studies on veterinary medicine oxidative stress in applied basic research and clinical practice

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Studies On Veterinary Medicine

Author : Lester Mandelker
ISBN : 1617790710
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 55 MB
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This compendium of research material on the role of oxidative stress in animal disease and morbidity examines both the general and the specific. Sourced from scientists, veterinarians, and members of the medical community from around the world, it includes chapters on our wider understanding of the corrosive function of free radicals in cell biology as well as focusing on the interplay between oxidative stress and metabolism in a variety of animal species including dogs, ruminants and birds. Since biogerontologist Denham Harman first posited that free radicals arising from the metabolic activity of oxygen play a central role in aging and disease, a mass of evidence has accumulated linking oxidative stress and biological degradation. We now understand that living in an aerobic environment inevitably leads to the production of free radicals that go on to attack biological membranes and lipoproteins via oxidation in a process called lipid peroxidation. Reacting with carbon-based molecules such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, these free radicals cause oxidative stress and tissue damage. The purpose of Studies on Veterinary Medicine is to inform clinicians, students and others of the plethora of consequences that free radical damage (ROS) has on various cells, tissues, and organs, as well as in different species of animals. The chapters also analyze the effects of oxidative stress on aging and various morbidities such as diabetes, cognitive dysfunction and heart disease. Contributors variously present their interpretation of the role played by oxidative damage in disease and assess the benefits of antioxidant therapies.

Studies On Psychiatric Disorders

Author : Anna Dietrich-Muszalska
ISBN : 9781493904402
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 29 MB
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This authoritative volume reviews clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of oxidative and nitrosative stress in different psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-nine comprehensive chapters are divided into three distinct sections: clinical aspects, pathophysiological aspects, and therapeutic aspects. Together, these chapters present the environmental, genetic and neurodevelopmental factors in the generation of oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders, with particular emphasis on the biochemical changes associated with oxidative stress in dopaminergic and glutamate neurotransmission as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain and peripheral cells. Through an investigation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) abnormalities in schizophrenia, the book provides a coherent framework to account for the impact of oxidative stress on pathological phenomena ranging from cellular to cognitive and clinical aspects. It describes biomarkers of oxidative damage, the role of oxidative stress in numerous abnormalities of biochemical pathways in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the development of new investigative techniques, specially neuroimaging, and studies of apoptotic pathways that seem to prove neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental theories. Written by leading researchers in their fields, Studies on Psychiatric Disorders explores therapeutic approaches with aspects of various antioxidants, cryostimulation, and hyperbaric oxygen treatment in oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric diseases. The volume also discusses the role of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia on nitric oxide generation and biomarkers of oxidative stress together with the clinical symptomatology. Overall, it proposes that novel therapeutic strategies such as supplementation with antioxidants—in particular polyphenols, ω-3 fatty acids or combination of both—could be effective for long-term treatment of some neuropsychiatric disorders.

Studies On Men S Health And Fertility

Author : Ashok Agarwal
ISBN : 9781617797750
Genre : Science
File Size : 71. 30 MB
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Studies on Men’s Health and Fertility provides a comprehensive series of up-to-the-minute reviews addressing the role of oxidative stress in the aetiology of reproductive pathologies in the male. This volume represents by far the most detailed, authoritative review of the field that has been produced to date. The text encompasses the basic science of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mammalian spermatozoa, the way in which these highly reactive molecules are processed by the germ line and the physiological significance of this redox activity in the generation of a functional gamete. The factors responsible for perturbing the delicate balance between physiological redox signaling on the one hand and oxidative stress on the other are also extensively reviewed and some of the first clues concerning the underlying mechanisms (age, heat, infection, cryostorage, aberrant lipid metabolism), clearly identified. From a clinical perspective there are chapters setting out the methods we should be using to diagnose oxidative stress in the male germ line, a clinical perspective on the aetiology of this condition and detailed considerations of the most suitable means of ameliorating such stress from a therapeutic point of view. Studies on Men’s Health and Fertility is intended to provide clinicians and scientists with a snap shot of the current status of this exciting, rapidly moving field. The book will be of value to clinicians interested in strategies for the management of oxidative stress in their infertility patients and scientists wishing to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning the generation of ROS by these cells and its pathophysiological significance. It was not so long ago that the ability of spermatozoa to generate ROS was a hotly disputed topic. With the publication of this book such doubts can finally be laid to rest. There is now no doubt that these cells actively generate ROS, that oxidative stress is a major contributor to defects in male reproductive health and that the successful clinical management of this condition depends on developing a deeper understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this quest, Studies on Men’s Health and Fertility will be seen as a clear and important milestone.

Studies On Men S Health And Fertility

Author : Ashok Agarwal
ISBN : 9781617797750
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 79 MB
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Studies on Men’s Health and Fertility provides a comprehensive series of up-to-the-minute reviews addressing the role of oxidative stress in the aetiology of reproductive pathologies in the male. This volume represents by far the most detailed, authoritative review of the field that has been produced to date. The text encompasses the basic science of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mammalian spermatozoa, the way in which these highly reactive molecules are processed by the germ line and the physiological significance of this redox activity in the generation of a functional gamete. The factors responsible for perturbing the delicate balance between physiological redox signaling on the one hand and oxidative stress on the other are also extensively reviewed and some of the first clues concerning the underlying mechanisms (age, heat, infection, cryostorage, aberrant lipid metabolism), clearly identified. From a clinical perspective there are chapters setting out the methods we should be using to diagnose oxidative stress in the male germ line, a clinical perspective on the aetiology of this condition and detailed considerations of the most suitable means of ameliorating such stress from a therapeutic point of view. Studies on Men’s Health and Fertility is intended to provide clinicians and scientists with a snap shot of the current status of this exciting, rapidly moving field. The book will be of value to clinicians interested in strategies for the management of oxidative stress in their infertility patients and scientists wishing to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning the generation of ROS by these cells and its pathophysiological significance. It was not so long ago that the ability of spermatozoa to generate ROS was a hotly disputed topic. With the publication of this book such doubts can finally be laid to rest. There is now no doubt that these cells actively generate ROS, that oxidative stress is a major contributor to defects in male reproductive health and that the successful clinical management of this condition depends on developing a deeper understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this quest, Studies on Men’s Health and Fertility will be seen as a clear and important milestone.

Studies On Experimental Models

Author : Samar Basu
ISBN : 1607619563
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 41 MB
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There is a widespread consensus that use of antioxidants as a therapeutic approach may counteract free radical mediated pathologies. However, the role of antioxidants in normal physiology and redox signaling is still in its infancy. Since oxidative stress is related to various diseases and pathologies, scientists are eager to study the disease in humans, but it is not always ethical to study all the aspects of the disease in humans. Thus, it becomes mandatory to study the disease process and the mechanisms behind it through experimental models which generally involve animals, in vitro/cell culture studies, primates and even humans to a certain extent. Studies on Experimental Models contains data on the experimental models or review of such models of oxidative stress in various diseases. It is structured into six sections, which are as follows: diabetes, cardiovascular, neurology, ocular diseases, toxicology/environmental and in vitro/tissue culture. Each section presents a sketch of models in humans, animals and in vitro methods. Taken together, they comprise a valuable reference for basic and clinical scientists, one aimed at contributing to the advancement of oxidative stress research using appropriate animal models.

Studies On Cardiovascular Disorders

Author : Heinrich Sauer
ISBN : 1607616009
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 98 MB
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Studies On Periodontal Disease

Author : Daisuke Ekuni
ISBN : 9781461495574
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 24 MB
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The chapters of Studies on Periodontal Disease comprise four parts. Part 1 provides basic sciences from the general to the particular. The findings of cell culture and animal models supply the mechanism between periodontal disease and oxidative stress. In part 2, human clinical studies are mainly addressed. The effects of periodontal therapy on circulating oxidative stress are also discussed. The relationships between periodontal disease and systemic diseases are examined in part 3. The involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation are discussed through in vivo and in vitro study results. Part 4 discusses future strategies, including the effects of antioxidants and nutrition on periodontal disease. This thorough examination of the relationship between oxidative stress and periodontal disease is essential reading for researchers in oxidative stress and periodontal clinicians, alike.

Studies On Retinal And Choroidal Disorders

Author : Robert D. Stratton
ISBN : 9781617796050
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 90 MB
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Studies on Retinal and Choroidal Disorders examines the role that oxidative and nitrosative stress plays in the complex physiology and pathophysiology of the retina and choroid. Both the basic science researcher and the clinical practitioner can use this book as a guide to the current understanding of retinal and choroidal cellular mechanisms involved in aging and disease. Beginning with a review of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathoetiology of AMD and a review of the complement system in the retina, the book then takes a detailed look at oxidative stress in lipid metabolism and oxidized lipoproteins in the retina. It examines the anti-apoptotic activity of α-crystallins in the presence of glutathione, oxidative stress in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, the role of iron in retinal disease, the mechanisms of pathological VEGF expression, NAPDH oxidase mechanisms, and Hepatocyte Growth Factor in oxidative stress in the retina. A detailed look at the Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mouse model of AMD follows. Then a detailed examination of the systemic changes in AMD is followed by a discussion of cerium oxide nanoparticle reduction of oxidative stress. Two chapters discuss progenitor cells in the cause and treatment of retinal diseases including AMD and diabetic retinopathy. Natural compounds in the prevention and treatment of retinal diseases are exhaustively presented, followed by a chapter on serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonists in oxidative stress of the retina. The current anti-VEGF treatment strategies of neovascular AMD are then given. The volume continues with a detailed look at nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase in retinal vascular disease, an explanation of an in vivo technique of studying the effect of lipid hydroperoxides on circulating leucocytes in the retina, an excellent review of oxidative stress in retinopathy of prematurity, and a look at VEGF induced oxidative stress in the retinal ganglion cell. The book ends with a detail examination of the role of carotenoids in retinal health and disease. These 31 chapters summarize what is known about oxidative stress in retinal and choroidal disorders. All those involved with degenerative diseases of the eye will find Studies on Retinal and Choroidal Disorders to be illuminating and comprehensive.

Studies On Renal Disorders

Author : Toshio Miyata
ISBN : 1607618575
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 40 MB
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Conditions such as oxidative stress and hypoxia, which have a generalized impact on the oxygen metabolism, have been implicated in the genesis of kidney disease. This means that deepening our understanding of the pathobiology of oxygen metabolism in such diseases could be a fruitful path towards tangible clinical benefits. Studies in Renal Disorder collects reviews from leading researchers and clinical scientists working in exactly this field, providing an overview of the latest advances. The causal role of impaired oxygen metabolism in kidney disease has numerous clinical implications. It affects our understanding of the therapeutic benefits accruing from anti-hypertensive agents; the way we control hyperglycemia/hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia; and our use of dietary approaches to the correction of obesity. The defensive mechanisms against oxidative stress, such as the Nrf2-Keap1 system, and hypoxia, such as the PHD-HIF system, have recently been explored in various cells, including kidney cells. These mechanisms include intracellular sensors for oxidative stress and hypoxia. This means that novel approaches targeting these sensors may offer clinical benefits in kidney disease in which oxidative stress and/or hypoxia is a final, common pathway.

Enhancing Animal Welfare And Farmer Income Through Strategic Animal Feeding

Author : Harinder P. S. Makkar
ISBN : UIUC:30112110391320
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 51. 12 MB
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" ... At the Expert Consultation held at FAO headquarters in Rome in September 2011, participants called for a series of case studies to document existing practices that enhance animal welfare as well as farmers' incomes; currently, such studies are few and far between. This document presents a number of such studies and it is hoped that the information they contain will encourage researchers and agencies working in the area of animal welfare to initiate studies to capture the impact of any intervention on farmers' incomes - an area that has been neglected to date. It is also envisaged that these studies could pave the way for developing guidelines and policy options to promote sustainable animal feeding that enhances animal welfare, animal productivity, animal product quality and profitability."--Preface.

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