 MB
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Scientific research in different nations, particularly after World War II.

Quantum Generations

Author : Helge Kragh
ISBN : 0691095523
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 26 MB
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At the end of the nineteenth century, some physicists believed that the basic principles underlying their subject were already known, and that physics in the future would only consist of filling in the details. They could hardly have been more wrong. The past century has seen the rise of quantum mechanics, relativity, cosmology, particle physics, and solid-state physics, among other fields. These subjects have fundamentally changed our understanding of space, time, and matter. They have also transformed daily life, inspiring a technological revolution that has included the development of radio, television, lasers, nuclear power, and computers. In Quantum Generations, Helge Kragh, one of the world's leading historians of physics, presents a sweeping account of these extraordinary achievements of the past one hundred years. The first comprehensive one-volume history of twentieth-century physics, the book takes us from the discovery of X rays in the mid-1890s to superstring theory in the 1990s. Unlike most previous histories of physics, written either from a scientific perspective or from a social and institutional perspective, Quantum Generations combines both approaches. Kragh writes about pure science with the expertise of a trained physicist, while keeping the content accessible to nonspecialists and paying careful attention to practical uses of science, ranging from compact disks to bombs. As a historian, Kragh skillfully outlines the social and economic contexts that have shaped the field in the twentieth century. He writes, for example, about the impact of the two world wars, the fate of physics under Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin, the role of military research, the emerging leadership of the United States, and the backlash against science that began in the 1960s. He also shows how the revolutionary discoveries of scientists ranging from Einstein, Planck, and Bohr to Stephen Hawking have been built on the great traditions of earlier centuries. Combining a mastery of detail with a sure sense of the broad contours of historical change, Kragh has written a fitting tribute to the scientists who have played such a decisive role in the making of the modern world.

Science Technology And Latin American Narrative In The Twentieth Century And Beyond

Author : Jerry Hoeg
ISBN : 0934223610
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 84. 76 MB
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"Beginning with the scientific travelers and travelogues of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, this book traces the relations between the discourse of science and the discourse of literature through the influence of the human sciences in the first half of the twentieth century, and on to that of the communication and information sciences, including the new multimedia technologies in the second half of our century." "This book seeks to elucidate both the historical and the present responses of a technologically dependent culture to the discourse of science and technology, as these responses are represented in its literature. Additionally, the book endeavors to analyze the mutual influences of science, technology, and literature in order to ascertain the degree to which literature does serve, and might serve, to transform the roles of technology in Latin American society."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Distinguished African American Scientists Of The 20th Century

Author : James H. Kessler
ISBN : 0897749553
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 60. 59 MB
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Offers profiles of top African American scientists of the past one hundred years

War And Peace In The 20th Century And Beyond

Author : Geir Lundestad
ISBN : 9789814487238
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 35. 4 MB
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At the turn of the 21st Century, the world was immediately gripped by the War on Terrorism followed by the Iraq War. In reflection, the 20th Century was a period marked by tremendous technological and economic progress — but it was also the most violent century in human history. It witnessed two horrendous world wars, as well as the conflicts during the Cold War. Why do wars persistently erupt among nations, particularly the Great Powers? What are the primary factors that drive nations to violence — power, prestige, ideology or territory? Or is it motivated by pure fear and mistrust? Peering nervously at the 21st Century, we wonder whether American supremacy and globalization will help ensure peace and stability. Or will shifts in power with the emergence of new economic super-nations lead to further tensions and conflicts in this century? Together with 29 Peace Nobel laureates, an outstanding group of scholars gathered in Oslo, Norway, on December 6, 2001, for the three-day Nobel Centennial Symposium to discuss “The Conflicts of the 20th Century and the Solutions for the 21st Century”. Read this book for the scholars' candid insights and analyses, as well as their thought-provoking views on the factors that led to conflicts in the 20th Century and whether the 21st Century will be a more peaceful one. This is a rare — and possibly the best and only — book compilation of the highly intellectual analyses by world experts and Nobel Peace laureates on the perennial issues of War & Peace. Contents:Introduction: The Conflicts of the 20th Century and the Solutions for the 21st Century, Geir Lundestad & Olav Njølstad, The Norwegian Nobel InstituteDialogue and Cooperation to Achieve World Peace, Dae-Jung Kim, ex-President, The Republic of KoreaWar and Peace in the 20th Century, Eric Hobsbawm, Birkbeck College, University of LondonIdeologies and Polities: Liberal Democracy and National Dictatorship in Peace and, War Michael W Doyle, Princeton UniversityMaking Sense of Political Violence in Postcolonial Africa, Mahmood Mamdani, Columbia UniversityGlobal Inequality and Persistent Conflicts, Amartya Sen, University of Cambridge (UK), and the 1998 Nobel Prize winner in Economic SciencesThe Rise and Fall of Great Powers, Joseph S Nye, Harvard UniversityBeyond Militarism, Arms Races and Arms Control, Mary H Kaldor, London School of EconomicsRivalry over Territory and Resources and the Balance of Peace and War: The 20th Century, Louise Fawcett, St Catherine's College, Oxford UniversityMisperception, Mistrust, Fear, Akira Iriye, Harvard UniversityThe Nobel Peace Prize in Its Next Century: Old and New Dimensions, Geir Lundestad, The Norwegian Nobel Institute Readership: Students, researchers, academics, politicians, journalists, and anyone interested in 20th century history and peace and conflict studies. Keywords:War;Peace;20th Century;Conflicts and Solutions Nobel SymposiumReviews:“This beautifully produced and edited volume presents a fascinating collection of essays structured around the objectives engendered by the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize … this ensemble of contributions provides an excellent insight into the evolution of thinking about war and peace. As a reflection upon these crucial issues, it is readable, informative and highly recommended.”Journal of Peace Research

Beyond Positivism

Author : Bruce Caldwell
ISBN : 9781134838639
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 68. 2 MB
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Since its publication in 1982, Beyond Positivism has become established as one of the definitive statements on economic methodology. The book’s rejection of positivism and its advocacy of pluralism were to have a profound influence in the flowering of work methodology that has taken place in economics in the decade since its publication. This edition contains a new preface outlining the major developments in the area since the book’s first appearance. The book provides the first comprehensive treatment of twentieth century philosophy of science which emphasizes the issues relevant to economics. It proceeds to demonstrate this relevance by reviewing some of the key debates in the area. Having concluded that positivism has to be rejected, the author examines possible alternative bases for economic methodology. Arguing that there is no best method, he advocates methodological pluralism.

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