the braconid and ichneumonid parasitoid wasps biology systematics evolution and ecology

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The Braconid And Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps

Author : Donald L. J. Quicke
ISBN : 9781118907078
Genre : Science
File Size : 44. 97 MB
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The Ichneumonoidea is a vast and important superfamily of parasitic wasps, with some 60,000 described species and estimated numbers far higher, especially for small-bodied tropical taxa. The superfamily comprises two cosmopolitan families - Braconidae and Ichneumonidae - that have largely attracted separate groups of researchers, and this, to a considerable extent, has meant that understanding of their adaptive features has often been considered in isolation. This book considers both families, highlighting similarities and differences in their adaptations. The classification of the whole of the Ichneumonoidea, along with most other insect orders, has been plagued by typology whereby undue importance has been attributed to particular characters in defining groups. Typology is a common disease of traditional taxonomy such that, until recently, quite a lot of taxa have been associated with the wrong higher clades. The sheer size of the group, and until the last 30 or so years, lack of accessible identification materials, has been a further impediment to research on all but a handful of ‘lab rat’ species usually cultured initially because of their potential in biological control. New evidence, largely in the form of molecular data, have shown that many morphological, behavioural, physiological and anatomical characters associated with basic life history features, specifically whether wasps are ecto- or endoparasitic, or idiobiont or koinobiont, can be grossly misleading in terms of the phylogeny they suggest. This book shows how, with better supported phylogenetic hypotheses entomologists can understand far more about the ways natural selection is acting upon them. This new book also focuses on this superfamily with which the author has great familiarity and provides a detailed coverage of each subfamily, emphasising anatomy, taxonomy and systematics, biology, as well as pointing out the importance and research potential of each group. Fossil taxa are included and it also has sections on biogeography, global species richness, culturing and rearing and preparing specimens for taxonomic study. The book highlights areas where research might be particularly rewarding and suggests systems/groups that need investigation. The author provides a large compendium of references to original research on each group. This book is an essential workmate for all postgraduates and researchers working on ichneumonoid or other parasitic wasps worldwide. It will stand as a reference book for a good number of years, and while rapid advances in various fields such as genomics and host physiological interactions will lead to new information, as an overall synthesis of the current state it will stay relevant for a long time.

The Braconid And Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps

Author : Donald L. J. Quicke
ISBN : 9781118907054
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 43 MB
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The Braconid And Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps

Author : Donald L. J. Quicke
ISBN : 9781118907061
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 43 MB
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The Ichneumonoidea is a vast and important superfamily of parasitic wasps, with some 60,000 described species and estimated numbers far higher, especially for small-bodied tropical taxa. The superfamily comprises two cosmopolitan families - Braconidae and Ichneumonidae - that have largely attracted separate groups of researchers, and this, to a considerable extent, has meant that understanding of their adaptive features has often been considered in isolation. This book considers both families, highlighting similarities and differences in their adaptations. The classification of the whole of the Ichneumonoidea, along with most other insect orders, has been plagued by typology whereby undue importance has been attributed to particular characters in defining groups. Typology is a common disease of traditional taxonomy such that, until recently, quite a lot of taxa have been associated with the wrong higher clades. The sheer size of the group, and until the last 30 or so years, lack of accessible identification materials, has been a further impediment to research on all but a handful of ‘lab rat’ species usually cultured initially because of their potential in biological control. New evidence, largely in the form of molecular data, have shown that many morphological, behavioural, physiological and anatomical characters associated with basic life history features, specifically whether wasps are ecto- or endoparasitic, or idiobiont or koinobiont, can be grossly misleading in terms of the phylogeny they suggest. This book shows how, with better supported phylogenetic hypotheses entomologists can understand far more about the ways natural selection is acting upon them. This new book also focuses on this superfamily with which the author has great familiarity and provides a detailed coverage of each subfamily, emphasising anatomy, taxonomy and systematics, biology, as well as pointing out the importance and research potential of each group. Fossil taxa are included and it also has sections on biogeography, global species richness, culturing and rearing and preparing specimens for taxonomic study. The book highlights areas where research might be particularly rewarding and suggests systems/groups that need investigation. The author provides a large compendium of references to original research on each group. This book is an essential workmate for all postgraduates and researchers working on ichneumonoid or other parasitic wasps worldwide. It will stand as a reference book for a good number of years, and while rapid advances in various fields such as genomics and host physiological interactions will lead to new information, as an overall synthesis of the current state it will stay relevant for a long time.

Parasitoid Viruses

Author : Nancy E. Beckage
ISBN : 9780123848581
Genre : NATURE
File Size : 65. 37 MB
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Parasitoids are parasitic insects that kill their insect hosts in immature pre-reproductive stages. Parasitoids are employed in biological control programs worldwide to kill insect pests and are environmentally safe and benign alternatives to chemical pesticides. As resistance to chemical pesticides continues to escalate in many pest populations, attention is now refocusing on biologically-based strategies to control pest species in agriculture and forestry as well as insect vector populations that transmit human and animal diseases. Parasitoids are an economically critical element in this equation and 'integrated pest management.' Viruses have evolved intimate associations with parasitoids, and this book features sections on both symbiotic viruses that are integrated into the wasp's chromosomal DNA (polydnaviruses) that play critical roles in suppressing host immunity during parasitism. A separate section with additional chapters on viral pathogens that infect parasitoids to cause disease and act as detrimental agents that limit effectiveness of wasp species employed in biological control of pests is also featured. A third component is a section on parasitoid venoms, which are of interest to the pharmaceutical and medical communities as well as insect-oriented biologists. Sections focus on both virus evolution and genomics as well as proteomics and functional roles of polydnavirus-encoded gene products International researchers and emerging leaders in their fields provide readers with syntheses of the latest research Includes content on both symbiotic viruses and pathogenic viruses, plus new research on parasitoid venoms Cutting-edge section on future directions in the field covers the impacts of polydnavirus research on medicine, human health, bioengineering and the economy, increasing the value for researchers and practitioners who need to stay on top of the research in this swiftly moving field

Plant Provided Food For Carnivorous Insects

Author : F. L. Wäckers
ISBN : 1139443542
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 9 MB
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Plants provide insects with a range of specific foods, such as nectar, pollen and food bodies. In exchange, they may obtain various services from arthropods. The role of food rewards in the plant-pollinator mutualism has been broadly covered. This book, first published in 2005, addresses another category of food-mediated interactions, focusing on how plants employ foods to recruit arthropod 'bodyguards' as a protection against herbivores. Many arthropods with primarily carnivorous lifestyles require plant-provided food as an indispensable part of their diet. Only recently have we started to appreciate the implications of non-prey food for plant-herbivore-carnivore interactions. Insight into this aspect of multitrophic interactions is not only crucial to our understanding of the evolution and functioning of plant-insect interactions in natural ecosystems, it also has direct implications for the use of food plants and food supplements in biological control programs. This edited volume provides essential reading for all researchers interested in plant-insect interactions.

Principles And Techniques Of Contemporary Taxonomy

Author : Donald L.J. Quicke
ISBN : 9789401121347
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 75 MB
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Taxonomy is an ever-changing, controversial and exCitmg field of biology. It has not remained motionless since the days of its founding fathers in the last century, but, just as with other fields of endeavour, it continues to advance in leaps and bounds, both in procedure and in philosophy. These changes are not only of interest to other taxonomists, but have far reaching implications for much of the rest of biology, and they have the potential to reshape a great deal of current biological thought, because taxonomy underpins much of biological methodology. It is not only important that an ethologist. physiologist. biochemist or ecologist can obtain information about the identities of the species which they are investigating; biology is also uniquely dependent on the comparative method and on the need to generalize. Both of these necessitate knowledge of the evolutionary relationships between organisms. and it is the science of taxonomy that can develop testable phylogenetic hypotheses and ultimately provide the best estimates of evolutionary history and relationships.

Biological Control Measures Of Success

Author : G. Gurr
ISBN : 9789401140140
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 79 MB
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As well as examining successful biological control programmes this book analyses why the majority of attempts fail. Off-target and other negative effects of biological control are also dealt with. Chapters contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners in all areas of biological control afford the book a breadth of coverage and depth of analysis not possible with a single author volume. Combined with the use of other experts to review chapters and editorial oversight to ensure thematic integrity of the volume, this book provides the most authoritative analysis of biological control published. Key aspects addressed include how success may be measured, how successful biological control has been to date and how may it be made more successful in the future. With extensive use of contemporary examples, photographs, figures and tables this book will be invaluable to advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as being a `must' for all involved in making biological control successful.

The Sting Of The Wild

Author : Justin O. Schmidt
ISBN : 9781421419299
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 59 MB
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Entomologist Justin O. Schmidt is on a mission. Some say it’s a brave exploration, others shake their heads in disbelief. His goal? To compare the impacts of stinging insects on humans, mainly using himself as the gauge. In The Sting of the Wild, the colorful Dr. Schmidt takes us on a journey inside the lives of stinging insects, seeing the world through their eyes as well as his own. He explains how and why they attack and reveals the powerful punch they can deliver with a small venom gland and a "sting," the name for the apparatus that delivers the venom. We learn which insects are the worst to encounter and why some are barely worth considering. The Sting of the Wild includes the complete Schmidt Sting Pain Index, published here for the first time. In addition to a numerical ranking of the agony of each of the eighty-three stings he’s sampled so far (from below 1 to an excruciatingly painful 4), Schmidt describes them in prose worthy of a professional wine critic: "Looks deceive. Rich and full-bodied in appearance, but flavorless" and "Pure, intense, brilliant pain. Like walking over flaming charcoal with a three-inch nail embedded in your heel." Schmidt explains that, for some insects, stinging is used for hunting: small wasps, for example, can paralyze huge caterpillars and then lay their eggs inside so that their larvae can feast within. Others are used to kill competing insects, even members of their own species. Humans usually experience stings as defensive maneuvers used by insects to protect their nest mates. With colorful descriptions of each venom’s sensation and a story that leaves you tingling with awe, The Sting of the Wild’s one-of-a-kind style will fire your imagination.

Bark And Wood Boring Insects In Living Trees In Europe A Synthesis

Author : François Lieutier
ISBN : 9781402022418
Genre : Science
File Size : 76. 71 MB
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For the first time, a synthesis on the research work done in Europe on all Bark And Wood Boring Insects In Living Trees (BAWBILT) is presented. As final product of a four-year research project gathering together 100 scientists from 24 countries, the book is the fruit of a real collective synthesis in which all European specialists have participated. It reviews and comments on all the European literature, while considering the biological (trees, insects, associated organisms, and their relationships) and forest management aspects. However, although focused on the European forest, it also compares the available information and interpretations to those concerning similar species in other continents. It ends with propositions of research priorities for Europe. The book is directed to all scientists and students concerned with forest entomology and ecology, as well as to forest managers and all scientific public interested in forest biology.

Insect Biodiversity

Author : Robert G. Foottit
ISBN : 9781118945544
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 1 MB
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Volume One of the thoroughly revised and updated guide to the study of biodiversity in insects The second edition of Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society brings together in one comprehensive text contributions from leading scientific experts to assess the influence insects have on humankind and the earth’s fragile ecosystems. Revised and updated, this new edition includes information on the number of substantial changes to entomology and the study of biodiversity. It includes current research on insect groups, classification, regional diversity, and a wide range of concepts and developing methodologies. The authors examine why insect biodiversity matters and how the rapid evolution of insects is affecting us all. This book explores the wide variety of insect species and their evolutionary relationships. Case studies offer assessments on how insect biodiversity can help meet the needs of a rapidly expanding human population, and also examine the consequences that an increased loss of insect species will have on the world. This important text: Explores the rapidly increasing influence on systematics of genomics and next-generation sequencing Includes developments in the use of DNA barcoding in insect systematics and in the broader study of insect biodiversity, including the detection of cryptic species Discusses the advances in information science that influence the increased capability to gather, manipulate, and analyze biodiversity information Comprises scholarly contributions from leading scientists in the field Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society highlights the rapid growth of insect biodiversity research and includes an expanded treatment of the topic that addresses the major insect groups, the zoogeographic regions of biodiversity, and the scope of systematics approaches for handling biodiversity data.

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