sex allocation monographs in population biology

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Some Mathematical Questions In Biology Sex Allocation And Sex Change

Author : Marc Mangel
ISBN : 0821897179
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 61 MB
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The seven articles in this volume are based on lectures presented at the annual symposium, Some Mathematical Questions in Biology, held in conjunction with the American Institute of Biological Sciences meeting in Toronto, Ontario in August 1989. Sexual selection, sex determination, and sex allocation have been at the center of evolutionary ecology since its inception and have played an important role in the development of many concepts. As this volume demonstrates, many key questions remain to be investigated through a combination of empirical and theoretical work. In addition, questions of sex provide a natural mechanism for crossing the great taxonomic divide by allowing plant and animal researchers to focus on similar kinds of questions using a wide variety of organisms.

Sex Allocation

Author : Stuart West
ISBN : 9781400832019
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 85 MB
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Recent decades have witnessed an explosion of theoretical and empirical studies of sex allocation, transforming how we understand the allocation of resources to male and female reproduction in vertebrates, invertebrates, protozoa, and plants. In this landmark book, Stuart West synthesizes the vast literature on sex allocation, providing the conceptual framework the field has been lacking and demonstrating how sex-allocation studies can shed light on broader questions in evolutionary and behavioral biology. West clarifies fundamental misconceptions in the application of theory to empirical data. He examines the field's successes and failures, and describes the research areas where much important work is yet to be done. West reveals how a shared underlying theoretical framework unites findings of sex-ratio variation across a huge range of life forms, from malarial parasites and hermaphroditic worms to sex-changing fish and mammals. He shows how research on sex allocation has been central to many critical questions and controversies in evolutionary and behavioral biology, and he argues that sex-allocation research serves as a key testing ground for different theoretical approaches and can help resolve debates about social evolution, parent-offspring conflict, genomic conflict, and levels of selection. Certain to become the defining book on the subject for the next generation of researchers, Sex Allocation explains why the study of sex allocation provides an ideal model system for advancing our understanding of the constraints on adaptation among all living things in the natural world.

The Acari

Author : Reinhart Schuster
ISBN : 9789401131025
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 71 MB
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During the Inaugural Meeting of the European Association of Acarol ogists (EURAAC), held in Amsterdam in 1987, it was decided that the holding of a Symposium at regular intervals should be a major objective. With this in view, it was agreed that Professor Reinhart Schuster, the senior editor, be invited to accept the Presidency of the Association and, arising from that Office, to organize the first Symposium in Austria in 1988. There was strong support for a main theme focused on a particular aspect of acarology. From these discussions there emerged the proposal that emphasis be placed on aspects of reproduction, development and life-history strategies of the Acari. These were topics in the forefront of the discipline with exciting developments of interest not only to acarologists but to a wider audience because of the light they cast on fundamental processes in physiology, ecology and evolutionary biology. The object then was to invite a small number of key workers to present extended papers related to the main theme. There were seven of these all of which appear in the book. The remaining 51 contributions were offered papers a number of which fit within the framework of the Symposium theme.

Integrating Ecology And Evolution In A Spatial Context

Author : Jonathan Silvertown
ISBN : 0521549337
Genre : Nature
File Size : 53. 63 MB
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The profound consequences of the deceptively obvious statement that plants stand still but their genes don't are only just becoming clear. In this volume, an international team of authors, experts in the field of population biology, aim to advance our understanding of ecological and evolutionary processes by integrating them within a common frame of reference: space. Processes operating at three different spatial scales are examined: that of the population, metapopulation and the geographical range. Themes that recur at these different scales include spatial population dynamics, population genetics at boundaries, the imprint of spatial population dynamics upon genetic structure, adaptation, evolution of mating systems and the consequences of population genetics for ecological dynamics. Whilst the focus is largely on plants, the questions addressed are equally applicable to animals. It will be a valuable tool for researchers and advanced students, not only in this field, but also evolutionary biology and resource management.

Population Genetics And Evolution

Author : Gerdina de Jong
ISBN : 9783642730696
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 92 MB
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At least since the 1940s neo-Darwinism has prevailed as the consensus view in the study of evolution. The mechanism of evolution in this view is natural selection leading to adaptation, working on a substrate of adapta tionally random mutations. As both the study of genetic variation in natural populations, and the study of the mathematical equations of selec tion are reckoned to a field called population genetics, population genetics came to form the core in the theory of evolution. So much so, that the fact that there is more to the theory of evolution than population genetics became somewhat obscured. The genetics of the evolutionary process, or the genetics of evolutionary change, came close to being all of evolutionary biology. In the last 10 years, this dominating position of population genetics within evolutionary biology has been challenged. In evolutionary ecology, optimization theory proved more useful than population genetics for interesting predictions, especially of life history strategies. From develop mental biology, constraints in development and the role of internal regula tion were emphasized. From paleobiology, a proposal was put forward to describe the fossil record and the evolutionary process as a series of punc tuated equilibria; thus exhorting population geneticists to give a plausible account of how such might come about. All these developments tend to obscure the central role of population genetics in evolutionary biology.

Genetic Structure And Local Adaptation In Natural Insect Populations

Author : Susan Mopper
ISBN : 9781475709025
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 72 MB
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Providing an essential foundation for evolutionary theory, this comprehensive volume examines patterns of genetic variation within natural insect populations, and explores the underlying mechanisms that lead to the genetic divergence of coexisting organisms. In particular, the text investigates current research on finescale genetic structure in natural insect populations. Internationally renowned scientists offer a wealth of current information not previously published. Part I present case studies of adaptive genetic structure in natural insect populations, including a critical discussion of the strenghts and weaknesses of the experimental methods employed. Part II addresses the ecological mechanisms that produce adaptive genetic structure in natural insect populations. Part III describes how behavioral and life-history patterns influence genetic structure. Finally, Part IV combines theoretical and empirical approaches linking genetic structure at the population level with larger-scale patterns of variation, such as host race formation and speciation. This broad-ranging, interdisciplinary source of information supplies a thorough examination of the mechanisms that promote and impede genetic structure in natural insect populations. It is a book that will be of interest to undergraduate and graduate students, and to researchers in the fields of ecology, evolution, insect and plant systems, entomology, and population genetics.

Perspectives In Ecological Theory

Author : Jonathan Roughgarden
ISBN : 9781400860180
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 70 MB
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This volume presents an overview of current accomplishments and future directions in ecological theory. The twenty-three chapters cover a broad range of important topics, from the physiology and behavior of individuals or groups of organisms, through population dynamics and community structure, to the ecology of ecosystems and the geochemical cycles of the entire biosphere. The authors focus on ways in which theory, whether expressed mathematically or verbally, can contribute to defining and solving fundamental problems in ecology. A second aim is to highlight areas where dialogue between theorists and empiricists is likely to be especially rewarding. The authors are R. M. Anderson, C. W. Clark, M. L. Cody, J. E. Cohen, P. R. Ehrlich, M. W. Feldman, M. E. Gilpin, L. J. Gross, M. P. Hassell, H. S. Horn, P. Kareiva, M.A.R. Koehl, S. A. Levin, R. M. May, L. D. Mueller, R. V. O'Neill, S. W. Pacala, S. L. Pimm, T. M. Powell, H. R. Pulliam, J. Roughgarden, W. H. Schlesinger, H. H. Shugart, S. M. Stanley, J. H. Steele, D. Tilman, J. Travis, and D. L. Urban. Originally published in 1989. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

The Behaviour Of Teleost Fishes

Author : Tony J. Pitcher
ISBN : 9781468482614
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 82 MB
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This book is about the behaviour of teleosts, a well-defined, highly successful, taxonomic group of vertebrate animals sharing a common body plan and forming the vast majority of living bony fishes. There are weH over 22000 living species of teleosts, including nearly all those of importance in com mercial fisheries and aquaculture. Teleosts are represented injust about every conceivable aquatic environment from temporary desert pools to the deep ocean, from soda lakes to sub-zero Antarctic waters. Behaviour is the primary interface between these effective survival machines and their environment: behavioural plasticity is one of the keys to their success. The study of animal behaviour has undergone revolutionary changes in the past decade under the dual impact of behavioural ecology and sociobiology. The modern body of theory provides quantitatively testable and experi mentaHy accessible hypotheses. Much current work in animal behaviour has concentrated on birds and mammals, animals with ostensibly more complex structure, physiology and behavioural capacity, but there is a growing body of information about the behaviour of fishes. There is now increasing awareness that the same ecological and evolutionary rules govern teleost fish, and that their behaviour is not just a simplified version of that seen in birds and mammals. The details of fish behaviour intimately reflect unique and efficient adaptations to their three-dimensional aquatic environment.

Evolution

Author : Paul J. Greenwood
ISBN : 0521257344
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 91 MB
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John Maynard Smith was originally trained as an engineer but, despite important excursions into animal mechanics, ecology and ethology, he is now best known as an international authority on evolution. His pre-eminence is based in large part on original research contributions coupled with an uncanny ability for revealing simple explanations to apparently intractable problems. This wide-ranging volume contains a collection of new and original essays, all inspired by Maynard Smith's writings. The essays span the whole field of evolutionary biology: from microevolution to macroevolution; from evolutionarily stable strategies to sympatric speciation; and from population processes in plants to the arithmetic of assessment in animals.

Reef Fisheries

Author : Polunin Nicholas V.C.
ISBN : 9789401587792
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 5 MB
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Reef ecosystems extend throughout the tropics. Exploited by small-scale fishers, reefs supply food for millions of people, but, worldwide, there are growing worries about the productivity and current state of these ecosystems. Reef fish stocks display many features of fisheries elsewhere. However, habitat spatial complexity, biological diversity within and among species, ecosystem intricacy and variable means of exploitation make it hard to predict sustainable modes and levels of fishing.

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