the acquisition and retention of knowledge a cognitive view

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The Acquisition And Retention Of Knowledge A Cognitive View

Author : D.P. Ausubel
ISBN : 9789401594547
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 75. 10 MB
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In 1963 an initial attempt was made in my The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning to present a cognitive theory of meaningful as opposed to rote verbal learning. It was based on the proposition that the acquisition and retention of knowl edge (particularly of verbal knowledge as, for example, in school, or subject-matter learning) is the product of an active, integrative, interactional process between instructional material (subject matter) and relevant ideas in the leamer's cognitive structure to which the new ideas are relatable in particular ways. This book is a full-scale revision of my 1963 monograph, The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning, in the sense that it addresses the major aforementioned and hitherto unmet goals by providing for an expansion, clarification, differentiation, and sharper focusing of the principal psychological variables and processes involved in meaningful learning and retention, i.e., for their interrelationships and interactions leading to the generation of new meanings in the individual learner. The preparation of this new monograph was largely necessitated by the virtual collapse of the neobe havioristic theoretical orientation to learning during the previous forty years; and by the meteoric rise in the seventies and beyond of constructivist approaches to learning theory.

Encyclopedia Of Educational Theory And Philosophy

Author : D. C. Phillips
ISBN : 9781483364759
Genre : Education
File Size : 71. 26 MB
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Education is a field sometimes beset by theories-of-the-day and with easy panaceas that overpromise the degree to which they can alleviate pressing educational problems. The two-volume Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy introduces readers to theories that have stood the test of time and those that have provided the historical foundation for the best of contemporary educational theory and practice. Drawing together a team of international scholars, this invaluable reference examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them and presents them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, this work offers essays on cutting-edge research and concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Features: Over 300 signed entries by trusted experts in the field are organized into two volumes and overseen by a distinguished General Editor and an international Editorial Board. Entries are followed by cross references and further reading suggestions. A Chronology of Theory within the field of education highlights developments over the centuries; a Reader’s Guide groups entries thematically, and a master Bibliography facilitates further study. The Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references combine for strong search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic version. Available in a choice of print or electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy is an ideal reference for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary educational theory.

Science

Author : Vanessa Kind
ISBN : 9781134226832
Genre : Education
File Size : 72. 98 MB
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In recognizing that new teachers often feel disempowered by the subject expertise they bring into teaching, this book not only covers the training standards for NQTs and the Induction Standards, but takes the reader beyond this by fully exploring issues relating to subject knowledge in learning to teach. Divided into three sections the book covers: framing the subject - defining subject knowledge and focusing on questions about science as a school subject teaching the subject - looking at pedagogical, curricular and pupil knowledge science within the professional community - focusing on the place of science within the wider curriculum and the teaching community. This refreshing new book provides stimulating assistance to subject specialists, from new teachers of science in the early years of professional development to those on a PGCE course or in their induction year. It is also suitable for subject leaders with mentor responsibilities and Advanced Skills Teachers undertaking specialist inset and teaching support.

Learning And Learning Difficulties

Author : Peter Westwood
ISBN : 9780864317698
Genre : Education
File Size : 54. 32 MB
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This teacher resource explores a variety of learning processes, theories and concepts in order to help educators better understand and distinguish between the causes and outcomes of student learning problems. Westwood argues that many learning problems can be prevented or minimised.

Chemistry Education

Author : Javier Garc?a-Mart?nez
ISBN : 9783527679324
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 28. 86 MB
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Winner of the CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title 2017 Award This comprehensive collection of top-level contributions provides a thorough review of the vibrant field of chemistry education. Highly-experienced chemistry professors and education experts cover the latest developments in chemistry learning and teaching, as well as the pivotal role of chemistry for shaping a more sustainable future. Adopting a practice-oriented approach, the current challenges and opportunities posed by chemistry education are critically discussed, highlighting the pitfalls that can occur in teaching chemistry and how to circumvent them. The main topics discussed include best practices, project-based education, blended learning and the role of technology, including e-learning, and science visualization. Hands-on recommendations on how to optimally implement innovative strategies of teaching chemistry at university and high-school levels make this book an essential resource for anybody interested in either teaching or learning chemistry more effectively, from experience chemistry professors to secondary school teachers, from educators with no formal training in didactics to frustrated chemistry students.

The Long Term Retention Of Knowledge And Skills

Author : Marshall J. Farr
ISBN : 9781461210627
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 39. 66 MB
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A. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUNDl,2 This report reviews and interprets research on the nature and magnitude of the effects of those factors which influence how well knowledge and skills (K&S) are retained over relatively long periods of nonuse. Our interest lies in the kinds of knowledge domains and skills that military personnel must master to function effectively on their jobs. The practical concern impelling this study is that K&S degradation or loss (which we will refer to as "decay") can and does occur, often and severely enough, to jeopardize military preparedness. There are occasions in all the military services when personnel who have just completed their training do not receive an opportunity to practice or use their new capabilities for weeks or months. In the case of reservists who may be called back to active duty, the period of nonuse of relevant military job skills may be counted in terms of years. B. OBJECTIVES The overall objective is to critically analyze the relevant scientific literature which relates the processes involved in learning to those of memory, taking into account the characteristics of the learner and the learning tasks. More specifically, we have focused on the following sub-objectives: 1. Identify, describe and rank the influence and the interactions of the important major variables that affect long-term retention (LTR); 1 I am indebted to Dr. Jesse Orlansky, Institute for Defense Analyses, for his encouragement and guidance through all phases of this report.

Creativity In Engineering

Author : David H Cropley
ISBN : 9780128003183
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 27. 44 MB
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Creativity is like an iceberg - the resulting new idea, or novel solution is only 10% of the effort. The other 90% is the complex interplay of thinking skills and strategies, personal and motivational properties that activate these skills and strategies, and the social and organizational factors of the environment that influence the creative process. Creativity in Engineering focuses on the Process, Person, Product, and Place to understand when and why creativity happens in the engineering environment and how it can be further encouraged. Special Features: Applies findings in creativity research to the engineering arena Defines engineering creativity and differentiates it from innovation Discusses personality and motivational factors that impact creativity Clarifies the role of creativity in the design process Details the impact of thinking skills and strategies in creativity Identifies the role the organization and environment plays in encouraging creativity Discusses the 4P's of Creativity: Person, Product, Process, and Place Provides tactics and tools that will help users foster creativity in engineering environments Identifies how creativity results in innovative new solutions to problems Applies creativity research and knowledge to the engineering space

Discipline Based Education Research

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309254144
Genre : Education
File Size : 32. 52 MB
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The National Science Foundation funded a synthesis study on the status, contributions, and future direction of discipline-based education research (DBER) in physics, biological sciences, geosciences, and chemistry. DBER combines knowledge of teaching and learning with deep knowledge of discipline-specific science content. It describes the discipline-specific difficulties learners face and the specialized intellectual and instructional resources that can facilitate student understanding. Discipline-Based Education Research is based on a 30-month study built on two workshops held in 2008 to explore evidence on promising practices in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This book asks questions that are essential to advancing DBER and broadening its impact on undergraduate science teaching and learning. The book provides empirical research on undergraduate teaching and learning in the sciences, explores the extent to which this research currently influences undergraduate instruction, and identifies the intellectual and material resources required to further develop DBER. Discipline-Based Education Research provides guidance for future DBER research. In addition, the findings and recommendations of this report may invite, if not assist, post-secondary institutions to increase interest and research activity in DBER and improve its quality and usefulness across all natural science disciples, as well as guide instruction and assessment across natural science courses to improve student learning. The book brings greater focus to issues of student attrition in the natural sciences that are related to the quality of instruction. Discipline-Based Education Research will be of interest to educators, policy makers, researchers, scholars, decision makers in universities, government agencies, curriculum developers, research sponsors, and education advocacy groups.

The Acquisition Of Knowledge And Skills For Taskwork And Teamwork To Control Complex Technical Systems

Author : Annette Kluge
ISBN : 9789400750494
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 25. 28 MB
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This book provides the first comprehensive literature review on the acquisition and retention of complex skills in High Reliability Organizations. Based on this review, it introduces a theoretical model of how skill and knowledge acquisition for complex tasks is accomplished and shows how this model can be used to derive training methods and instructional techniques. Successful acquisition and retention of complex technical skills within High Reliability Organizations requires a full understanding of the learning process, knowledge structure, and skill requirements associated with the effective operation and management of technology. For researchers and for organizations, the understanding of these processes is vital for designing training programs as well as for reducing errors with severe consequences for human lives and the environment. Until now, only theoretical fragments exist on this topic, and only a very limited number of publications actually address complex tasks in vocational/occupational settings. “The Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills for Task Work and Teamwork to Control Complex Technical Systems ” uses its literature overview and theoretical model to formulate training principles, that can be used to develop training experiments for further empirical investigations as well as training methods for applied organizational contexts.

Motivation Theory And Research

Author : Harold F. O'Neil, Jr.
ISBN : 9781136478543
Genre : Education
File Size : 68. 60 MB
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Designed for professionals and graduate students in the personality/social, military, and educational psychology, and assessment/evaluation communities, this volume explores the state of the art in motivational research for individuals and teams from multiple theoretical viewpoints as well as their effects in both schools and training environments. The great majority of education and training R&D is focused on the cognitive dimensions of learning, for instance, the acquisition and retention of knowledge and skills. Less attention has been given in the literature and in the design of education and training itself to motivational variables and their influence on performance. As such, this book is unique in the following montage of factors: * a focus on motivation of teams or groups as well as individuals; * an examination of the impact of motivation on performance (and, thus, also on cognition) rather than only on motivation itself; * research in training as well as educational settings. The data reported were collected in various venues including schools, laboratories and field settings. The chapter authors are the researchers that, in many cases, have defined the state of the art in motivation.

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