the american heritage dictionary of idioms second edition

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The American Heritage Dictionary Of Idioms

Author : Christine Ammer
ISBN : 9780547677538
Genre : Reference
File Size : 84. 96 MB
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From “all systems go” to “senior moment”—a comprehensive reference to idiomatic English. The American Heritage® Dictionary of Idioms explores the meanings and origins of idioms that may not make literal sense but play an important role in the language—including phrasal verbs such as kick back, proverbs such as too many cooks spoil the broth, interjections such as tough beans, and figures of speech such as elephant in the room. With extensive revisions that reflect new historical scholarship and changes in the English language, this second edition defines over 10,000 idiomatic expressions in greater detail than any other dictionary available today—a remarkable reference for those studying the English language, or anyone who enjoys learning its many wonderful quirks and expressions. “Invaluable as a teaching tool.” —School Library Journal

The American Heritage Dictionary Of Idioms For Students Of English

Author : Houghton Mifflin Company
ISBN : 0395976200
Genre : Foreign Language Study
File Size : 83. 7 MB
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This book provides useful information on the most used components of American English idiomatic expression.

The Oxford Handbook Of Lexicography

Author : Philip Durkin
ISBN : 9780191669309
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 45. 31 MB
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This volume provides concise, authoritative accounts of the approaches and methodologies of modern lexicography and of the aims and qualities of its end products. Leading scholars and professional lexicographers, from all over the world and representing all the main traditions and perspectives, assess the state of the art in every aspect of research and practice. The book is divided into four parts, reflecting the main types of lexicography. Part I looks at synchronic dictionaries - those for the general public, monolingual dictionaries for second-language learners, and bilingual dictionaries. Part II and III are devoted to the distinctive methodologies and concerns of the historical dictionaries and specialist dictionaries respectively, while chapters in Part IV examine specific topics such as description and prescription; the representation of pronunciation; and the practicalities of dictionary production. The book ends with a chronology of the major events in the history of lexicography. It will be a valuable resource for students, scholars, and practitioners in the field.

American English Es

Author : Roberto Cagliero
ISBN : 9781443849036
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 85. 4 MB
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American English(es) focuses on the manifold nature of a macro-regional variety of English which is better described in the plural form, thus enhancing the endless contribution of most diverse ethnic groups, such as those kidnapped from Africa to be employed as slaves, survivors of native American tribes systematically exterminated in the past, and, later on, European Jews escaping from pogroms, Europeans and Asians escaping from poverty, and, more recently, Central and South Americans, mostly Spanish speakers, emigrating to the USA in search of supposedly better living conditions. By tackling the notions of “minority”, “variety”, and “dialect”, this book singles out three language-related phenomena which are currently relevant to the academic and cultural debate concerning US society, namely the obsolescent representation of minority vs hegemonic varieties of English, the latest developments of the Spanish vs English controversy, and the increasing exposure of slang in public contexts. The multiple points of view on American Englishes, offered by the essays included in the present volume, draw on diverse and often contrasting approaches, ranging from corpus linguistics to cultural studies, from lexicography/lexicology to discourse analysis.

The American Heritage Dictionary Of The English Language 3rd Edition Anne H Soukhanov

Author : Anne H. Soukhanov
ISBN :
Genre : Young Adult Nonfiction
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A lmost a quarter of a century ago a new dictionary bearing the name American Heritage appeared. That book was notable because it did four things and it did them well. It faithfully recorded the language in easily understood definitions. It provided guidance toward accuracy, precision, and grace in the use of English that intelligent people need and seek in a dictionary. It traced, whenever possible, the development of English words to their origins and keyed many to an Appendix of Indo-European Roots. And it presented complex lexical data in a typographically attractive design accented by thousands of photographs and line drawings in spacious margins. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition , builds upon this distinguished, innovative foundation. The pages of the Third Edition, a lexicon of more than 200,000 boldface forms, hundreds of thousands of meanings, and nearly 4,000 pieces of art, reflect the rich and varied texture of American English as it has been used over time by a broad group of educated speakers. This Dictionary is the product of four years of work by 175 contributors. In preparing the Dictionary, our editors have had access to a database containing hundreds of millions of lines of text that could be searched for any word in context. The A-Z vocabulary, containing more than 16,000 words and meanings new to this Edition, is a comprehensive, detailed record of the language. Use of citations allowed the editors to identify new words and new meanings, identify levels of usage, and select more than 4,000 quoted illustrations from nearly 2,000 sources for use in exemplifying entry words in printed context. The quoted illustrations range from the works of Shakespeare, Pope, and Ruskin to the works of contemporary writers such as Joyce Carol Oates, Joan Didion, John Updike, and Tom Wicker. More than 30,000 nonquoted illustrative examples were also derived from study of the citations. Finally, the citations were used to determine the status of variants. For example, 4,000 electronic citations were accrued for the spelling ambiance and about 2,000 were found for the variant ambience . On the basis of this 2:1 ratio the Dictionary gives ambience as an "unequal," or less frequently occurring, variant of the entry word ambiance . If language is a reflection of the ethos of the generation speaking it, then the new entries and meanings in this Edition have much to say about us and our time. The great majority of the new words relate to social and life patterns; to the life sciences with an emphasis on health, medicine, genetics, and ecology; and to the physical sciences with an emphasis on computer technology and electronics, physics, and astronomy. The goal of the Third Edition is to provide the user with comprehension and appreciation of the language in a readable manner. Keeping the needs of the contemporary user in mind, we have presented the central and often the most frequently sought meaning of a word first. The definitions are worded in concise, lucid prose without the specialized terms and abbreviations that make most dictionaries forbidding and confusing. The Third Edition contains more than 500 notes and comments on matters of grammar, diction, pronunciation, and levels and nuances of usage. Citations were used in identifying new and evolving usage problems, attesting and evaluating the currency of certain usages, studying various levels of usage, and evaluating their sociolinguistic implications. The 173-member Usage Panel, with 75 new members and chaired by Geoffrey Nunberg, a linguist associated with Stanford University, has made an important contribution to the content and direction of the Usage Notes through responses to periodic surveys developed by the Chair and the editors. The Usage Panel of the Third Edition consists chiefly of writers, editors, and scholars, 22 of whom are professors of linguistics or English. Other Panelists occupy distinguished positions in law, diplomacy, government, business, science and technology, medicine, and the arts. Eighteen are recipients of the Pulitzer Prize and one is a Nobel Laureate. These men and women, who reside in 28 states across the land and in Canada and England, are a cross section of today's critical, literary, and scholarly community. A list of usage issues—old and new—was prepared by the Chair and the editors, and from it the usage program for the Third Edition was developed. Some of the usage issues are entirely new. An example is the Note at world-class . Other issues discussed in previous editions were resurveyed. An example is the use of contact as a verb. In some instances the Panel's views are more conservative than in the past: only 27 percent of the current Panel accepts hopefully as a sentence adverb, a usage that in 1969 was acceptable to 44 percent of the Panel. Other Notes, such as the one that discusses the use of above as a noun, present guidance and linguistic analysis without Panel opinions. The Usage Notes are not confined solely to matters of stylistic excellence. Our concern with usage extends to issues of gender, ethnicity, and sexual preference. Considerable attention is devoted in this Edition to the history of words. The etymologies have been thoroughly revised and expanded by a group of 25 specialists whose work reflects original scholarly research in many fields, including African, Persian, Turkish, and Native American languages. Special symbols, abbreviations, and complex technical vocabulary have been avoided in the etymologies. More than 400 word history paragraphs, most of which contain dates of first occurrence of the words in English, appear at entries with especially interesting etymologies. These word histories, such as the one at nerd , provide a social, historical, and cultural context for the evolution of words and explain the various linguistic processes that contribute to the development of language. A great many Modern English words can be traced to the reconstructed ancestral language called Proto-Indo-European. The etymologies in the Third Edition, like those in the First, trace many words to their earliest ascertainable origins, usually in Proto-Indo-European, by means of cross-references to a new and thoroughly revised Appendix of Indo-European Roots. The Appendix, in a major departure from previous style, gives the root followed by a brief gloss and a list of some of the Modern English words derived from it. The individual roots entry then follows. For example, the Modern English words fierce , and treacle , at first glance strange semantic companions, both derive from the root *ghwer- , "wild." The Third Edition contains hundreds of labeled words and meanings whose occurrence is restricted to certain areas of the United States. An important new feature unique to the Third Edition is the inclusion of more than 100 Regional Notes that explore the various linguistic and historical processes contributing to the development of these terms. These processes are apparent in the Regional Notes at entries such as absquatulate . In an effort to assist the reader in using the language with color, vitality, and freshness, the Third Edition devotes more attention than ever before to synonymy by including more than 900 synonym paragraphs. The fully cross-referenced synonym paragraphs are of two kinds. The first, liberally illustrated with quotations, discriminates shades of meaning. The second kind lists exact synonyms, that is, words sharing a common irreducible element of meaning, and provides antonyms when applicable. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition , like the First, is the product of significant advances in the use of computer technology. The Third Edition is derived from a complex, highly versatile structured database. Every element in the Dictionary was parsed, examined, and coded to reflect its lexical function and position within the base. In combination, these elements form dictionary entries, and on a broader scale they reflect a multitude of relationships across the lexicon. Use of the database in connection with electronically generated citations places the Third Edition a generation ahead of other dictionaries. It is no longer possible for a few general editors working strictly within a publishing house to compile a true and accurate record of the language as it is used today. Semantic, etymological, linguistic, and technical complexities inherent in the language require the counsel of specialists from many disciplines. These specialists' names are listed under Special Contributors and Consultants. We wish to thank all of them for helping us in our pursuit of accuracy and truth. Special thanks go to John Simpson, Co-Editor of the New Oxford English Dictionary , for valuable comments made during the early stages of the project. And to all members of the Editorial Staff who gave unstintingly of their time and expended great effort in the development of the Third Edition, we express our deepest gratitude. Anne H.Soukhanov

The American Heritage English As A Second Language Dictionary

Author : American Heritage Dictionary
ISBN : 0395939453
Genre : English language
File Size : 35. 73 MB
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Specifically designed to meet the needs of ESL students, this resource includes 40,000 words and phrases, with special attention given to new business, medical, science, and technology words. 250 photographs and illustrations.

The Elements Of Expression

Author : Arthur Plotnik
ISBN : 9781936740246
Genre : Reference
File Size : 27. 67 MB
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More than ever in this completely updated edition, The Elements of Expression helps word users "light up the cosmos or the written page or the face across the table" as they seek the radiance of expressiveness—the vivid expression of thoughts, feelings, and observations. Nothing kills radiance like the murky, generic language dominating today's talk, airwaves, and posts. It tugs at our every sentence, but using it to express anything beyond the ordinary is like flapping the tongue to escape gravity. The Elements of Expression offers an adventurous and inspiring flight into words that truly share what's percolating in our minds. Here writers, presenters, students, bloggers—even well intentioned "Mad Men"—will discover language to convey precise feelings, move audiences, delight and persuade. No snob or scold, the acclaimed word-maven Arthur Plotnik explores the full range of expressiveness, from playful "tough talk" to finely wrought literature, with hundreds of rousing examples. Confessing that we are all "like a squid in its ink" when first groping for luminous expression, he shines his amiable wit on the elements leading, ultimately, to language of "fissionable intensity."

Simon Schuster Handbook For Writers

Author : Lynn Q. Troyka
ISBN : 0131838075
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 85. 23 MB
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New York State Bar Journal

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105061994286
Genre : Law
File Size : 41. 99 MB
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Choice

Author :
ISBN : UCSC:32106018289618
Genre : Academic libraries
File Size : 75. 17 MB
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