the braconid and ichneumonid parasitoid wasps biology systematics evolution and ecology

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The Braconid And Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps

Author : Donald L. J. Quicke
ISBN : 9781118907078
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 77 MB
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The Ichneumonoidea is a vast and important superfamily of parasitic wasps, with some 60,000 described species and estimated numbers far higher, especially for small-bodied tropical taxa. The superfamily comprises two cosmopolitan families - Braconidae and Ichneumonidae - that have largely attracted separate groups of researchers, and this, to a considerable extent, has meant that understanding of their adaptive features has often been considered in isolation. This book considers both families, highlighting similarities and differences in their adaptations. The classification of the whole of the Ichneumonoidea, along with most other insect orders, has been plagued by typology whereby undue importance has been attributed to particular characters in defining groups. Typology is a common disease of traditional taxonomy such that, until recently, quite a lot of taxa have been associated with the wrong higher clades. The sheer size of the group, and until the last 30 or so years, lack of accessible identification materials, has been a further impediment to research on all but a handful of ‘lab rat’ species usually cultured initially because of their potential in biological control. New evidence, largely in the form of molecular data, have shown that many morphological, behavioural, physiological and anatomical characters associated with basic life history features, specifically whether wasps are ecto- or endoparasitic, or idiobiont or koinobiont, can be grossly misleading in terms of the phylogeny they suggest. This book shows how, with better supported phylogenetic hypotheses entomologists can understand far more about the ways natural selection is acting upon them. This new book also focuses on this superfamily with which the author has great familiarity and provides a detailed coverage of each subfamily, emphasising anatomy, taxonomy and systematics, biology, as well as pointing out the importance and research potential of each group. Fossil taxa are included and it also has sections on biogeography, global species richness, culturing and rearing and preparing specimens for taxonomic study. The book highlights areas where research might be particularly rewarding and suggests systems/groups that need investigation. The author provides a large compendium of references to original research on each group. This book is an essential workmate for all postgraduates and researchers working on ichneumonoid or other parasitic wasps worldwide. It will stand as a reference book for a good number of years, and while rapid advances in various fields such as genomics and host physiological interactions will lead to new information, as an overall synthesis of the current state it will stay relevant for a long time.

The Braconid And Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps

Author : Donald L. J. Quicke
ISBN : 9781118907054
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 79 MB
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The Braconid And Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps

Author : Donald L. J. Quicke
ISBN : 9781118907061
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 22 MB
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The Ichneumonoidea is a vast and important superfamily of parasitic wasps, with some 60,000 described species and estimated numbers far higher, especially for small-bodied tropical taxa. The superfamily comprises two cosmopolitan families - Braconidae and Ichneumonidae - that have largely attracted separate groups of researchers, and this, to a considerable extent, has meant that understanding of their adaptive features has often been considered in isolation. This book considers both families, highlighting similarities and differences in their adaptations. The classification of the whole of the Ichneumonoidea, along with most other insect orders, has been plagued by typology whereby undue importance has been attributed to particular characters in defining groups. Typology is a common disease of traditional taxonomy such that, until recently, quite a lot of taxa have been associated with the wrong higher clades. The sheer size of the group, and until the last 30 or so years, lack of accessible identification materials, has been a further impediment to research on all but a handful of ‘lab rat’ species usually cultured initially because of their potential in biological control. New evidence, largely in the form of molecular data, have shown that many morphological, behavioural, physiological and anatomical characters associated with basic life history features, specifically whether wasps are ecto- or endoparasitic, or idiobiont or koinobiont, can be grossly misleading in terms of the phylogeny they suggest. This book shows how, with better supported phylogenetic hypotheses entomologists can understand far more about the ways natural selection is acting upon them. This new book also focuses on this superfamily with which the author has great familiarity and provides a detailed coverage of each subfamily, emphasising anatomy, taxonomy and systematics, biology, as well as pointing out the importance and research potential of each group. Fossil taxa are included and it also has sections on biogeography, global species richness, culturing and rearing and preparing specimens for taxonomic study. The book highlights areas where research might be particularly rewarding and suggests systems/groups that need investigation. The author provides a large compendium of references to original research on each group. This book is an essential workmate for all postgraduates and researchers working on ichneumonoid or other parasitic wasps worldwide. It will stand as a reference book for a good number of years, and while rapid advances in various fields such as genomics and host physiological interactions will lead to new information, as an overall synthesis of the current state it will stay relevant for a long time.

Mimicry Crypsis Masquerade And Other Adaptive Resemblances

Author : Donald L. J. Quicke
ISBN : 9781118931516
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 44 MB
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Deals with all aspects of adaptive resemblance Full colour Covers everything from classic examples of Batesian, Mullerian, aggressive and sexual mimicries through to human behavioural and microbial molecular deceptions Highlights areas where additonal work or specific exeprimentation could be fruitful Includes, animals, plants, micro-organisms and humans

Hymenoptera Evolution Biodiversity And Biological Control

Author : Andrew Austin
ISBN : 9780643099104
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 79 MB
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The Hymenoptera is one of the largest orders of terrestrial arthropods and comprises the sawflies, wasps, ants, bees and parasitic wasps. Hymenoptera: Evolution, Biodiversity and Biological Control examines the current state of all major areas of research for this important group of insects, including systematics, biological control, behaviour, ecology, and physiological interactions between parasitoids and hosts. The material in this volume originates from papers presented at the Fourth International Hymenoptera Conference held in Canberra, Australia in early 1999. This material has been extensively rewritten, refereed and edited; culminating in this authoritative and comprehensive collection of review and research papers on the Hymenoptera. The authors include many world-leading researchers in their respective fields, and this synthesis of their work will be a valuable resource for researchers and students of Hymenoptera, molecular systematics and insect ecology.

Parasitic Wasps

Author : Donald L. Quicke
ISBN : 9780412583506
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 76 MB
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The parasitic Hymenoptera are a highly successful and important group of insects comprising probably over a million species. Despite the vast amount of research that has been carried out on the group over the last 100 years or so, there are still many unexplained aspects of their biology. In recent years interest in the parasitic Hymenoptera has grown as a result of the increasing demand for biological methods for pest control and their possible use as natural enemies. Parasitic wasps are also tremendously important in research on pollution dynamics and on host-parasite interactions. In this unique volume Donald Quicke provides an up-to-date review of the biology of parasitic wasps which focuses primarily on genetics, developmental biology, physiology, anatomy and molecular biology, though many aspects of behaviour and ecology are also covered. Attention is drawn to the importance of both life history strategy an phylogeny to many features of parasitic wasp biology, and exciting new areas of research are highlighted. Parasitic Wasps provides an extensive guide to the relevant literature. The book will prove invaluable to researchers working on this group and to those with broader interests in entomology, physiology, behaviour, ecology and pest control.

Biomimetic Research For Architecture And Building Construction

Author : Jan Knippers
ISBN : 9783319463742
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 58 MB
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This book comprises a first survey of the Collaborative Research Center SFB-TRR 141 ‘Biological Design and Integrative Structures – Analysis, Simulation and Implementation in Architecture’, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft since October 2014. The SFB-TRR 141 provides a collaborative framework for architects and engineers from the University of Stuttgart, biologists and physicists from the University of Freiburg and geoscientists and evolutionary biologists from the University of Tübingen. The programm is conceptualized as a dialogue between the disciplines and is based on the belief that that biomimetic research has the potential to lead everyone involved to new findings far beyond his individual reach. During the last few decades, computational methods have been introduced into all fields of science and technology. In architecture, they enable the geometric differentiation of building components and allow the fabrication of porous or fibre-based materials with locally adjusted physical and chemical properties. Recent developments in simulation technologies focus on multi-scale models and the interplay of mechanical phenomena at various hierarchical levels. In the natural sciences, a multitude of quantitative methods covering diverse hierarchical levels have been introduced. These advances in computational methods have opened a new era in biomimetics: local differentiation at various scales, the main feature of natural constructions, can for the first time not only be analysed, but to a certain extent also be transferred to building construction. Computational methodologies enable the direct exchange of information between fields of science that, until now, have been widely separated. As a result they lead to a new approach to biomimetic research, which, hopefully, contributes to a more sustainable development in architecture and building construction.

The Insects

Author : P. J. Gullan
ISBN : 9781118846162
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 3 MB
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Insects represent over half of the planet’s biological diversity. This popular textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to this extraordinary diversity, and places entomology central to the theory and practice of evolutionary and ecological studies. Fully revised, this fifth edition opens with a chapter concerning the popular side of insect studies, including insects in citizen science, zoos and butterfly houses, and insects as food for humans and animals. Key features of insect structure, function, behaviour, ecology and classification are integrated with appropriate molecular studies. Much of the book is organized around major biological themes: living on the ground, in water, on plants, in colonies, and as predators, parasites/parasitoids and prey insects. A strong evolutionary theme is maintained throughout. There is major revision to the chapter on systematics and a new chapter, Insects in a Changing World, includes insect responses to, and the consequences of, both climate change and human-assisted global alterations to distributions. Updated ‘Taxoboxes’ demonstrate topical issues and provide concise information on all aspects of each of the 28 major groupings (orders) of insects, plus the three orders of non-insect hexapods. New boxes describe a worrying increase in insect threats to landscape and commercial trees (including eucalypts, palms and coffee) and explain the value of genetic data, including evolutionary developmental biology and DNA barcoding, in insect biodiversity studies. The authors maintain the clarity and conciseness of earlier editions, and extend the profuse illustrations with new hand-drawn figures. Over 50 colour photographs, together with the informative text and an accompanying website with links to video clips, appendices, textboxes and further reading lists, encourage a deeper scientific study of insects. The book is intended as the principal text for students studying entomology, as well as a reference text for undergraduate and graduate courses in the fields of ecology, agriculture, fisheries and forestry, palaeontology, zoology, and medical and veterinary science.

The Giraffe

Author : Bryan Shorrocks
ISBN : 9781118587461
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 1 MB
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Provides a comprehensive overview of one of nature's most engaging mammals Covers fossil history, taxonomy, genetics, physiology, biomechanics, behavior, ecology, and conservation Includes genetic analysis of five of the six subspecies of modern giraffes Includes giraffe network studies from Laikipia Kenya, Etosha National Park, Namibia andSamburu National Reserve, Kenya

Insect Biodiversity

Author : Robert G. Foottit
ISBN : 144430822X
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 15 MB
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Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society brings together leading scientific experts to assess the impact insects have on humankind and the earth’s fragile ecosystems. It examines why insect biodiversity matters and how the rapid evolution of insect species is affecting us all. Insects and related arthropods make up more than 50 percent of the known animal diversity globally, yet a lack of knowledge about insects is hindering the advance of science and society. This book explores the wide variety in type and number of insect species and their evolutionary relationships. Case studies offer assessments on how insect biodiversity can help meet the needs of a rapidly expanding human population, and also examine the consequences that an increased loss of insect species will have on the world. The book concludes that a better understanding of the biology and ecology of insects is the only way to sustainably manage ecosystems in an ever changing global environment.

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