secrets of victory the office of censorship and the american press and radio in world war ii

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Secrets Of Victory

Author : Michael S. Sweeney
ISBN : 9780807875605
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 84. 82 MB
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During World War II, the civilian Office of Censorship supervised a huge and surprisingly successful program of news management: the voluntary self-censorship of the American press. In January 1942, censorship codebooks were distributed to all American newspapers, magazines, and radio stations with the request that journalists adhere to the guidelines within. Remarkably, over the course of the war no print journalist, and only one radio journalist, ever deliberately violated the censorship code after having been made aware of it and understanding its intent. Secrets of Victory examines the World War II censorship program and analyzes the reasons for its success. Using archival sources, including the Office of Censorship's own records, Michael Sweeney traces the development of news media censorship from a pressing necessity after the attack on Pearl Harbor to the centralized yet efficient bureaucracy that persuaded thousands of journalists to censor themselves for the sake of national security. At the heart of this often dramatic story is the Office of Censorship's director Byron Price. A former reporter himself, Price relied on cooperation with--rather than coercion of--American journalists in his fight to safeguard the nation's secrets.

Censorship In The American Press In World War Ii And The Code Of Wartime Practices

Author : Ludwig Andert
ISBN : 9783638034203
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 26. 76 MB
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Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject Communications - Media and Politics, Politic Communications, grade: 1,3, University of Siegen, course: Censorship - Concept & Case Studies, 12 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: On June 25th, 1943, American press editors received a confidential note, the contents an purpose of which was hard to understand even for those who were familiar with the technical terms. It said: “[...] you are asked not to publish or broadcast any information whatever regarding war experiments involving: Production or utilization of atom smashing, atomic energy, atomic fission, atomic splitting, or any of their equivalents. The use for military purposes of radium or radioactive materials, heavy water, high voltage discharge equipment, cyclotrons. The following elements or any of their compounds: polonium, uranium, ytterbium, hafnium, protactinium, radium, rhenium, thorium, deuterium.” What sounded “like Greek” to the selected adressees of the request, in retrospective can be identified even by an amateur as the attempt to hide evidence that the US government was doing research on a nuclear device. It was about to play a decisive role in the ending of the Pacific War. Since the United States' entry in World War II, domestic censorship had to draw a line very carefully: On the one hand, the First Amendment to the Constitution grands the freedom of speech and the press; on the other hand, sensitive information, if revealed to the public, could fall into the hands of enemy agents. To handle this task, the government set in effect a voluntary censorship, building up on every journalist's patriotic instinct not to publish anything that might be a threat to the war effort. How was censorship organized? What kind of information was censored? Is there an actual difference between voluntary and mandatory censorship? These are questions the following research paper will elaborate on. A brief overview of the practices of censorship in times of war will accompany the analysis. Finally, the text makes an attempt to answer the question how the United States “survived” the censorship period and how it affected further censorship strategies. An important source for this paper is the book “Secrets of Victory. The Office of Censorship and the American Press and Radio in World War II” by Michael S. Sweeney, that has been published in 2001. Censorship of the press during war is common to many countries and has been used for strategic ends in many periods of time. A characteristic for modern wars in particular is a “difference of interest”, with journalists torn between their task to report “as truthfully as possible” and a responsibility not to help the enemy.

Encyclopedia Of War And American Society

Author : Peter Karsten
ISBN : 9780761930976
Genre : History
File Size : 63. 78 MB
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This Encyclopedia, in three volumes, cover a wide range of general thematic categories, issues and topics that address not only the geopolitical effects of war, but also show how the United States engagement in national and international conflicts has affected the social and cultural arena.

The Home Front Encyclopedia

Author : James Ciment
ISBN : 9781576078495
Genre : History
File Size : 88. 77 MB
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An encyclopedia of life on the home front during the two world wars provides biographical profiles, articles on all aspects of life during the era, chronologies of important events, and primary source documents.

One World Big Screen

Author : M. Todd Bennett
ISBN : 9780807837467
Genre : History
File Size : 36. 93 MB
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World War II coincided with cinema's golden age. Movies now considered classics were created at a time when all sides in the war were coming to realize the great power of popular films to motivate the masses. Through multinational research, One World, Big Screen reveals how the Grand Alliance--Britain, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States--tapped Hollywood's impressive power to shrink the distance and bridge the differences that separated them. The Allies, M. Todd Bennett shows, strategically manipulated cinema in an effort to promote the idea that the United Nations was a family of nations joined by blood and affection. Bennett revisits Casablanca, Mrs. Miniver, Flying Tigers, and other familiar movies that, he argues, helped win the war and the peace by improving Allied solidarity and transforming the American worldview. Closely analyzing film, diplomatic correspondence, propagandists' logs, and movie studio records found in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union, Bennett rethinks traditional scholarship on World War II diplomacy by examining the ways that Hollywood and the Allies worked together to prepare for and enact the war effort.

Studies In Intelligence

Author :
ISBN : PURD:32754075456883
Genre : Intelligence service
File Size : 24. 63 MB
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The Military And The Press

Author : Michael S. Sweeney
ISBN : 9780810122994
Genre : History
File Size : 52. 64 MB
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Because news is a weapon of war--affecting public opinion, troop morale, even strategy--for more than a century America's wartime officials have sought to control or influence the press, most recently by "embedding" reporters within military units in Iraq. This second front, where press freedom and military imperatives often do battle, is the territory explored in The Military and the Press, a history of how press-military relations have evolved during the twentieth and twenty-first century in response to the demands of politics, economics, technology, and legal and social forces. Author Michael S. Sweeney takes a chronological approach, considering freedoms and restraints such as the First Amendment, court decisions, and government and military directives that have affected the press during World Wars I and II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the more recent conflicts. He explores the ongoing themes of wartime censorship and propaganda, as well as operational security in the battle zone. In chapters addressing the recent shift in military strategy in dealing with the press, Sweeney discusses new forms of control--from embedding journalists and discouraging unaccredited "unilaterals" to developing the news agenda through a barrage of briefings, sound bites, and visuals and appeals to patriotism that border on domestic propaganda. With profiles of a few specific journalists--from Richard Harding Davis covering the Spanish-American War to Christiane Amanpour reporting from the conflicts in Bosnia and Iraq--this deft blend of journalistic history and analysis should serve as a call-to-arms to a public not always well served by a military-press standoff.

Doomsday Preppers Complete Survival Manual

Author : Michael Sweeney
ISBN : 9781426211232
Genre : Reference
File Size : 51. 13 MB
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This custom companion to the blockbuster National Geographic Channel series Doomsday Preppersis filled with how-to illustrations, "Prepper Profiles" of people in the show, and survival tips from preppers themselves. Handy and comprehensive, the manual offers valuable life-saving information to help prepare for the most devastating calamities. Episodes of this highly original show, which debuted in February 2012, explore the lives of otherwise ordinary Americans who are preparing for the end of the world as we know it. Preppers go to extraordinary lengths to plan for any of life's uncertainties, from constructing a home out of shipping containers and stockpiling 50,000 lbs. of food to practicing evacuation drills and hand-to-hand combat. This book is an essential component.

The Impact Of Censorship During World War Ii On The Average American

Author : Cordula Zwanzig
ISBN : 9783656583356
Genre : History
File Size : 27. 98 MB
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Essay from the year 2013 in the subject History - America, grade: 66points > 1,9, University of Warwick (Dept. of History), course: North America: Themes and Problems, language: English, abstract: “The war came as a great relief, like a reverse earthquake, that in one terrible jerk shook everything disjointed, distorted, askew back into place. Japanese bombs had finally brought national unity to the U.S.”. All nations participating in the Second World War used one or another strategy to commit their countries to war. Government-conducted manipulation of informing a people can be differentiated into an active channel, propaganda, and a non-active one, censorship. Even though, propaganda and censorship usually cohere, this essay shall only throw a light on how US-American censorship shaped the average citizen’s perception before, while, and after World War II.


Author : National Geographic
ISBN : 9781426209796
Genre : History
File Size : 28. 5 MB
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On the 100th anniversary of Titanic's sinking, National Geographic revisits the romance, glory, and tragedy of this tremendous ship and presents an insider’s look at the new findings about the passengers and scientific study of the wreck site. For 100 years the great ship Titanic has rested in its final grave on the ocean floor, lost to deep ocean darkness until its 1985 discovery by National Geographic’s Bob Ballard. Relive the spell-binding tragic final hours of the ship in a detailed retelling of the famous story and learn the personal stories of lesser-known passengers, including the “guarantees.” For the first time since its discovery, Ballard travels to Belfast to interview descendants of the ship builders and the “guarantee group”—the ill-fated men who traveled on the ship’s first voyage to assure its seaworthiness. Understand underwater mapping techniques that have brought Titanic’s debris field into high resolution, and get a glimpse of current deep ocean scientific research on the wreckage and the future of underwater exploration.

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