statistical methods for trend detection and analysis in the environmental sciences statistics in practice

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Statistical Methods For Trend Detection And Analysis In The Environmental Sciences

Author : Richard Chandler
ISBN : 9781119991960
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 46. 6 MB
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The need to understand and quantify change is fundamental throughout the environmental sciences. This might involve describing past variation, understanding the mechanisms underlying observed changes, making projections of possible future change, or monitoring the effect of intervening in some environmental system. This book provides an overview of modern statistical techniques that may be relevant in problems of this nature. Practitioners studying environmental change will be familiar with many classical statistical procedures for the detection and estimation of trends. However, the ever increasing capacity to collect and process vast amounts of environmental information has led to growing awareness that such procedures are limited in the insights that they can deliver. At the same time, significant developments in statistical methodology have often been widely dispersed in the statistical literature and have therefore received limited exposure in the environmental science community. This book aims to provide a thorough but accessible review of these developments. It is split into two parts: the first provides an introduction to this area and the second part presents a collection of case studies illustrating the practical application of modern statistical approaches to the analysis of trends in real studies. Key Features: Presents a thorough introduction to the practical application and methodology of trend analysis in environmental science. Explores non-parametric estimation and testing as well as parametric techniques. Methods are illustrated using case studies from a variety of environmental application areas. Looks at trends in all aspects of a process including mean, percentiles and extremes. Supported by an accompanying website featuring datasets and R code. The book is designed to be accessible to readers with some basic statistical training, but also contains sufficient detail to serve as a reference for practising statisticians. It will therefore be of use to postgraduate students and researchers both in the environmental sciences and in statistics.

Applied Mixed Models In Medicine

Author : Helen Brown
ISBN : 9781118778241
Genre : Medical
File Size : 27. 50 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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A fully updated edition of this key text on mixed models,focusing on applications in medical research The application of mixed models is an increasingly popular wayof analysing medical data, particularly in the pharmaceuticalindustry. A mixed model allows the incorporation of both fixed andrandom variables within a statistical analysis, enabling efficientinferences and more information to be gained from the data. Therehave been many recent advances in mixed modelling, particularlyregarding the software and applications. This third edition ofBrown and Prescott’s groundbreaking text provides an updateon the latest developments, and includes guidance on the use ofcurrent SAS techniques across a wide range of applications. Presents an overview of the theory and applications of mixedmodels in medical research, including the latest developments andnew sections on incomplete block designs and the analysis ofbilateral data. Easily accessible to practitioners in any area where mixedmodels are used, including medical statisticians andeconomists. Includes numerous examples using real data from medical andhealth research, and epidemiology, illustrated with SAS code andoutput. Features the new version of SAS, including new graphics formodel diagnostics and the procedure PROC MCMC. Supported by a website featuring computer code, data sets, andfurther material. This third edition will appeal to applied statisticians workingin medical research and the pharmaceutical industry, as well asteachers and students of statistics courses in mixed models. Thebook will also be of great value to a broad range of scientists,particularly those working in the medical and pharmaceuticalareas.

Statistical Methods For Hospital Monitoring With R

Author : Anthony Morton
ISBN : 9781118639177
Genre : Medical
File Size : 88. 46 MB
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Hospitals monitoring is becoming more complex and is increasingboth because staff want their data analysed and because ofincreasing mandated surveillance. This book provides a suiteof functions in R, enabling scientists and data analysts working ininfection management and quality improvement departments inhospitals, to analyse their often non-independent data which isfrequently in the form of trended, over-dispersed and sometimesauto-correlated time series; this is often difficult to analyseusing standard office software. This book provides much-needed guidance on data analysis using Rfor the growing number of scientists in hospital departments whoare responsible for producing reports, and who may have limitedstatistical expertise. This book explores data analysis using R and is aimed atscientists in hospital departments who are responsible forproducing reports, and who are involved in improving safety.Professionals working in the healthcare quality and safetycommunity will also find this book of interest Statistical Methods for Hospital Monitoring with R: Provides functions to perform quality improvement and infectionmanagement data analysis. Explores the characteristics of complex systems, such asself-organisation and emergent behaviour, along with theirimplications for such activities as root-cause analysis and thePareto principle that seek few key causes of adverse events. Provides a summary of key non-statistical aspects of hospitalsafety and easy to use functions. Provides R scripts in an accompanying web site enablinganalyses to be performed by the reader ahref="" Covers issues that will be of increasing importance in thefuture, such as, generalised additive models, and complex systems,networks and power laws.

Introduction To Probability And Statistics For Ecosystem Managers

Author : Timothy C. Haas
ISBN : 9781118636237
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 62. 15 MB
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Explores computer-intensive probability and statistics forecosystem management decision making Simulation is an accessible way to explain probability andstochastic model behavior to beginners. This book introducesprobability and statistics to future and practicing ecosystemmanagers by providing a comprehensive treatment of these two areas.The author presents a self-contained introduction for individualsinvolved in monitoring, assessing, and managing ecosystems andfeatures intuitive, simulation-based explanations of probabilisticand statistical concepts. Mathematical programming details areprovided for estimating ecosystem model parameters with MinimumDistance, a robust and computer-intensive method. The majority of examples illustrate how probability andstatistics can be applied to ecosystem management challenges. Thereare over 50 exercises – making this book suitable for alecture course in a natural resource and/or wildlife managementdepartment, or as the main text in a program of self-study. Key features: Reviews different approaches to wildlife and ecosystemmanagement and inference. Uses simulation as an accessible way to explain probability andstochastic model behavior to beginners. Covers material from basic probability through to hierarchicalBayesian models and spatial/ spatio-temporal statisticalinference. Provides detailed instructions for using R, along with completeR programs to recreate the output of the many examplespresented. Provides an introduction to Geographic Information Systems(GIS) along with examples from Quantum GIS, a free GIS softwarepackage. A companion website featuring all R code and data usedthroughout the book. Solutions to all exercises are presented along with an onlineintelligent tutoring system that supports readers who are using thebook for self-study.

Statistical Methods For Evaluating Safety In Medical Product Development

Author : A. Lawrence Gould
ISBN : 9781118763100
Genre : Medical
File Size : 39. 87 MB
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This book gives professionals in clinical research valuable information on the challenging issues of the design, execution, and management of clinical trials, and how to resolve these issues effectively. It also provides understanding and practical guidance on the application of contemporary statistical methods to contemporary issues in safety evaluation during medical product development. Each chapter provides sufficient detail to the reader to undertake the design and analysis of experiments at various stages of product development, including comprehensive references to the relevant literature. Provides a guide to statistical methods and application in medical product development Assists readers in undertaking design and analysis of experiments at various stages of product development Features case studies throughout the book, as well as, SAS and R code

Statistical Methods For Groundwater Monitoring

Author : Robert D. Gibbons
ISBN : 0470549920
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 84. 26 MB
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A new edition of the most comprehensive overview of statistical methods for environmental monitoring applications Thoroughly updated to provide current research findings, Statistical Methods for Groundwater Monitoring, Second Edition continues to provide a comprehensive overview and accessible treatment of the statistical methods that are useful in the analysis of environmental data. This new edition expands focus on statistical comparison to regulatory standards that are a vital part of assessment, compliance, and corrective action monitoring in the environmental sciences. The book explores quantitative concepts useful for surface water monitoring as well as soil and air monitoring applications while also maintaining a focus on the analysis of groundwater monitoring data in order to detect environmental impacts from a variety of sources, such as industrial activity and waste disposal. The authors introduce the statistical properties of alternative approaches, such as false positive and false negative rates, that are associated with each test and the factors related to these error rates. The Second Edition also features: An introduction to Intra-laboratory Calibration Curves and random-effects regression models for non-constant measurement variability Coverage of statistical prediction limits for a gamma-distributed random variable, with a focus on estimation and testing of parameters in environmental monitoring applications A unified treatment of censored data with the computation of statistical prediction, tolerance, and control limits Expanded coverage of statistical issues related to laboratory practice, such as detection and quantitation limits An updated chapter on regulatory issues that outlines common mistakes to avoid in groundwater monitoring applications as well as an introduction to the newest regulations for both hazardous and municipal solid waste facilities Each chapter provides a general overview of a problem, followed by statistical derivation of the solution and a relevant example complete with computational details that allow readers to perform routine application of the statistical results. Relevant issues are highlighted throughout, and recommendations are also provided for specific problems based on characteristics such as number of monitoring wells, number of constituents, distributional form of measurements, and detection frequency. Statistical Methods for Groundwater Monitoring, Second Edition is an excellent supplement to courses on environmental statistics at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners in the fields of biostatistics, engineering, and the environmental sciences who work with statistical methods in their everyday work.

Hydrologic Time Series Analysis

Author : Deepesh Machiwal
ISBN : 9789400718616
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 11 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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There is a dearth of relevant books dealing with both theory and application of time series analysis techniques, particularly in the field of water resources engineering. Therefore, many hydrologists and hydrogeologists face difficulties in adopting time series analysis as one of the tools for their research. This book fills this gap by providing a proper blend of theoretical and practical aspects of time sereies analysis. It deals with a comprehensive overview of time series characteristics in hydrology/water resources engineering, various tools and techniques for analyzing time series data, theoretical details of 31 available statistical tests along with detailed procedures for applying them to real-world time series data, theory and methodology of stochastic modelling, and current status of time series analysis in hydrological sciences. In adition, it demonstrates the application of most time series tests through a case study as well as presents a comparative performance evaluation of various time series tests, together with four invited case studies from India and abroad. This book will not only serve as a textbook for the students and teachers in water resources engineering but will also serve as the most comprehensive reference to educate researchers/scientists about the theory and practice of time series analysis in hydrological sciences. This book will be very useful to the students, researchers, teachers and professionals involved in water resources, hydrology, ecology, climate change, earth science, and environmental studies.

Statistical Methods For The Environmental Sciences

Author : A. H. El-Shaarawi
ISBN : 0792312732
Genre : Science
File Size : 30. 2 MB
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Design Of Water Quality Information Systems

Author : Robert C. Ward
ISBN : UCR:31210024983502
Genre : Environmental monitoring
File Size : 79. 3 MB
Format : PDF
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Using Statistical Methods For Water Quality Management

Author : Graham B. McBride
ISBN : UOM:39015060811430
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 84. 89 MB
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STATISTICS IN PRACTICE A practical exploration of alternative approaches to analyzing water-related environmental issues Written by an experienced environmentalist and recognized expert in the field, this text is designed to help water resource managers and scientists to formulate, implement, and interpret more effective methods of water quality management. After presenting the basic foundation for using statistical methods in water resource management, including the use of appropriate hypothesis test procedures and some rapid calculation procedures, the author offers a range of practical problems and solutions on environmental topics that often arise, but are not generally covered. These include: * Formulating water quality standards * Determining compliance with standards * MPNs and microbiology * Water-related, human health risk modeling * Trends, impacts, concordance, and detection limits In order to promote awareness of alternative approaches to analyzing data, both frequentist and Bayesian, statistical methods are contrasted in terms of their applicability to various environmental issues. Each chapter ends with a number of set problems for which full answers are provided. The book also encourages discussion between technical staff and management before embarking on statistical studies.

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