soil phosphorus advances in soil science

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Soil Phosphorus

Author : Rattan Lal
ISBN : 9781315355085
Genre : Nature
File Size : 64. 92 MB
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Phosphorus is an essential plant nutrient, but global population growth has dramatically reduced the availability of phosphorus fertilizer resources. Despite this scarcity, there remain numerous problems associated with the excessive and inappropriate use of phosphorus leading to non-point source pollution and eutrophication of natural waters. Identifying appropriate systems for managing soil phosphorus and reducing the risks of eutrophication are needed to minimize the environmental risks. This book focuses on the availability and recycling of phosphorus; regulatory and policy issues of sustainable phosphorus use; and water quality management in agroecosystems pertaining to phosphorus. Sections are dedicated to global phosphorus reserves; cycling and pathways of phosphorus; phosphorus in agriculture; human dimensions and policy intervention; and research and development priorities. Phosphorus is a finite but crucial resource and is an essential element to all life. Sub-optimal availability and nutrient imbalance in the root zone can adversely impact plant growth, and the quality of food and feed grown on these soils. However, the proven reserves of phosphorus can hardly be adequate for a few centuries only. Yet, its misuse and mismanagement has caused severe problems of eutrophication of water and pollution of the environment. Thus, judicious management of soil phosphorus is essential. This volume is specifically devoted to availability and recycling of phosphorus, regulatory/policy issues of sustainable use of phosphorus, and management in agroecosystems in the context of maximizing the use efficiency and minimizing the environmental risks of water quality.

Advances In Soil Science

Author :
ISBN : 9781461233220
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 86. 58 MB
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The purpose of Advances in Soil Science is to provide a forum for leading scientists to analyze and summarize the available scientific information on a subject, assessing its importance and identifying additional research needs. A wide array of subjects has been addressed by authors from many countries in the initial ten volumes of the series. The quick acceptance of the series by both authors and readers has been very gratifying and confirms our perception that a need did exist for a medium to fill the gap between the scientific journals and the comprehensive reference books. This volume is the first of the series devoted entirely to a single topic soil degradation. Future volumes will include both single-topic volumes as well as volumes containing reviews of different topics of soil science, as in the case of the first ten volumes. There are increasing concern and attention about managing natural re sources, particularly soil and water. Soil degradation is clearly one of the most pressing problems facing mankind. Although the spotlight regarding soil degradation in recent years has focused on Africa, concern about the degradation of soil and water resources is worldwide. The widespread con cern about global environmental change is also being linked to severe problems of soil degradation. Therefore, we are indeed pleased that the first volume of the series devoted to a single topic addresses such an impor tant issue. The current volume is also the first of the series involving a guest editor.

Vital Soil

Author : P. Doelman
ISBN : 0080474780
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 25. 22 MB
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Healthy soil, with active soil life, deters long-term soil degradation and ensures that geo-physical processes are undisturbed. Is the vitality of soil under threat due to human civilization? Or is it due to contamination, intensification, and deforestation? Vital Soil aims to look at the effects society is having on soil and contains contributions from recognized experts in soil science. * Function and value of vital soils * Detailed information on how to prevent soil from irreversible stresses * Articles on soil life aiming to bridge the gap between science and practice from experienced and well known contributors

Urban Soils

Author : Rattan Lal
ISBN : 9781351650298
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 74. 32 MB
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Globally, 30% of the world population lived in urban areas in 1950, 54% in 2016 and 66% projected by 2050. The most urbanized regions include North America, Latin America, and Europe.? Urban encroachment depletes soil carbon and the aboveground biomass carbon pools, enhancing the flux of carbon from soil and vegetation into the atmosphere. Thus, urbanization has exacerbated ecological and environmental problems. Urban soils are composed of geological material that has been drastically disturbed by anthropogenic activities and compromised their role in the production of food, aesthetics of residential areas, and pollutant dynamics. Properties of urban soils are normally not favorable to plant growth—the soils are contaminated by heavy metals and are compacted and sealed. Therefore, the quality of urban soils must be restored to make use of this valuable resource for delivery of essential ecosystem services (e.g., food, water and air quality, carbon sequestration, temperature moderation, biodiversity). Part of the Advances in Soil Sciences Series, Urban Soils explains properties of urban soils; assesses the effects of urbanization on the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and water and the impacts of management of urban soils, soil restoration, urban agriculture, and food security; evaluates ecosystem services provisioned by urban soils, and describes synthetic and artificial soils.

Soil Quality And Biofuel Production

Author : Rattan Lal
ISBN : 0415998301
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 59. 3 MB
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From its humble beginning in the late 19th century―when Henry Ford’s first car was designed to run on ethanol―biofuel production has been on the rise with more than 26 billion liters produced in the U.S. in 2007. Ethanol made from biomass (rather than grains) holds great promise, including numerous economic and environmental benefits. However, the adverse interactions of energy, climate, food, and soil quality cannot be ignored. In eight concise chapters, Soil Quality and Biofuel Production presents a state-of-the-knowledge review of soil properties and processes negatively impacted by crop residue removal. It outlines the ecological consequences of biofuels and evaluates land use in the production of raw material for biofuel. The book then spotlights pressing issues related to corn and cellulosic ethanol and also soil erosion. It offers advice for achieving economic balance in the competition for arable land between food and biofuel along with residue harvest management techniques. A thought-provoking discussion of the opportunities and challenges that biofuel presents rounds out the book’s coverage. The logistics of producing biomass in a sustainable manner remain a major challenge and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. Serious questions linger concerning viable sources of biofuel feedstock, competition for resources needed to produce biomass, and energy output/input ratios. Soil Quality and Biofuel Production provides environmental scientists and agricultural engineers with the knowledge they need to address them.

Elements Of Soil Physics

Author : P. Koorevaar
ISBN : 0080869815
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 86 MB
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Elements of Soil Physics

Soil Nitrogen Uses And Environmental Impacts

Author : Rattan Lal
ISBN : 9781351857406
Genre : Nature
File Size : 36. 72 MB
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Nitrogen (N) is potentially one of the most complex elements on the Earth. It is necessary for all biological activity, but creates negative impacts on water and air quality. There is a balancing act between deficiency and surplus and the forms of N available further complicate our understanding of the dynamics. Biological fixation provides some plants with N supply while others are totally dependent upon N being available in the soil profile for the roots to extract. Nevertheless, the demand for N will increase because the human population with its increasing growth requires more protein and thus more N. Understanding the global N cycle is imperative to meeting current and future nitrogen demands while decreasing environmental impacts. This book discusses availability, production, and recycling of N in air, water, plants, and soils. It features information on N impacts to soil and water quality, management of N in agroecosystems, and techniques to maximize the use efficiency while minimizing the risks of leakage of reactive N into the environment. This volume in the Advances in Soil Science series is specifically devoted to availability, production, and recycling of N with impact on climate change and water quality, and management of N in agroecosystems in the context of maximizing the use efficiency and minimizing the risks of leakage of reactive N (NO-3, N¬2O) into the environment. ? ?

Advances In Soil Science

Author :
ISBN : 9781461228448
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79. 32 MB
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Advances in Soil Science was conceived in 1982 to provide a forum for leading international scientists to analyze and summarize the available scientific information on a subject, assessing its importance and ident ifying additional research needs. This goal seems even more appropriate today. Much is known about our soil resources. The principles learned and the technology developed need to be used to increase food pro duction, particularly in developing countries, and sustain the productivity of the resource base. Advances in Soil Science fills a gap between the scientific journals and the comprehensive reference books. Scientists can delve in depth on a particular subject relating to soil science. Contributors are asked in particular to develop and identify principles that have practical applications to both developing and developed agricultures. Advances in Soil Science was established to be international in scope and cover all subjects relating to soil science. This volume certainly fulfills that objective. The first chapter is concerned with denitrification. The significance of denitrification in nitrogen use efficiency in agricultural, grassland, and forest ecosystems, and in global nitrogen cycling is now well recognized. Therefore, an understanding of denitrification is essential for the efficient use of nitrogen fertilizers and for protecting the environ ment. The second chapter looks at the effects of subzero temperatures on the physical, biological, and chemical processes. This is an important area of soil science that has not been studied in great detail.

Synchrotron Based Techniques In Soils And Sediments

Author : Balwant Singh
ISBN : 0080932843
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 67. 27 MB
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Over the past 20 years, synchrotron-based research applications have provided important insight into the geochemical cycling of ions and the chemical and crystallographic properties of minerals in soils and sediments. Of particular significance is the understanding of local coordination environments with the use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The high flux and brightness of the X-ray beams have allowed researchers to work at environmentally relevant concentrations. The use of focusing mirrors and apertures which allow for mapping and trace particle surfaces, microbes, roots, channels and elements at the micron and at a nano-meter scale in 2 and 3D have also been a great enhancement to science. This book provides the most up-to-date information on synchrotron-based research applications in the field of soil, sediment and earth sciences. Invited authors provide chapters on a wide range of research topics including multiphase flow and transport processes (physical aspects), rhizosphere and microbial life (biological aspects), and dynamics of C, N, S, P and heavy metals and metalloids (chemical aspects). In addition, perspectives on the impact of synchrotron based applications, particularly X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and the role of synchrotron applications in remediation, regulatory, and decision making processes are considered. Up-to-date, with the latest research results and techniques in synchrotron-based techniques Information on specific techniques, elements and minerals, regulatory and remediation decision making, contaminants and the impact of X-ray absorption spectroscopy on soil science Internationally recognized leaders in their fields of expertise from Europe, North America, Asia and Australia

Food Security And Soil Quality

Author : Rattan Lal
ISBN : 9781439800584
Genre : Nature
File Size : 78. 47 MB
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Just five years ago, it was generally believed that the number of food insecure people in the world was on continuous decline. Unfortunately, widespread soil degradation along with resistance to recommended agronomic practices, and little attempt to restore degraded soils have conspired with significant droughts (in regions that could least tolerate them) to swell the ranks of the food insecure to over a billion people. The U.N. Millennium Development Goals’ intent to halve hunger by 2015 will not be realized. Food Security and Soil Quality brings together leading experts from across the world to provide a concise and factually supported exploration of the problem at hand and the critical steps needed to reverse it. Edited by Rattan Lal, and B.A. Stewart, two of the world’s most respected soil scientists, this important work — Assesses farming systems and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa, with special emphasis on land degradation Examines concerns with and approaches to soil quality management in Brazil and China Details achievable methods for improving soil quality for sustainable production Provides an insightful comparison of temporal changes in agricultural systems productivity in Punjab, India and Ohio Discusses the human dimension of the crisis including the influence of culture and spiritual beliefs Dr. Lal himself writes that despite the existence of scientific data on sustainable management of soil and water resources, problems of soil and environmental degradation have persisted and have been aggravated. And that these problems are rooted in land misuse and soil mismanagement. This book does provide policymakers and others with an understanding of the depth, complexity, and immediacy of this crisis, but more than a call to action, it also offers soil scientists working in this area with an understanding of what is being done and what needs to be done. Most importantly, this book helps us understand that the situation is not beyond remediation were we to act with great resolve and a sense of urgency. A tree's leaves may be ever so good, So may its bark, so may its wood; But unless you put the right thing to its root, It never will show much flower or fruit. — from Leaves Compared With Flowers, by Robert Frost

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