symmetry princeton science library

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Fearful Symmetry

Author : A. Zee
ISBN : 9781400874507
Genre : Science
File Size : 69. 38 MB
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The concept of symmetry has widespread manifestations and many diverse applications—from architecture to mathematics to science. Yet, as twentieth-century physics has revealed, symmetry has a special, central role in nature, one that is occasionally and enigmatically violated. Fearful Symmetry brings the incredible discoveries of the juxtaposition of symmetry and asymmetry in contemporary physics within everyone's grasp. A. Zee, a distinguished physicist and skillful expositor, tells the exciting story of how contemporary theoretical physicists are following Einstein in their search for the beauty and simplicity of Nature. Animated by a sense of reverence and whimsy, Fearful Symmetry describes the majestic sweep and accomplishments of twentieth-century physics—one of the greatest chapters in the intellectual history of humankind.

Symmetry

Author : Hermann Weyl
ISBN : 9781400874347
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 60 MB
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Symmetry is a classic study of symmetry in mathematics, the sciences, nature, and art from one of the twentieth century's greatest mathematicians. Hermann Weyl explores the concept of symmetry beginning with the idea that it represents a harmony of proportions, and gradually departs to examine its more abstract varieties and manifestations—as bilateral, translatory, rotational, ornamental, and crystallographic. Weyl investigates the general abstract mathematical idea underlying all these special forms, using a wealth of illustrations as support. Symmetry is a work of seminal relevance that explores the great variety of applications and importance of symmetry.

Symmetry A Very Short Introduction

Author : Ian Stewart
ISBN : 9780199651986
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 53. 28 MB
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Symmetry is an immensely important concept in mathematics and throughout the sciences. In this Very Short Introduction, Ian Stewart highlights the deep implications of symmetry and its important scientific applications across the entire subject.

Creating Symmetry

Author : Frank A. Farris
ISBN : 9781400865673
Genre : Art
File Size : 83. 58 MB
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This lavishly illustrated book provides a hands-on, step-by-step introduction to the intriguing mathematics of symmetry. Instead of breaking up patterns into blocks—a sort of potato-stamp method—Frank Farris offers a completely new waveform approach that enables you to create an endless variety of rosettes, friezes, and wallpaper patterns: dazzling art images where the beauty of nature meets the precision of mathematics. Featuring more than 100 stunning color illustrations and requiring only a modest background in math, Creating Symmetry begins by addressing the enigma of a simple curve, whose curious symmetry seems unexplained by its formula. Farris describes how complex numbers unlock the mystery, and how they lead to the next steps on an engaging path to constructing waveforms. He explains how to devise waveforms for each of the 17 possible wallpaper types, and then guides you through a host of other fascinating topics in symmetry, such as color-reversing patterns, three-color patterns, polyhedral symmetry, and hyperbolic symmetry. Along the way, Farris demonstrates how to marry waveforms with photographic images to construct beautiful symmetry patterns as he gradually familiarizes you with more advanced mathematics, including group theory, functional analysis, and partial differential equations. As you progress through the book, you'll learn how to create breathtaking art images of your own. Fun, accessible, and challenging, Creating Symmetry features numerous examples and exercises throughout, as well as engaging discussions of the history behind the mathematics presented in the book.

Fearless Symmetry

Author : Avner Ash
ISBN : 9781400837779
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 72. 27 MB
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Mathematicians solve equations, or try to. But sometimes the solutions are not as interesting as the beautiful symmetric patterns that lead to them. Written in a friendly style for a general audience, Fearless Symmetry is the first popular math book to discuss these elegant and mysterious patterns and the ingenious techniques mathematicians use to uncover them. Hidden symmetries were first discovered nearly two hundred years ago by French mathematician évariste Galois. They have been used extensively in the oldest and largest branch of mathematics--number theory--for such diverse applications as acoustics, radar, and codes and ciphers. They have also been employed in the study of Fibonacci numbers and to attack well-known problems such as Fermat's Last Theorem, Pythagorean Triples, and the ever-elusive Riemann Hypothesis. Mathematicians are still devising techniques for teasing out these mysterious patterns, and their uses are limited only by the imagination. The first popular book to address representation theory and reciprocity laws, Fearless Symmetry focuses on how mathematicians solve equations and prove theorems. It discusses rules of math and why they are just as important as those in any games one might play. The book starts with basic properties of integers and permutations and reaches current research in number theory. Along the way, it takes delightful historical and philosophical digressions. Required reading for all math buffs, the book will appeal to anyone curious about popular mathematics and its myriad contributions to everyday life.

Symmetry And The Beautiful Universe

Author : Leon M. Lederman
ISBN : 9781615920419
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 96 MB
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When scientists peer through a telescope at the distant stars in outer space or use a particle-accelerator to analyze the smallest components of matter, they discover that the same laws of physics govern the whole universe at all times and all places. Physicists call the eternal, ubiquitous constancy of the laws of physics symmetry. Symmetry is the basic underlying principle that defines the laws of nature and hence controls the universe. This all-important insight is one of the great conceptual breakthroughs in modern physics and is the basis of contemporary efforts to discover a grand unified theory to explain all the laws of physics. Nobel Laureate Leon M. Lederman and physicist Christopher T. Hill explain the supremely elegant concept of symmetry and all its profound ramifications to life on Earth and the universe at large in this eloquent, accessible popular science book. They not only clearly describe concepts normally reserved only for physicists and mathematicians, but they also instill an appreciation for the profound beauty of the universe’s inherent design. Central to the story of symmetry is an obscure, unpretentious, but extremely gifted German mathematician named Emmy Noether. Though still little known to the world, she impressed no less a scientist than Albert Einstein, who praised her "penetrating mathematical thinking." In some of her earliest work she proved that the law of the conservation of energy was connected to the idea of symmetry and thus laid the mathematical groundwork for what may be the most important concept of modern physics. Lederman and Hill reveal concepts about the universe, based on Noether’s work, that are largely unknown to the public and have wide-reaching implications in connection with the Big Bang, Einstein’s theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, and many other areas of physics. Through ingenious analogies and illustrations, they bring these astounding notions to life. This book will open your eyes to a universe you never knew existed. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Magnetic Ions In Crystals

Author : K. W. Stevens
ISBN : 9781400864461
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 79 MB
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There have been many demonstrations, particularly for magnetic impurity ions in crystals, that spin-Hamiltonians are able to account for a wide range of experimental results in terms of much smaller numbers of parameters. Yet they were originally derived from crystal field theory, which contains a logical flaw; electrons on the magnetic ions are distinguished from those on the ligands. Thus there is a challenge: to replace crystal field theory with one of equal or greater predictive power that is based on a surer footing. The theory developed in this book begins with a generic Hamiltonian, one that is common to most molecular and solid state problems and that does not violate the symmetry requirements imposed on electrons and nuclei. Using a version of degenerate perturbation theory due to Bloch and the introduction of Wannier functions, projection operators, and unitary transformations, Stevens shows that it is possible to replace crystal field theory as a basis for the spin-Hamiltonians of single magnetic ions and pairs and lattices of magnetic ions, even when the nuclei have vibrational motion. The power of the method is further demonstrated by showing that it can be extended to include lattice vibration and conduction by electron hopping such as probably occurs in high-Tc superconductors. Thus Stevens shows how an apparently successful ad hoc method of the past can be replaced by a much more soundly based one that not only incorporates all the previous successes but appears to open the way to extensions far outside the scope of the previously available methods. So far only some of these have been explored. The book should therefore be of great interest to all physicists and chemists concerned with understanding the special properties of molecules and solids that are imposed by the presence of magnetic ions. Originally published in 1997. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

The Pion Nucleon System

Author : B. H. Bransden
ISBN : 9781400867448
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 44. 82 MB
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Synthesizing the theoretical and experimental advances in pion-nucleon interactions over approximately the last twelve years, the authors offer here a timely account of the hadronic interactions of pions and nucleons and of the structure of nucleons. Because of the hadronic SU3 symmetry, the book also treats the structure of baryons in general, and so contains much material external to the specific field of pion-nucleon interactions. Thus the book's subject can be stated as the hadronic structure of baryons as illustrated particularly by pion-nucleon interaction. Following an introductory discussion of isotopic spin, the authors proceed to chapters that treat low energy pion scattering by nucleons and the photoproduction of pions; forward and fixed momentum transfer dispersion relations; analytic properties of scattering amplitudes; formation of nucleon resonances; symmetries and classification of particles and resonances; current algebra, sum rules, and superconvergence relations; scattering at higher energies; pion-nucleon dynamics; pion-nucleon inelastic scattering; and the form factors of the nucleon and the pion. Each chapter is followed by abundant references to the original literature. The level of the writing is suitable for students at the graduate level, and the presentation is even and self-contained. On balance, the authors have prepared a useful consolidation and review of this difficult and changing area of investigation. Originally published in 1973. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Lectures On The Infrared Structure Of Gravity And Gauge Theory

Author : Andrew Strominger
ISBN : 9781400889853
Genre : Science
File Size : 43. 57 MB
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A short, graduate-level synthesis of recent developments in theoretical physics, from a pioneer in the fieldshort, graduate-level synthesis of recent developments in theoretical physics, from a pioneer in the field Lectures on the Infrared Structure of Gravity and Gauge Theory presents an accessible, graduate-level synthesis of a frontier research area in theoretical physics. Based on a popular Harvard University course taught by the author, this book gives a concise introduction to recent discoveries concerning the structure of gravity and gauge theory at very long distances. These discoveries unite three disparate but well-developed subjects in physics. The first subject is the soft theorems, which were found by particle physicists in the 1950s to control the behavior of low-energy photons and are essential for all collider predictions. The second subject is asymptotic symmetries, found by general relativists in the 1960s to provide a surprising, infinite number of exact relations between distinct physical phenomena. The third subject is the memory effect, the measurement of which is sought in upcoming gravitational wave observations. An exploration of the physical and mathematical equivalence of these three subjects has provided a powerful new perspective on old results and led to a plethora of new results, involving symmetries of QED, gluon scattering amplitudes, flat-space holography in quantum gravity, black hole information, and beyond. Uniquely connective and cutting-edge, Lectures on the Infrared Structure of Gravity and Gauge Theory takes students and scholars to the forefront of new developments in the discipline. Materials are presented in a "lecture notes" style with problem sets included Concise and accessible pedagogical approach Topics include soft theorems, the memory effect, asymptotic symmetries with applications to QED, Yang-Mills theory, quantum gravity, and black holes

Group Theory In A Nutshell For Physicists

Author : A. Zee
ISBN : 9781400881185
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 46 MB
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Although group theory is a mathematical subject, it is indispensable to many areas of modern theoretical physics, from atomic physics to condensed matter physics, particle physics to string theory. In particular, it is essential for an understanding of the fundamental forces. Yet until now, what has been missing is a modern, accessible, and self-contained textbook on the subject written especially for physicists. Group Theory in a Nutshell for Physicists fills this gap, providing a user-friendly and classroom-tested text that focuses on those aspects of group theory physicists most need to know. From the basic intuitive notion of a group, A. Zee takes readers all the way up to how theories based on gauge groups could unify three of the four fundamental forces. He also includes a concise review of the linear algebra needed for group theory, making the book ideal for self-study. Provides physicists with a modern and accessible introduction to group theory Covers applications to various areas of physics, including field theory, particle physics, relativity, and much more Topics include finite group and character tables; real, pseudoreal, and complex representations; Weyl, Dirac, and Majorana equations; the expanding universe and group theory; grand unification; and much more The essential textbook for students and an invaluable resource for researchers Features a brief, self-contained treatment of linear algebra An online illustration package is available to professors Solutions manual (available only to professors)

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