the anatomy of bias how neural circuits weigh the options mit press

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The Anatomy Of Bias

Author : Jan Lauwereyns
ISBN : 9780262291606
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 39. 54 MB
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I will recklessly endeavor to scavenge materials from these various fields with the single aim of producing a coherent, but open-minded account of attention, or bias versus sensitivity, or how the activities of neurons allow us to decide one way or another that, with a faint echo of Hamlet in the background, something appears to be or not to be. -- from The Anatomy of Bias. In this engaging, even lyrical, book, Jan Lauwereyns examines the neural underpinnings of decision-making, using "bias" as his core concept rather than the more common but noncommittal terms "selection" and "attention." Lauwereyns offers an integrative, interdisciplinary account of the structure and function of bias, which he defines as a basic brain mechanism that attaches different weights to different information sources, prioritizing some cognitive representations at the expense of others. Lauwereyns introduces the concepts of bias and sensitivity based on notions from Bayesian probability, which he translates into easily recognizable neural signatures, introduced by concrete examples from the experimental literature. He examines, among other topics, positive and negative motivations for giving priority to different sensory inputs, and looks for the neural underpinnings of racism, sexism, and other forms of "familiarity bias." Lauwereyns -- a poet and essayist as well as a scientist -- connects findings and ideas in neuroscience to analogous concepts in such diverse fields as post-Lacanian psychoanalysis, literary theory, philosophy of mind, evolutionary psychology, and experimental economics. With The Anatomy of Bias, he gives readers that rarity in today's world of proliferating and ever more narrowly focused technical research papers: a work of sustained, rational thinking, elegantly expressed.

Brain And The Gaze

Author : Jan Lauwereyns
ISBN : 9780262017916
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 21. 98 MB
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How do we gain access to things as they are? Although we routinely take our self-made pictures to be veridical representations of reality, in actuality we choose (albeit unwittingly) or construct what we see. By movements of the eyes, the direction of our gaze, we create meaning. In Brain and the Gaze, Jan Lauwereyns offers a novel reformulation of perception and its neural underpinnings, focusing on the active nature of perception. In his investigation of active perception and its brain mechanisms, Lauwereyns offers the gaze as the principal paradigm for perception. In a radically integrative account, grounded in neuroscience but drawing on insights from philosophy and psychology, he discusses the dynamic and constrained nature of perception; the complex information processing at the level of the retina; the active nature of vision; the intensive nature of representations; the gaze of others as visual stimulus; and the intentionality of vision and consciousness. An engaging point of entry to the cognitive neuroscience of perception, written for neuroscientists but illuminated by insights from thinkers ranging from William James to Slavoj Žižek, Brain and the Gaze will give new impetus to research and theory in the field.

Neurophysiology

Author : Roger Carpenter
ISBN : 9781444135176
Genre : Medical
File Size : 36. 97 MB
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The latest edition of this well-established, accessible introduction to neurophysiology succeeds in integrating the disciplines of neurology and neuroscience with an emphasis on principles and functional concepts. In Neurophysiology: A Conceptual Approach, Fifth Edition, the authors deliver a refreshing alternative to "learning by rote," employing a variety of techniques to encourage understanding. Readers can learn both the science underlying a particular phenomenon and what this means for individual body systems and for the body as a whole. The fifth edition retains the readable style of its predecessors—covering the entire subject of neurophysiology from the conduction of nerve impulses to the higher functions of the brain within a single accessible volume. A companion website offers free self-assessment material and access to the highly acclaimed NeuroLab resources Full of color explanatory diagrams, the book is an unrivalled "one-stop shop" for students of medicine, physiology and applied physiology, neurophysiology, neuroscience, and other bioscience courses looking for an integrated introduction to the challenging disciplines of neuroscience and neurology.

Rethinking The Three R S In Animal Research

Author : Jan Lauwereyns
ISBN : 9783319893006
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 58. 75 MB
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This work challenges the current reliance on "The Three R's" or Replacement, Reduction and Refinement which direct most animal research in the behavioral sciences. The author argues that these principles that were developed in the 1950's to guide the use of animals in research studies are outdated. He suggests that the notions of refinement and reduction are often ill-defined and can be useful only in cases where replacement is impossible.

Advances In Cognitive Neurodynamics Vi

Author : José M. Delgado-García, Xiaochuan Pan, Raudel Sánchez-Campusano and Rubin Wang
ISBN : 9789811088544
Genre :
File Size : 40. 87 MB
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Toward Replacement Parts For The Brain

Author : Theodore W. Berger
ISBN : 0262025779
Genre : Medical
File Size : 64. 84 MB
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The latest advances in research on intracranial implantation of hardware models of neural circuitry.

Human Reasoning And Cognitive Science

Author : Keith Stenning
ISBN : 9780262293532
Genre : Medical
File Size : 61. 85 MB
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In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen--a cognitive scientist and a logician--argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the past century; the psychology of deduction went from being central to the cognitive revolution to being the subject of widespread skepticism about whether human reasoning really happens outside the academy. Stenning and van Lambalgen argue that logic and reasoning have been separated because of a series of unwarranted assumptions about logic. Stenning and van Lambalgen contend that psychology cannot ignore processes of interpretation in which people, wittingly or unwittingly, frame problems for subsequent reasoning. The authors employ a neurally implementable defeasible logic for modeling part of this framing process, and show how it can be used to guide the design of experiments and interpret results.

Beyond The Cognitive Map

Author : A. David Redish
ISBN : 0262181940
Genre : Medical
File Size : 34. 57 MB
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There are currently two major theories about the role of the hippocampus, a distinctive structure in the back of the temporal lobe. One says that it stores a cognitive map, the other that it is a key locus for the temporary storage of episodic memories. A. David Redish takes the approach that understanding the role of the hippocampus in space will make it possible to address its role in less easily quantifiable areas such as memory. Basing his investigation on the study of rodent navigation -- one of the primary domains for understanding information processing in the brain -- he places the hippocampus in its anatomical context as part of a greater functional system. Redish draws on the extensive experimental and theoretical work of the last 100 years to paint a coherent picture of rodent navigation. His presentation encompasses multiple levels of analysis, from single-unit recording results to behavioral tasks to computational modeling. From this foundation, he proposes a novel understanding of the role of the hippocampus in rodents that can shed light on the role of the hippocampus in primates, explaining data from primate studies and human neurology. The book will be of interest not only to neuroscientists and psychologists, but also to researchers in computer science, robotics, artificial intelligence, and artificial life.

Language Music And The Brain

Author : Michael A. Arbib
ISBN : 9780262018104
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 29. 14 MB
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A presentation of music and language within an integrative, embodied perspective of brain mechanisms for action, emotion, and social coordination.

Evil Media

Author : Matthew Fuller
ISBN : 9780262304405
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57. 92 MB
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Evil Media develops a philosophy of media power that extends the concept of media beyond its tried and trusted use in the games of meaning, symbolism, and truth. It addresses the gray zones in which media exist as corporate work systems, algorithms and data structures, twenty-first century self-improvement manuals, and pharmaceutical techniques. Evil Media invites the reader to explore and understand the abstract infrastructure of the present day. From search engines to flirting strategies, from the value of institutional stupidity to the malicious minutiae of databases, this book shows how the devil is in the details. The title takes the imperative "Don't be evil" and asks, what would be done any differently in contemporary computational and networked media were that maxim reversed.Media here are about much more and much less than symbols, stories, information, or communication: media do things. They incite and provoke, twist and bend, leak and manage. In a series of provocative stratagems designed to be used, Evil Media sets its reader an ethical challenge: either remain a transparent intermediary in the networks and chains of communicative power or become oneself an active, transformative medium.

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