supercooperators altruism evolution and why we need each other to succeed

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Supercooperators

Author : Martin Nowak
ISBN : 9781451626636
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 90. 1 MB
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Examines the importance of cooperation in human beings and in nature, arguing that this social tool is as an important aspect of evolution as mutation and natural selection.

Supercooperators

Author : Martin Nowak
ISBN : 9781439110171
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 64. 98 MB
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EVOLUTION IS OFTEN PRESENTED AS A STRICTLY COMPETITIVE ENDEAVOR. This point of view has had serious implications for the way we see the mechanics of both science and culture. But scientists have long wondered how societies could have evolved without some measure of cooperation. And if there was cooperation involved, how could it have arisen from nature “red in tooth and claw”? Martin Nowak, one of the world’s experts on evolution and game theory, working here with bestselling science writer Roger Highfield, turns an important aspect of evolutionary theory on its head to explain why cooperation, not competition, has always been the key to the evolution of complexity. He offers a new explanation for the origin of life and a new theory for the origins of language, biology’s second greatest information revolution after the emergence of genes. SuperCooperators also brings to light his game-changing work on disease. Cancer is fundamentally a failure of the body’s cells to cooperate, Nowak has discovered, but organs are cleverly designed to foster cooperation, and he explains how this new understanding can be used in novel cancer treatments. Nowak and Highfield examine the phenomena of reciprocity, reputation, and reward, explaining how selfless behavior arises naturally from competition; how forgiveness, generosity, and kindness have a mathematical rationale; how companies can be better designed to promote cooperation; and how there is remarkable overlap between the recipe for cooperation that arises from quantitative analysis and the codes of conduct seen in major religions, such as the Golden Rule. In his first book written for a wide audience, this hugely influential scientist explains his cutting-edge research into the mysteries of cooperation, from the rise of multicellular life to Good Samaritans. With wit and clarity, Nowak and Highfield make the case that cooperation, not competition, is the defining human trait. SuperCooperators will expand our understanding of evolution and provoke debate for years to come.

Supercooperators

Author : Roger Highfield
ISBN : 9781921799846
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 63 MB
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If only the fittest survive, then why would we risk our life to save a stranger? As celebrated biologist Martin Nowak and bestselling science writer Roger Highfield explain in this groundbreaking book, cooperation not competition, is the defining human trait. It challenges our understanding of evolution and will provoke debate for years to come.

Evolution Games And God

Author : Martin A. Nowak
ISBN : 9780674075535
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 84 MB
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Evolution, Games, and God explores how cooperation and altruism, alongside mutation and natural selection, play a critical role in evolution, from microbes to human societies. Inheriting a tendency to cooperate and self-sacrifice on behalf of others may be as beneficial to a population’s survival as the self-preserving instincts of individuals.

Super Cooperators

Author : Martin A. Nowak
ISBN : 1847673384
Genre : Altruism
File Size : 22. 67 MB
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Beyond The Survival of the Fittest: Why Cooperation, not Competition, is the Key to LifeIf life is about survival of the fittest, then why would we risk our own life to jump into a river to save a stranger? Some people argue that issues such as charity, fairness, forgiveness and cooperation are evolutionary loose ends, side issues that are of little consequence. But as Harvard's celebrated evolutionary biologist Martin Nowak explains in this groundbreaking and controversial book, cooperation is central to the four-billion-year-old puzzle of life. Indeed, it is cooperation not competition that is the defining human trait.

Evolutionary Dynamics

Author : Martin A. Nowak
ISBN : 9780674417748
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 93 MB
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At a time of unprecedented expansion in the life sciences, evolution is the one theory that transcends all of biology. Any observation of a living system must ultimately be interpreted in the context of its evolution. Evolutionary change is the consequence of mutation and natural selection, which are two concepts that can be described by mathematical equations. Evolutionary Dynamics is concerned with these equations of life. In this book, Martin A. Nowak draws on the languages of biology and mathematics to outline the mathematical principles according to which life evolves. His work introduces readers to the powerful yet simple laws that govern the evolution of living systems, no matter how complicated they might seem. Evolution has become a mathematical theory, Nowak suggests, and any idea of an evolutionary process or mechanism should be studied in the context of the mathematical equations of evolutionary dynamics. His book presents a range of analytical tools that can be used to this end: fitness landscapes, mutation matrices, genomic sequence space, random drift, quasispecies, replicators, the Prisoner’s Dilemma, games in finite and infinite populations, evolutionary graph theory, games on grids, evolutionary kaleidoscopes, fractals, and spatial chaos. Nowak then shows how evolutionary dynamics applies to critical real-world problems, including the progression of viral diseases such as AIDS, the virulence of infectious agents, the unpredictable mutations that lead to cancer, the evolution of altruism, and even the evolution of human language. His book makes a clear and compelling case for understanding every living system—and everything that arises as a consequence of living systems—in terms of evolutionary dynamics.

Virus Dynamics Mathematical Principles Of Immunology And Virology

Author : Martin Nowak
ISBN : 0191588512
Genre :
File Size : 59. 3 MB
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This groundbreaking book describes the emerging field of theoretical immunology, in particular the use of mathematical models to describe the spread of infectious diseases within patients. It reveals fascinating insights into the dynamics of viral and other infections, and the interactions between infectious agents and immune responses. Structured around the examples of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B, Nowak and May show how mathematical models can help researchers to understand the detailed dynamics of infection and the effects of antiviral therapy. Models are developed to describe the dynamics of drug resistance, immune responses, viral evolution and mutation, and to optimise the design of therapy and vaccines. - ;We know, down to the tiniest details, the molecular structure of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet despite this tremendous accomplishment, and despite other remarkable advances in our understanding of individual viruses and cells of the immune system, we still have no agreed understanding of the ultimate course and variability of the pathogenesis of AIDS. Gaps in our understanding like these impede our efforts towards developing effective therapies and preventive vaccines. Martin Nowak and Robert M May describe the emerging field of theoretical immunology in this accessible and well- written text. Using mathematical modelling techniques, the authors set out their ideas about how populations of viruses and populations of immune system cells may interact in various circumstances, and how infectious diseases spread within patients. They explain how this approach to understanding infectious diseases can reveal insights into the dynamics of viral and other infections, and the interactions between infectious agents and immune responses. The book is structured around the examples of HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis B virus, although the approaches described will be more widely applicable. The authors use mathematical tools to uncover the detailed dynamics of the infection and the effects of antiviral therapy. Models are developed to describe the emergence of drug resistance, and the dynamics of immune responses, viral evolution, and mutation. The practical implications of this work for optimisation of the design of therapy and vaccines are discussed. The book concludes with a glance towards the future of this fascinating, and potentially highly useful, field of study. - ;... an excellent introduction to a field that has the potential to advance substantially our understanding of the complex interplay between virus and host - Nature

The Penguin And The Leviathan

Author : Yochai Benkler
ISBN : 9780385525763
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 44. 47 MB
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Challenges commonly held views about human selfishness to argue that many of our most deeply entrenched social systems need to be restructured to reflect humanity's cooperative and altruistic tendencies, citing illustrative examples while revealing the potential of collaborative organizations.

Super Cooperators

Author : Martin A. Nowak
ISBN : 1847673376
Genre : Altruism
File Size : 80. 3 MB
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Everyone is familiar with Darwin's revolutionary idea about the survival of the fittest, and most people agree that it works, but Darwin's famous theory has one major chink. If life is about survival of the fittest, then why would we risk our own life to jump into a river to save a stranger? Some people argue that issues such as charity, fairness, forgiveness and cooperation are evolutionary loose ends, side issues that are of little consequence. But as Harvard's celebrated evolutionary biologist Martin Nowak explains in this ground-breaking book, cooperation is central to the four-billion-year-old puzzle of life. In his first book for a wide audience, this hugely influential scientist explains his cutting-edge research into the mysteries of cooperation, from the rise of multicellular life to Good Samaritans. With wit and clarity, Martin Nowak and the bestselling science writer Roger Highfield make the case that cooperation, not competition, is the defining human trait. Supercooperators will expand our understanding of evolution and human behaviour, and provoke debate for years to come.

Quantum Computing From The Ground Up

Author : Riley Tipton Perry
ISBN : 9789814412131
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 54 MB
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Quantum computing — the application of quantum mechanics to information — represents a fundamental break from classical information and promises to dramatically increase a computer's power. Many difficult problems, such as the factorization of large numbers, have so far resisted attack by classical computers yet are easily solved with quantum computers. If they become feasible, quantum computers will end standard practices such as RSA encryption. Most of the books or papers on quantum computing require (or assume) prior knowledge of certain areas such as linear algebra or quantum mechanics. The majority of the currently-available literature is hard to understand for the average computer enthusiast or interested layman. This text attempts to teach quantum computing from the ground up in an easily readable way, providing a comprehensive tutorial that includes all the necessary mathematics, computer science and physics. Errata(s) Errata

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