structure analysis by small angle x ray and neutron scattering

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Structure Analysis By Small Angle X Ray And Neutron Scattering

Author : L.A. Feigin
ISBN : 9781475766240
Genre : Science
File Size : 69. 29 MB
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Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.

Small Angle X Ray And Neutron Scattering From Solutions Of Biological Macromolecules

Author : Dmitri I. Svergun
ISBN : 9780191507038
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 22 MB
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Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.

Synaptic Vesicles Studied By Small Angle X Ray Scattering

Author : Simon Castorph
ISBN : 9783863950972
Genre :
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Biological Small Angle Scattering Techniques Strategies And Tips

Author : Barnali Chaudhuri
ISBN : 9789811060380
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 44 MB
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This book provides a clear, comprehensible and up-to-date description of how Small Angle Scattering (SAS) can help structural biology researchers. SAS is an efficient technique that offers structural information on how biological macromolecules behave in solution. SAS provides distinct and complementary data for integrative structural biology approaches in combination with other widely used probes, such as X-ray crystallography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Mass spectrometry and Cryo-electron Microscopy. The development of brilliant synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beam lines has increased the number of researchers interested in solution scattering. SAS is especially useful for studying conformational changes in proteins, highly flexible proteins, and intrinsically disordered proteins. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with neutron contrast variation is ideally suited for studying multi-component assemblies as well as membrane proteins that are stabilized in surfactant micelles or vesicles. SAS is also used for studying dynamic processes of protein fibrillation in amyloid diseases, and pharmaceutical drug delivery. The combination with size-exclusion chromatography further increases the range of SAS applications. The book is written by leading experts in solution SAS methodologies. The principles and theoretical background of various SAS techniques are included, along with practical aspects that range from sample preparation to data presentation for publication. Topics covered include techniques for improving data quality and analysis, as well as different scientific applications of SAS. With abundant illustrations and practical tips, we hope the clear explanations of the principles and the reviews on the latest progresses will serve as a guide through all aspects of biological solution SAS. The scope of this book is particularly relevant for structural biology researchers who are new to SAS. Advanced users of the technique will find it helpful for exploring the diversity of solution SAS methods and applications. Chapter 3 of this book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com.

Encyclopedia Of Physical Science And Technology

Author : Robert Allen Meyers
ISBN : 012227427X
Genre : Physical sciences
File Size : 51. 37 MB
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Following in the footsteps of the earlier editions, hundreds of the most respected scientists and engineers participated in the creation of this new edition, including many Nobel Laureates. The articles are in-depth, yet accessible, and address all of the key areas of physical science--including aeronautics, astronomy, chemistry, communications, computers, earth sciences, electronics, engineering, materials science, mathematics, nuclear technology, physics, power systems, propulsion, and space technology. (Midwest).

Advances In Planar Lipid Bilayers And Liposomes

Author : Ales Iglic
ISBN : 0123812674
Genre : Science
File Size : 43. 85 MB
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Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, Volume 9, continues to include invited chapters on a broad range of topics, covering both main arrangements of the reconstituted system, namely planar lipid bilayers and spherical liposomes. The invited authors present the latest results in this exciting multidisciplinary field of their own research group. Many of the contributors working in both fields over many decades were in close collaboration with the late Prof. H. Ti Tien, the founding editor of this book series. There are also chapters written by some of the younger generation of scientists included in this series. This volume keeps in mind the broader goal with both systems, planar lipid bilayers and spherical liposomes, which is the further development of this interdisciplinary field worldwide. Incorporates contributions from newcomers and established and experienced researchers Explores the planar lipid bilayer systems and spherical liposomes from both theoretical and experimental perspectives Serves as an indispensable source of information for new scientists

Polymer Surfaces And Interfaces

Author : Manfred Stamm
ISBN : 3540738657
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 84. 94 MB
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In what is an extremely practical and applicable new work, experts provide concise explanations, with examples and illustrations, of the key techniques in this important field. In each case, after basic principles have been reviewed, applications of the experimental techniques are discussed and illustrated with specific examples. Scientists and engineers in research and development will benefit from an application-oriented book that helps them to find solutions to both fundamental and applied problems. They will know that the surfaces and interfaces of polymers play an important role in most of the application areas of polymers, from moulds, foils, and composites, to biomaterials and applications in micro- and nanotechnology.

Neutron Scattering In Biology

Author : Jörg Fitter
ISBN : 3540291083
Genre : Medical
File Size : 59. 42 MB
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The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

Neutron And Synchrotron Radiation For Condensed Matter Studies

Author : José Baruchel
ISBN : UCLA:L0067684985
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 81 MB
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Methods In Protein Structure And Stability Analysis Conformational Stability Size Shape And Surface Of Protein Molecules

Author : Vladimir N. Uversky
ISBN : 1600217044
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 15 MB
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Protein research is a frontier field in science. Proteins are widely distributed in plants and animals and are the principal constituents of the protoplasm of all cells, and consist essentially of combinations of a-amino acids in peptide linkages. Twenty different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, and serve as enzymes, structural elements, hormones, immunoglobulins, etc., and are involved throughout the body, and in photosynthesis. This book gathers new leading-edge research from throughout the world in this exciting and exploding field of research.

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