sex allocation monographs in population biology

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The Theory Of Sex Allocation

Author : Eric L. Charnov
ISBN : 9780691083124
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 83 MB
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This book is the first comprehensive treatment of sex allocation from the standpoint of modern evolutionary theory. It shows how the determination of sex ratio, resource allocation to sperm versus egg within simultaneous hermaphroditism, and the evolution of sex reversal can he explained as examples of a single process. The genetical theory, developed mostly with graphical arguments, also specifies when hermaphroditism and dioecy are themselves evolutionary stable. The work balances theory with field and laboratory research, providing critical tests of the theory by empirical studies of sex ratio in parasitoid wasps and mites, sex reversal in shrimp and coral reef fish, and allocation of resources to pollen versus seeds in higher plants. In addition, the author oilers an encyclopedic review of the field and laboratory work of other scientists, reviews many as yet untested hypotheses in sex allocation, and points toward numerous plant and animal systems that hold promise for future tests.

Sex Allocation

Author : Stuart West
ISBN : 9781400832019
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 15 MB
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Recent decades have witnessed an explosion of theoretical and empirical studies of sex allocation, transforming how we understand the allocation of resources to male and female reproduction in vertebrates, invertebrates, protozoa, and plants. In this landmark book, Stuart West synthesizes the vast literature on sex allocation, providing the conceptual framework the field has been lacking and demonstrating how sex-allocation studies can shed light on broader questions in evolutionary and behavioral biology. West clarifies fundamental misconceptions in the application of theory to empirical data. He examines the field's successes and failures, and describes the research areas where much important work is yet to be done. West reveals how a shared underlying theoretical framework unites findings of sex-ratio variation across a huge range of life forms, from malarial parasites and hermaphroditic worms to sex-changing fish and mammals. He shows how research on sex allocation has been central to many critical questions and controversies in evolutionary and behavioral biology, and he argues that sex-allocation research serves as a key testing ground for different theoretical approaches and can help resolve debates about social evolution, parent-offspring conflict, genomic conflict, and levels of selection. Certain to become the defining book on the subject for the next generation of researchers, Sex Allocation explains why the study of sex allocation provides an ideal model system for advancing our understanding of the constraints on adaptation among all living things in the natural world.

Some Mathematical Questions In Biology Sex Allocation And Sex Change

Author : Marc Mangel
ISBN : 0821897179
Genre : Science
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The seven articles in this volume are based on lectures presented at the annual symposium, Some Mathematical Questions in Biology, held in conjunction with the American Institute of Biological Sciences meeting in Toronto, Ontario in August 1989. Sexual selection, sex determination, and sex allocation have been at the center of evolutionary ecology since its inception and have played an important role in the development of many concepts. As this volume demonstrates, many key questions remain to be investigated through a combination of empirical and theoretical work. In addition, questions of sex provide a natural mechanism for crossing the great taxonomic divide by allowing plant and animal researchers to focus on similar kinds of questions using a wide variety of organisms.

Population Genetics And Evolution

Author : Gerdina de Jong
ISBN : 9783642730696
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 2 MB
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At least since the 1940s neo-Darwinism has prevailed as the consensus view in the study of evolution. The mechanism of evolution in this view is natural selection leading to adaptation, working on a substrate of adapta tionally random mutations. As both the study of genetic variation in natural populations, and the study of the mathematical equations of selec tion are reckoned to a field called population genetics, population genetics came to form the core in the theory of evolution. So much so, that the fact that there is more to the theory of evolution than population genetics became somewhat obscured. The genetics of the evolutionary process, or the genetics of evolutionary change, came close to being all of evolutionary biology. In the last 10 years, this dominating position of population genetics within evolutionary biology has been challenged. In evolutionary ecology, optimization theory proved more useful than population genetics for interesting predictions, especially of life history strategies. From develop mental biology, constraints in development and the role of internal regula tion were emphasized. From paleobiology, a proposal was put forward to describe the fossil record and the evolutionary process as a series of punc tuated equilibria; thus exhorting population geneticists to give a plausible account of how such might come about. All these developments tend to obscure the central role of population genetics in evolutionary biology.

The Acari

Author : Reinhart Schuster
ISBN : 9789401131025
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 38 MB
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During the Inaugural Meeting of the European Association of Acarol ogists (EURAAC), held in Amsterdam in 1987, it was decided that the holding of a Symposium at regular intervals should be a major objective. With this in view, it was agreed that Professor Reinhart Schuster, the senior editor, be invited to accept the Presidency of the Association and, arising from that Office, to organize the first Symposium in Austria in 1988. There was strong support for a main theme focused on a particular aspect of acarology. From these discussions there emerged the proposal that emphasis be placed on aspects of reproduction, development and life-history strategies of the Acari. These were topics in the forefront of the discipline with exciting developments of interest not only to acarologists but to a wider audience because of the light they cast on fundamental processes in physiology, ecology and evolutionary biology. The object then was to invite a small number of key workers to present extended papers related to the main theme. There were seven of these all of which appear in the book. The remaining 51 contributions were offered papers a number of which fit within the framework of the Symposium theme.

Integrating Ecology And Evolution In A Spatial Context

Author : Jonathan Silvertown
ISBN : 0521549337
Genre : Nature
File Size : 26. 83 MB
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The profound consequences of the deceptively obvious statement that plants stand still but their genes don't are only just becoming clear. In this volume, an international team of authors, experts in the field of population biology, aim to advance our understanding of ecological and evolutionary processes by integrating them within a common frame of reference: space. Processes operating at three different spatial scales are examined: that of the population, metapopulation and the geographical range. Themes that recur at these different scales include spatial population dynamics, population genetics at boundaries, the imprint of spatial population dynamics upon genetic structure, adaptation, evolution of mating systems and the consequences of population genetics for ecological dynamics. Whilst the focus is largely on plants, the questions addressed are equally applicable to animals. It will be a valuable tool for researchers and advanced students, not only in this field, but also evolutionary biology and resource management.

The Behaviour Of Teleost Fishes

Author : Tony J. Pitcher
ISBN : 9781468482614
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 23 MB
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This book is about the behaviour of teleosts, a well-defined, highly successful, taxonomic group of vertebrate animals sharing a common body plan and forming the vast majority of living bony fishes. There are weH over 22000 living species of teleosts, including nearly all those of importance in com mercial fisheries and aquaculture. Teleosts are represented injust about every conceivable aquatic environment from temporary desert pools to the deep ocean, from soda lakes to sub-zero Antarctic waters. Behaviour is the primary interface between these effective survival machines and their environment: behavioural plasticity is one of the keys to their success. The study of animal behaviour has undergone revolutionary changes in the past decade under the dual impact of behavioural ecology and sociobiology. The modern body of theory provides quantitatively testable and experi mentaHy accessible hypotheses. Much current work in animal behaviour has concentrated on birds and mammals, animals with ostensibly more complex structure, physiology and behavioural capacity, but there is a growing body of information about the behaviour of fishes. There is now increasing awareness that the same ecological and evolutionary rules govern teleost fish, and that their behaviour is not just a simplified version of that seen in birds and mammals. The details of fish behaviour intimately reflect unique and efficient adaptations to their three-dimensional aquatic environment.

Theoretical Studies On Sex Ratio Evolution

Author : Samuel Karlin
ISBN : 0691084122
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 62 MB
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This book deals with a key area of population genetics: the ratio of the sexes in a population, or the allocation of resources to male versus female reproductive function. Samuel Karlin and Sabin Lessard establish the formal theoretical aspects of the evolution of sex ratio within the constraints of genetic mechanisms of sex determination. Their results generalize and unify existing work on the topic, strengthening previous conceptions in some cases and, in other instances, offering new directions of research. There are two main approaches to understanding the causes and effects of sex ratio. One approach focuses on the optimization and adaptive functions of sex allocation, while the other emphasizes the consequences of genetic sex determination mechanisms. In discussing the utility of these two approaches, Professors Karlin and Lessard examine the principal sex-determining mechanisms and facts involved in sex ratio representations, the various genetic and environmental factors that contribute to adaptive sex expression, and the evolution of sex determining systems and controls. From a population genetic perspective, the authors derive evolutionary properties in support of the high incidence of 1:1 sex ratio in natural populations and investigate the conditions that can explain the occurrence of biased sex ratio.

Geographic Variation Speciation And Clines

Author : John A. Endler
ISBN : 0691081921
Genre : Science
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Geographic Variation, Speciation and Clines explores the origins and development of geographic variation, divergence, and speciation. In particular it is concerned with genetic divergence as it is usually found on continents, among groups of populations isolated only by distance. Although earlier writers on this topic considered the effects of geography and dispersal, intense geographic differentiation and speciation were thought to require complete isolation. Professor Endler shows how geographic differentiation and speciation may develop in spite of continuous gene flow. Following a review of the diverse and scattered literature on gene flow and population differentiation, the author discusses the relationships among gene flow, dispersal, and migration. He then summarizes the factors which limit the geographic extent of gene flow, and those which allow steep clines to develop in the absence of barriers to gene flow. His analysis draws on examples from the field, experiments, and single- and multiple-locus models. The mechanism and conditions for parapatric speciation are presented: steepening clines, development into hybrid zones, and the evolution of sexual isolation. In the final chapter the author considers the interpretation of natural clines and the associated geographic patterns of subspecies and species.

The Population Biology Of Tuberculosis

Author : Christopher Dye
ISBN : 9781400866571
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 80 MB
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Despite decades of developments in immunization and drug therapy, tuberculosis remains among the leading causes of human mortality, and no country has successfully eradicated the disease. Reenvisioning tuberculosis from the perspective of population biology, this book examines why the disease is so persistent and what must be done to fight it. Treating tuberculosis and its human hosts as dynamic, interacting populations, Christopher Dye seeks new answers to key questions by drawing on demography, ecology, epidemiology, evolution, and population genetics. Dye uses simple mathematical models to investigate how cases and deaths could be reduced, and how interventions could lead to TB elimination. Dye's analysis reveals a striking gap between the actual and potential impact of current interventions, especially drug treatment, and he suggests placing more emphasis on early case detection and the treatment of active or incipient tuberculosis. He argues that the response to disappointingly slow rates of disease decline is not to abandon long-established principles of chemotherapy, but to implement them with greater vigor. Summarizing epidemiological insights from population biology, Dye stresses the need to take a more inclusive view of the factors that affect disease, including characteristics of the pathogen, individuals and populations, health care systems, and physical and social environments. In broadening the horizons of TB research, The Population Biology of Tuberculosis demonstrates what must be done to prevent, control, and defeat this global threat in the twenty-first century.

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