shared memory synchronization synthesis lectures on computer architecture

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Shared Memory Synchronization

Author : Michael L. Scott
ISBN : 9781608459575
Genre : Computers
File Size : 62. 96 MB
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From driving, flying, and swimming, to digging for unknown objects in space exploration, autonomous robots take on varied shapes and sizes. In part, autonomous robots are designed to perform tasks that are too dirty, dull, or dangerous for humans. With nontrivial autonomy and volition, they may soon claim their own place in human society. These robots will be our allies as we strive for understanding our natural and man-made environments and build positive synergies around us. Although we may never perfect replication of biological capabilities in robots, we must harness the inevitable emergence of robots that synchronizes with our own capacities to live, learn, and grow. This book is a snapshot of motivations and methodologies for our collective attempts to transform our lives and enable us to cohabit with robots that work with and for us. It reviews and guides the reader to seminal and continual developments that are the foundations for successful paradigms. It attempts to demystify the abilities and limitations of robots. It is a progress report on the continuing work that will fuel future endeavors. Table of Contents: Part I: Preliminaries/Agency, Motion, and Anatomy/Behaviors / Architectures / Affect/Sensors / Manipulators/Part II: Mobility/Potential Fields/Roadmaps / Reactive Navigation / Multi-Robot Mapping: Brick and Mortar Strategy / Part III: State of the Art / Multi-Robotics Phenomena / Human-Robot Interaction / Fuzzy Control / Decision Theory and Game Theory / Part IV: On the Horizon / Applications: Macro and Micro Robots / References / Author Biography / Discussion

A Primer On Memory Consistency And Cache Coherence

Author : Daniel Sorin
ISBN : 9781608455652
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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Many modern computer systems and most multicore chips (chip multiprocessors) support shared memory in hardware. In a shared memory system, each of the processor cores may read and write to a single shared address space. For a shared memory machine, the memory consistency model defines the architecturally visible behavior of its memory system. Consistency definitions provide rules about loads and stores (or memory reads and writes) and how they act upon memory. As part of supporting a memory consistency model, many machines also provide cache coherence protocols that ensure that multiple cached copies of data are kept up-to-date. The goal of this primer is to provide readers with a basic understanding of consistency and coherence. This understanding includes both the issues that must be solved as well as a variety of solutions. We present both highlevel concepts as well as specific, concrete examples from real-world systems. Table of Contents: Preface / Introduction to Consistency and Coherence / Coherence Basics / Memory Consistency Motivation and Sequential Consistency / Total Store Order and the x86 Memory Model / Relaxed Memory Consistency / Coherence Protocols / Snooping Coherence Protocols / Directory Coherence Protocols / Advanced Topics in Coherence / Author Biographies

Multi Core Cache Hierarchies

Author : Rajeev Balasubramonian
ISBN : 9781598297546
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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A key determinant of overall system performance and power dissipation is the cache hierarchy since access to off-chip memory consumes many more cycles and energy than on-chip accesses. In addition, multi-core processors are expected to place ever higher bandwidth demands on the memory system. All these issues make it important to avoid off-chip memory access by improving the efficiency of the on-chip cache. Future multi-core processors will have many large cache banks connected by a network and shared by many cores. Hence, many important problems must be solved: cache resources must be allocated across many cores, data must be placed in cache banks that are near the accessing core, and the most important data must be identified for retention. Finally, difficulties in scaling existing technologies require adapting to and exploiting new technology constraints. The book attempts a synthesis of recent cache research that has focused on innovations for multi-core processors. It is an excellent starting point for early-stage graduate students, researchers, and practitioners who wish to understand the landscape of recent cache research. The book is suitable as a reference for advanced computer architecture classes as well as for experienced researchers and VLSI engineers. Table of Contents: Basic Elements of Large Cache Design / Organizing Data in CMP Last Level Caches / Policies Impacting Cache Hit Rates / Interconnection Networks within Large Caches / Technology / Concluding Remarks

The Memory System

Author : Bruce Jacob
ISBN : 9781598295870
Genre : Computers
File Size : 29. 50 MB
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Today, computer-system optimization, at both the hardware and software levels, must consider the details of the memory system in its analysis; failing to do so yields systems that are increasingly inefficient as those systems become more complex. This lecture seeks to introduce the reader to the most important details of the memory system; it targets both computer scientists and computer engineers in industry and in academia. Roughly speaking, computer scientists are the users of the memory system and computer engineers are the designers of the memory system. Both can benefit tremendously from a basic understanding of how the memory system really works: the computer scientist will be better equipped to create algorithms that perform well and the computer engineer will be better equipped to design systems that approach the optimal, given the resource limitations. Currently, there is consensus among architecture researchers that the memory system is "the bottleneck," and this consensus has held for over a decade. Somewhat inexplicably, most of the research in the field is still directed toward improving the CPU to better tolerate a slow memory system, as opposed to addressing the weaknesses of the memory system directly. This lecture should get the bulk of the computer science and computer engineering population up the steep part of the learning curve. Not every CS/CE researcher/developer needs to do work in the memory system, but, just as a carpenter can do his job more efficiently if he knows a little of architecture, and an architect can do his job more efficiently if he knows a little of carpentry, giving the CS/CE worlds better intuition about the memory system should help them build better systems, both software and hardware. Table of Contents: Primers / It Must Be Modeled Accurately / ...\ and It Will Change Soon

Multithreading Architecture

Author : Mario Nemirovsky
ISBN : 9781608458561
Genre : Computers
File Size : 66. 47 MB
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Multithreaded architectures now appear across the entire range of computing devices, from the highest-performing general purpose devices to low-end embedded processors. Multithreading enables a processor core to more effectively utilize its computational resources, as a stall in one thread need not cause execution resources to be idle. This enables the computer architect to maximize performance within area constraints, power constraints, or energy constraints. However, the architectural options for the processor designer or architect looking to implement multithreading are quite extensive and varied, as evidenced not only by the research literature but also by the variety of commercial implementations. This book introduces the basic concepts of multithreading, describes a number of models of multithreading, and then develops the three classic models (coarse-grain, fine-grain, and simultaneous multithreading) in greater detail. It describes a wide variety of architectural and software design tradeoffs, as well as opportunities specific to multithreading architectures. Finally, it details a number of important commercial and academic hardware implementations of multithreading. Table of Contents: Introduction / Multithreaded Execution Models / Coarse-Grain Multithreading / Fine-Grain Multithreading / Simultaneous Multithreading / Managing Contention / New Opportunities for Multithreaded Processors / Experimentation and Metrics / Implementations of Multithreaded Processors / Conclusion

Principles Of Transactional Memory

Author : Rachid Guerraoui
ISBN : 9781608450114
Genre : Computers
File Size : 43. 35 MB
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Transactional memory (TM) is an appealing paradigm for concurrent programming on shared memory architectures. With a TM, threads of an application communicate, and synchronize their actions, via in-memory transactions. Transactions are atomic: programmers get the illusion that every transaction executes all its operations instantaneously, at some single and unique point in time. The aim of this book is to provide theoretical foundations for transactional memory.

Architectural And Operating System Support For Virtual Memory

Author : Abhishek Bhattacharjee
ISBN : 9781627059336
Genre : Computers
File Size : 20. 58 MB
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This book provides computer engineers, academic researchers, new graduate students, and seasoned practitioners an end-to-end overview of virtual memory. We begin with a recap of foundational concepts and discuss not only state-of-the-art virtual memory hardware and software support available today, but also emerging research trends in this space. The span of topics covers processor microarchitecture, memory systems, operating system design, and memory allocation. We show how efficient virtual memory implementations hinge on careful hardware and software cooperation, and we discuss new research directions aimed at addressing emerging problems in this space. Virtual memory is a classic computer science abstraction and one of the pillars of the computing revolution. It has long enabled hardware flexibility, software portability, and overall better security, to name just a few of its powerful benefits. Nearly all user-level programs today take for granted that they will have been freed from the burden of physical memory management by the hardware, the operating system, device drivers, and system libraries. However, despite its ubiquity in systems ranging from warehouse-scale datacenters to embedded Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the overheads of virtual memory are becoming a critical performance bottleneck today. Virtual memory architectures designed for individual CPUs or even individual cores are in many cases struggling to scale up and scale out to today's systems which now increasingly include exotic hardware accelerators (such as GPUs, FPGAs, or DSPs) and emerging memory technologies (such as non-volatile memory), and which run increasingly intensive workloads (such as virtualized and/or "big data" applications). As such, many of the fundamental abstractions and implementation approaches for virtual memory are being augmented, extended, or entirely rebuilt in order to ensure that virtual memory remains viable and performant in the years to come.

Processor Microarchitecture

Author : Antonio Gonzalez
ISBN : 9781608454525
Genre : Computers
File Size : 21. 59 MB
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This lecture presents a study of the microarchitecture of contemporary microprocessors. The focus is on implementation aspects, with discussions on their implications in terms of performance, power, and cost of state-of-the-art designs. The lecture starts with an overview of the different types of microprocessors and a review of the microarchitecture of cache memories. Then, it describes the implementation of the fetch unit, where special emphasis is made on the required support for branch prediction. The next section is devoted to instruction decode with special focus on the particular support to decoding x86 instructions. The next chapter presents the allocation stage and pays special attention to the implementation of register renaming. Afterward, the issue stage is studied. Here, the logic to implement out-of-order issue for both memory and non-memory instructions is thoroughly described. The following chapter focuses on the instruction execution and describes the different functional units that can be found in contemporary microprocessors, as well as the implementation of the bypass network, which has an important impact on the performance. Finally, the lecture concludes with the commit stage, where it describes how the architectural state is updated and recovered in case of exceptions or misspeculations. This lecture is intended for an advanced course on computer architecture, suitable for graduate students or senior undergrads who want to specialize in the area of computer architecture. It is also intended for practitioners in the industry in the area of microprocessor design. The book assumes that the reader is familiar with the main concepts regarding pipelining, out-of-order execution, cache memories, and virtual memory. Table of Contents: Introduction / Caches / The Instruction Fetch Unit / Decode / Allocation / The Issue Stage / Execute / The Commit Stage / References / Author Biographies

Chip Multiprocessor Architecture

Author : Kunle Olukotun
ISBN : 9781598291223
Genre : Architecture
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Chip multiprocessors - also called multi-core microprocessors or CMPs for short - are now the only way to build high-performance microprocessors, for a variety of reasons. Large uniprocessors are no longer scaling in performance, because it is only possible to extract a limited amount of parallelism from a typical instruction stream using conventional superscalar instruction issue techniques. In addition, one cannot simply ratchet up the clock speed on today's processors, or the power dissipation will become prohibitive in all but water-cooled systems. After a discussion of the basic pros and cons of CMPs when they are compared with conventional uniprocessors, this book examines how CMPs can best be designed to handle two radically different kinds of workloads that are likely to be used with a CMP: highly parallel, throughput-sensitive applications at one end of the spectrum, and less parallel, latency-sensitive applications at the other. Throughput-sensitive applications, such as server workloads that handle many independent transactions at once, require careful balancing of all parts of a CMP that can limit throughput, such as the individual cores, on-chip cache memory, and off-chip memory interfaces. Several studies and example systems, such as the Sun Niagara, that examine the necessary tradeoffs are presented here. In contrast, latency-sensitive applications - many desktop applications fall into this category - require a focus on reducing inter-core communication latency and applying techniques to help programmers divide their programs into multiple threads as easily as possible. This book discusses many techniques that can be used in CMPs to simplify parallel programming, with an emphasis on research directions proposed at Stanford University. To illustrate the advantages possible with a CMP using a couple of solid examples, extra focus is given to thread-level speculation (TLS), a way to automatically break up nominally sequential applications into parallel threads on a CMP, and transactional memory. This model can greatly simplify manual parallel programming by using hardware - instead of conventional software locks - to enforce atomic code execution of blocks of instructions, a technique that makes parallel coding much less error-prone. Book jacket.

Transactional Memory

Author : Tim Harris
ISBN : 9781608452354
Genre : Computers
File Size : 47. 21 MB
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The advent of multicore processors has renewed interest in the idea of incorporating transactions into the programming model used to write parallel programs. This approach, known as transactional memory, offers an alternative, and hopefully better, way to coordinate concurrent threads. The ACI (atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties of transactions provide a foundation to ensure that con-current reads and writes of shared data do not produce inconsistent or incorrect results. At a higher level, a computation wrapped in a transaction executes atomically---either it completes successfully and commits its result in its entirety or it aborts. In addition, isolation ensures the transaction produces the same result as if no other transactions were executing concurrently. Although transactions are not a parallel programming panacea, they shift much of the burden of synchronizing and co-ordinating parallel computations from a programmer to a compiler, to a language runtime system, or to hardware. The challenge for the system implementers is to build an efficient transactional memory infrastructure. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in the design and implementation of transactional memory systems, as of early spring 2010.

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