sonochemistry and the acoustic bubble

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Sonochemistry And The Acoustic Bubble

Author : Franz Grieser
ISBN : 9780128017265
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 61 MB
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Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the phenomena are simply, but comprehensively presented. In addition, potential industrial and medical applications of acoustic cavitation and its chemical effects are described and reviewed. The book is suitable for graduate students working with ultrasound, and for potential chemists and chemical engineers wanting to understand the basics of how ultrasound acts in a liquid to cause chemical and physical effects. Experimental methods on acoustic cavitation and sonochemistry Helps users understand how to readily begin experiments in the field Provides an understanding of the physics behind the phenomenon Contains examples of (possible) industrial applications in chemical engineering and environmental technologies Presents the possibilities for adopting the action of acoustic cavitation with respect to industrial applications

The Acoustic Bubble

Author : T Leighton
ISBN : 9780323144131
Genre : Science
File Size : 21. 85 MB
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The Acoustic Bubble describes the interaction of acoustic fields with bubbles in liquid. The book consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 provides a basic introduction to acoustics, including some of the more esoteric phenomena that can be seen when high-frequency high-intensity underwater sound is employed. Chapter 2 discusses the nucleation of cavitation and basic fluid dynamics, while Chapter 3 draws together the acoustics and bubble dynamics to discuss the free oscillation of a bubble and acoustic emissions from such activity. The acoustic probes that are often applied to study the behavior of a bubble when an externally-applied acoustic field drives it into oscillation is deliberated in Chapter 4. The last chapter outlines a variety of effects associated with acoustically-induced bubble activity. The bubble detection, sonoluminescence, sonochemistry, and pulse enhancement are also covered. This publication is a good reference for physics and engineering students and researchers intending to acquire knowledge of the acoustic interactions of acoustic fields with bubbles.

Sonochemistry And Sonoluminescence

Author : L.A. Crum
ISBN : 0792355490
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 69 MB
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Sonochemistry is studied primarily by chemists and sonoluminescence mainly by physicists, but a single physical phenomenon - acoustic cavitation - unites the two areas. The physics of cavitation bubble collapse, is relatively well understood by acoustical physicists but remains practically unknown to the chemists. By contrast, the chemistry that gives rise to electromagnetic emissions and the acceleration of chemical reactions is familiar to chemists, but practically unknown to acoustical physicists. It is just this knowledge gap that the present volume addresses. The first section of the book addresses the fundamentals of cavitation, leading to a more extensive discussion of the fundamentals of cavitation bubble dynamics in section two. A section on single bubble sonoluminescence follows. The two following sections address the new scientific discipline of sonochemistry, and the volume concludes with a section giving detailed descriptions of the applications of sonochemistry. The mixture of tutorial lectures and detailed research articles means that the book can serve as an introduction as well as a comprehensive and detailed review of these two interesting and topical subjects.

Acoustic Cavitation And Bubble Dynamics

Author : Kyuichi Yasui
ISBN : 9783319682372
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 27 MB
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This brief explains in detail fundamental concepts in acoustic cavitation and bubble dynamics, and describes derivations of the fundamental equations of bubble dynamics in order to support those readers just beginning research in this field. Further, it provides an in-depth understanding of the physical basis of the phenomena. With regard to sonochemistry, the brief presents the results of numerical simulations of chemical reactions inside a bubble under ultrasound, especially for a single-bubble system and including unsolved problems. Written so as to be accessible both with and without prior knowledge of fundamental fluid dynamics, the brief offers a valuable resource for students and researchers alike, especially those who are unfamiliar with this field. A grasp of fundamental undergraduate mathematics such as partial derivative and fundamental integration is advantageous; however, even without any background in mathematics, readers can skip the equations and still understand the fundamental physics of the phenomena using the book’s wealth of illustrations and figures. As such, it is also suitable as an introduction to the field.

Synthetic Organic Sonochemistry

Author : Jean-Louis Luche
ISBN : 9781489919106
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 57 MB
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TEAN-LOUIS LUCHE A French poet of this eentury, Pierre Mae Orlan, wrote "Adventure does not exist, it is only in the mind of he who is pursuing it, and, as soon as it is at one's finger tips, it vanishes to come back to life, far away, in a different shape, at the frontiers of imagination". This sentence could be used to define the adventure that many sonochemists experienced. Most of them did not even suspect that the "laboratory trick" they were using was the first contact with a considerable amount of science. If a personal note is allowed here, it ean be interesting to mention the part played by chance in my involvement in sonochemistry. Almost 20 years ago, we had to perform an apparently simple Grignard reaetion with n-butylmagnesium bromide and geranial, but the results were repeatedly unsatisfactory. The one-pot Barbier technique was attempted, also without success. From my studies at the University, I imagined that the failure of the latter reaction could be caused by a common phenomenon known by solid state chemists as passivation, which in some cases can be overcome by ultrasonication. By chance, an ultrasonie bath was sitting on the next beneh, borrowed to clean some equipment. We clamped our reluctant reaction mixture into the bath, the reaction proceeded vigorously, and ... the adventure started. Without knowing anything about cavitation, high energies, ete., we had an illustration of Goethe's word "Am Anfang war die Tat" (at the Beginning was the Act).

Sonochemistry Cavitation

Author : Margulis
ISBN : 2881248497
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 15 MB
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Sonochemistry and cavitation are rapidly increasing in importance in modern chemistry as a result of many significant achievements made in recent years. In this current and comprehensive text, the author clearly details and illustrates these developments as well as the fundamental concepts. Much attention is given to the fundamental problems, such as the general kinetics of sonochemical reactions: energetic yields; the principles of the cavitation diffusion theory; the place of acoustic energy among other physical methods of action on matter; and the new electrical theory of cavitation phenomena, sonochemical reactions and sonoluminescence initiation (the theory developed by Professor Margulis). Results of low-frequency acoustic fields investigations are also observed. Special attention is given to the influence of acoustic fields on chemical reactions in nonaqueous systems, catalytic processes and the initiation of oscillating reactions. This publication is designed to broaden the application of ultrasound in chemical technology and improve the efficiency of existing production processes. Its comprehensiveness makes it a practical handbook which will prove invaluable to a broad readership amongst chemistry, engineering and physics undergraduates, graduates, researchers, and industrialists working in the fields of sonochemistry, ultrasonic and chemical technology, high energy chemistry, acoustics and biology.

Particle Adhesion And Removal

Author : K. L. Mittal
ISBN : 9781118831540
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79. 17 MB
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The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal. The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments. Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal. 2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal. 3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions. 4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and nanoscale particles. 5. Various factors affecting particle adhesion to a variety of substrates. 6. Surface modification techniques to modulate particle adhesion. 7. Various cleaning methods (both wet & dry) for particle removal. 8. Relevance of particle adhesion in a host of technologies ranging from simple to ultra-sophisticated.

Cavitation Reaction Engineering

Author : Y.T. Shah
ISBN : 9781461547877
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 60 MB
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The literature on cavitation chemistry is ripe with conjectures, possibilities, heuris tic arguments, and intelligent guesses. The chemical effects of cavitation have been explained by means of many theories, consisting of empirical constants, adjustable parameters, and the like. The chemists working with cavitation chemistry agree that the phenomenon is very complex and system specific. Mathematicians and physi cists have offered partial solutions to the observed phenomena on the basis of cavitation parameters, whereas chemists have attempted explanations based on the modes of reaction and the detection of intermediate chemical species. Nevertheless, no one has been able to formulate a unified theme, however crude, for its effects on the basis of the known parameters, such as cavitation and transient chemistry involving extremely high temperatures of nanosecond durations. When one surveys the literature on cavitation-assisted reactions, it is clear that the approach so far has been "Edisonian" in nature. While a large number of reactions have showed either enhanced yields or reduced reaction times, many reactions have remained unaffected in the presence of cavitation. The success or failure of cavitation reactions ultimately depends on the collapse of the cavity. Cavitation chemistry is based on the principles of the formation of small transient cavities, their growth and implosion, which produce chemical reactions caused by the generation of extreme pressures and temperatures and a high degree of micro turbulence.

Ultrasonics International 93

Author : Yong Zhou
ISBN : 9781483183930
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 90 MB
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Ultrasonics International 93: Conference Proceedings presents a comprehensive account of the presentations given in the Ultrasonics International 93 conference. It discusses a blood flow mapping system using ultrasonic waves. It addresses the dynamical response functions of elastically anisotropic solids. Some of the topics covered in the book are the ultrasonic waves propagation in a liquid producing radicals; ultrasonic characterization of interfaces; surface acoustic wave measurements; line-focus-beam acoustic microscopy; investigation of fatigue cracks in steels using spherical lens scanning acoustic microscopy; and the phenomenon of ultrasonic light diffraction. The description of bichromatic tunable acousto-optic separator is fully covered. The diffraction phenomenon affecting the properties of the fibre-optic sensor system is discussed in detail. The text describes in depth the opto-acoustic measurement of ultrasound velocity in a solidifying polymer. The evaluation of microfracture due to thermal shock using acoustic emission is completely presented. A chapter is devoted to the detection of a weak adhesive and adherent interface in bonded joints. The book can provide useful information to engineers, students, and researchers.

Ultrasound In Medicine

Author : Francis A. Duck
ISBN : 1420050370
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 56 MB
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Ultrasound in Medicine is a broad-ranging study of medical ultrasound, including ultrasound propagation, interaction with tissue, and innovations in the application of ultrasound in medicine. The book focuses specifically on the science and technology-the underlying physics and engineering. It examines the most closely related aspects of these basic sciences in clinical application and reviews the success of technological innovations in improving medical diagnosis and treatment. The book bridges the gap between tutorial texts widely available for ultrasound and medical training and theoretical works on acoustics.

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