tanning chemistry the science of leather

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Tanning Chemistry

Author : Anthony D Covington
ISBN : 9781782626022
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 21. 95 MB
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Even in the 21st Century, the manufacture of leather retains an air of the dark arts, still somewhat shrouded in the mysteries of a millennia old, craft based industry. Despite the best efforts of a few scientists over the last century or so, much of the understanding of the principles of tanning is still based on received wisdom and experience. Leather is made from (usually) the hides and skins of animals - large animals such as cattle have hides, small animals such as sheep have skins. The skin of any animal is largely composed of the protein collagen, so it is the chemistry of this fibrous protein and the properties it confers to the skin with which the tanner is most concerned. In addition, other components of the skin impact on processing, impact on the chemistry of the material and impact on the properties of the product, leather. Therefore, it is useful to understand the relationships between skin structure at the molecular and macro levels, the changes imposed by modifying the chemistry of the material and the eventual properties of the leather. This book aims to contribute to changing the thinking in the industry, to continue building a body of scientific understanding, aimed at enhancing the sustainability of an industry which produces a unique group of materials, derived from a natural source. The Science of Leather is the only current text on tanning science, and addresses the scientific principles which underpin the processes involved in making leather. It is concerned with the chemical modification of collagen, prior to tanning and the tanning reactions in particular. The subject is covered in the following order: collagen chemistry, collagen structure, skin structure, processing to prepare for tanning, the tanning processes and processing after tanning. The aim of the book is to provide leather scientists and technologists with an understanding of how the reactions work, the nature of their outcomes and how the processes can be controlled and changed. The objective is to synthesise a scientific view of leather making and to arrive at an understanding of the nature of tanning - how the wide range of chemistries employed in the art can change the properties of collagen, making leather with different properties, especially conferring different degrees of stabilisation as measured by the hydrothermal stability. Environmental issues are not treated as a separate theme - the impact of leather making on the environment is a thread running through the text, with the assumption that better understanding of the science of leather making will lead to improved processing. The book also reflects on the ways leather technology may develop in the future based on the foundation of understanding the scientific principles which can be exploited. It also includes a subject index, references and a glossary. The book provides the reader with insights into the role science plays in leather technology and provides fundamental understanding, which should be the basis for scientific and technological research and development for the benefit of the global leather industry. The book is aimed at students, leather scientists and technologists, in both academia and industry, in leather production and in chemical supply houses.

Leather Processing Tanning Technology Handbook

Author : NIIR Board of Consultants Engineers
ISBN : 9788190568593
Genre :
File Size : 87. 64 MB
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Leather Industry has been one of the traditional industries operating at present. The hides and skins of animals are the source of leather and preserving hides and tanning them into leather has become an important industry. Leather-making is now a scientifically based industry, but still retains some of the charm and mystery of the original craft. Animal skin that has been processed to retain its flexibility, toughness, and waterproof nature is known as leather. "Leather tanning" is a general term for the numerous processing steps involved in converting animal hides or skins into finished leather. Tanning is the final process in turning hides and skins into leather. Tanning involves a complex combination of mechanical and chemical processes. The heart of the process is the tanning operation itself in which organic or inorganic materials become chemically bound to the protein structure of the hide and preserve it from deterioration. The main chemical processes carried out by the tanner are the unhairing, liming, tanning, neutralizing and dyeing. This indispensable handbook provides a detailed insight into the leather industry, leather processing and tanning technology with manufacturing of different forms of leather products. The book contains the manufacturing process of different forms and type of leather products like box and willow sides, glazed kid, sole leather, lace leather, belting and bag leather, chamois leather, upholstery leather, antique leather, light and fancy leather, etc. to name a few. This book will be very helpful to its readers, upcoming entrepreneurs, scientists, existing industries, technical institutions, technocrats, etc.

Science For Students Of Leather Technology

Author : R. Reed
ISBN : 9781483159645
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 74 MB
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Science for Students of Leather Technology is the first of a series of textbooks of leather science and technology designed to assist students at technical colleges and institutes as well as at universities. The book begins with an introduction to leather manufacturing. This is followed by separate chapters on the physical chemistry of solutions needed by students of leather manufacture; types of macromolecules; lipids and their use at various stages of leather manufacture; and the principles of their use as surface agents. Subsequent chapters deal with the general features of skin as an organ; how the skins from different animals may develop their special characteristics; common problems arising from insects and from micro-organisms in leather manufacture; and the structure and reactions of chromium complexes, which are the most widely used tanning agents; and modern views on the structure of the vegetable tannins and of the dyestuffs and pigments. This book is intended for students with a variety of backgrounds. Those whose chemical studies have not proceeded much beyond the elementary level will find considerable difficulty with some sections, especially where the organic chemistry of complex molecules (proteins, carbohydrates, dyes and vegetable tannins) is described. It is, however, possible to supplement the explanations given by reference to standard chemical textbooks, using the subject matter of the present volume as a guide to those sections which would repay further study.

Tan Your Hide

Author : Phyllis Hobson
ISBN : 0882661019
Genre : Crafts & Hobbies
File Size : 87. 74 MB
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A step-by-step guide to making vests, belts, and wallets by home tanning and hand-working furs and leathers. 138,000 copies in print.

Applicative Chemistry Of Tanning Metallic Heterocomplexes

Author : Carmen Gaidau
ISBN : 9781608057436
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 19 MB
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The chemistry of heterocomplex compounds is a fascinating field for experts in chemical synthesis and structural analysis, and for technologists specializing in leather processing. This volume describes the vast theoretical and practical possibilities of exploiting the action synergism of metals with different collagen cross-linking capacity. The possibility of reducing chromium content from leather tanning agents by replacing it with other tanning metals has significant environmental implications and minimum changes in terms of quality and production costs of natural leather, and is a viable alternative for a safe future. Applicative Chemistry of Tanning Metallic Heterocomplexes is a book dedicated to the synthesis and use of tanning metallic heterocomplexes in leather tanning as alternatives to tanning with basic chromium salts. Replacing chromium with other tanning metals is an innovative approach that exploits the possibility that a series of known disadvantages of tanning metals used individually be reduced by heterocomplexation. The synthesis mechanism of stable combinations of chromium with other tanning metals: aluminum, iron, titanium, or zirconium is based on the stoichiometry of oxidation-reduction reactions which enables a wide range of combinations, the premise for obtaining various properties by tanning and retanning natural leather. The volume is intended as a useful reference for researchers, chemical auxiliary producers, experts in natural leather processing who are looking for clean and efficient solutions for wastewater pollutants, sludge or solid wastes while striving to preserve the known characteristics of mineral tanned natural leather.

Protein Crosslinking

Author : Mendel Friedman
ISBN : 9781468432824
Genre : Science
File Size : 49. 21 MB
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The word crosslinking implies durable combination of (usually large) distinct elements at specific places to create a new entity that has different properties as a result of the union. In the case of proteins, such crosslinking often results in important changes in chemical, functional, nutritional, and biomedical properties, besides physical properties simply related to molecular size and shape. (Nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and other biopolymers are correspondingly affected.) Since proteins are ubiquitous, the consequences of their crosslinking are widespread and often profound. Scientists from many disciplines including organic chemistry, bio chemistry, protein chemistry, food science, nutrition, radiation biology, pharmacology, physiology, medicine, and dentistry are, therefore, minutely interested in protein crosslinking reactions and their implications. Because protein crosslinking encompasses so many disciplines, in organizing the Symposium on Nutritional and Biochemical Conse quences of Protein Crosslinking sponsored by the Protein Subdivi sion of the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry of the American Chemical Society, I sought participants with the broadest possible range of interests, yet with a common concern for theore tical and practical aspects of protein crosslinking. An important function of a symposium is to catalyze progress by bringing together ideas and experiences needed for interaction among different, yet related disciplines. To my pleasant surprise, nearly everyone invited came to San Francisco to participate.

The Oxford Handbook Of Engineering And Technology In The Classical World

Author : John Peter Oleson
ISBN : 9780199734856
Genre : History
File Size : 73. 10 MB
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Nearly every aspect of daily life in the Mediterranean world and Europe during the florescence of the Greek and Roman cultures is relevant to engineering and technology. This text highlights the accomplishments of the ancient societies, the research problems, and stimulates further progress in the history of ancient technology.

The Complete Book Of Tanning Skins And Furs

Author : James E. Churchill
ISBN : 0811717194
Genre : Crafts & Hobbies
File Size : 80. 58 MB
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Introduces the tools, equipment, and techniques used in tanning hides and tells how to make useful objects out of leather

Tanning Processes

Author : August C. Orthmann
ISBN : 1447421973
Genre : Reference
File Size : 62. 87 MB
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Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. We are republishing these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.

Physical Chemistry Of Leather Making

Author : Krzysztof J. Bieńkiewicz
ISBN : UCAL:B4585854
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 7 MB
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