the dappled world a study of the boundaries of science

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The Dappled World

Author : Nancy Cartwright
ISBN : 0521644119
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 64. 29 MB
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It is often supposed that the spectacular successes of our modern mathematical sciences support a lofty vision of a world completely ordered by one single elegant theory. In this book Nancy Cartwright argues to the contrary. When we draw our image of the world from the way modern science works - as empiricism teaches us we should - we end up with a world where some features are precisely ordered, others are given to rough regularity and still others behave in their own diverse ways. This patchwork makes sense when we realise that laws are very special productions of nature, requiring very special arrangements for their generation. Combining classic and newly written essays on physics and economics, The Dappled World carries important philosophical consequences and offers serious lessons for both the natural and the social sciences.

Das Gro E Das Kleine Und Der Menschliche Geist

Author : Roger Penrose
ISBN : 3827413311
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 63 MB
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In diesem Buch verteidigt Roger Penrose seine These, daß Bewußtsein auf quantentheoretischer Basis erklärt werden könnte - wobei er sich der Kritik des theoretischen Physikers und Kosmologen Stephen Hawking, der Philosophin Nancy Cartwright und des Philosophen Abner Shimony stellt. Hawking, ehemaliger Student, Freund und Kollege von Penrose, wendet sich gegen eine platonistische Sicht, der zufolge mathematische Objekte in einer Ideenwelt existieren. Als Positivist glaubt Hawking, daß mathematische Modelle Konstruktionen sind, die sich an physikalischen Beobachtungen als richtig oder falsch erweisen. Abner Shimony wendet ein, daß eine philosophische Begründung der Phänomene nur möglich ist, wenn man sich auf eine philosophische Ontologie einigt. Wie kann ein Physikalismus, der allein quantenmechanische Phänomene und ihre mathematischen Beschreibungen zuläßt, ein nichtphysikalisches Problem wie Bewußtsein erklären? Nancy Cartwright schließlich fragt, mit welcher Berechtigung die Physik den anderen Wissenschaften bei der Erklärung des Bewußtseins vorzuziehen sei. Warum nicht Bewußtsein mit biologischen Gesetzen begründen? All diese Fragen lassen Penrose nicht an seinem Konzept zweifeln, den Schlüssel für die Unberechenbarkeit vieler Bewußtseinsprozesse in einer künftigen Theorie zu vermuten, die Quantenphysik und Gravitation vereinigen soll.

Wider Den Methodenzwang

Author : Paul K. Feyerabend
ISBN : 3518281976
Genre : Rationalism
File Size : 90. 19 MB
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Wissenschaft Und Realit T

Author : Karim Bschir
ISBN : 3161519345
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 71. 63 MB
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English summary: Philosophy of science in the 20th century was defined by the debate on scientific realism. Unlike the numerous systematic works dealing with the existence of theoretical entities, which put forward arguments either for or against realism, Karim Bschir uses scientific realism as a basis for a history of the concept of experience in the empiricist philosophy of science. He concludes that empiricist approaches are often based on a sensualistic notion of experience, and that the reduction of the concept of experience to that of perception can be seen as a historical contingency. German description: Die Wissenschaftsphilosophie des 20. Jahrhunderts war gepragt von der Debatte um den wissenschaftlichen Realismus. Im Gegensatz zu den zahlreichen systematischen Arbeiten, die in den letzten Jahrzehnten zur Frage der Existenz theoretischer Entitaten verfasst wurden, und die sich entweder der Argumentation fur oder gegen den Realismus verschreiben, nimmt Karim Bschir den wissenschaftlichen Realismus als Ausgangspunkt fur eine Begriffsgeschichte des Erfahrungsbegriffes in der empiristischen Wissenschaftsphilosophie. Der Autor kommt dabei zu dem Schluss, dass empiristische Ansatze oftmals von einem sensualistischen Erfahrungsbegriff ausgehen, dass die Reduktion des Erfahrungsbegriffes auf denjenigen der Wahrnehmung aber eine historische Kontingenz darstellt. Eine Kritik am Sensualismus macht deutlich, dass dieser erstens die experimentelle Praxis der Naturwissenschaft nicht adaquat erfasst, dass er zweitens keine geeignete Grundlage fur die Explikation unseres Weltbezugs bietet, und dass drittens dadurch der Zugang zu einer befriedigenden Antwort auf die Realismusfrage verstellt bleibt. Eine solche ist, so das Fazit, nur unter der Voraussetzung einer pragmatischen Auffassung von Erfahrung moglich.

Philosophia Naturalis

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105132684445
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 90. 69 MB
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Die Genesis Der Kopernikanischen Welt

Author : Hans Blumenberg
ISBN : 3518279521
Genre :
File Size : 87. 4 MB
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The Economic World View

Author : Uskali Mäki
ISBN : 0521000203
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 83. 86 MB
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The beliefs of economists are not solely determined by empirical evidence in direct relation to the theories and models they hold. Economists hold 'ontological presuppositions', fundamental ideas about the nature of being which direct their thinking about economic behaviour. In this volume, leading philosophers and economists examine these hidden presuppositions, searching for a 'world view' of economics. What properties are attributed to human individuals in economic theories, and which are excluded? Does economic man exist? Do markets have an essence? Do macroeconomic aggregates exist? Is the economy a mechanism, the functioning of which is governed by a limited set of distinct causes? What are the methodological implications of different ontological starting points? This collection, which establishes economic ontology as a coordinated field of study, will be of great value to economists and philosophers of social sciences.

Metaphysik Skepsis Wissenschaft

Author : Wolfgang Stegmüller
ISBN : 9783642929908
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 80. 19 MB
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Mechanism And Causality In Biology And Economics

Author : Hsiang-Ke Chao
ISBN : 9789400724549
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 53. 75 MB
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This volume addresses fundamental issues in the philosophy of science in the context of two most intriguing fields: biology and economics. Written by authorities and experts in the philosophy of biology and economics, Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics provides a structured study of the concepts of mechanism and causality in these disciplines and draws careful juxtapositions between philosophical apparatus and scientific practice. By exploring the issues that are most salient to the contemporary philosophies of biology and economics and by presenting comparative analyses, the book serves as a platform not only for gaining mutual understanding between scientists and philosophers of the life sciences and those of the social sciences, but also for sharing interdisciplinary research that combines both philosophical concepts in both fields. The book begins by defining the concepts of mechanism and causality in biology and economics, respectively. The second and third parts investigate philosophical perspectives of various causal and mechanistic issues in scientific practice in the two fields. These two sections include chapters on causal issues in the theory of evolution; experiments and scientific discovery; representation of causal relations and mechanism by models in economics. The concluding section presents interdisciplinary studies of various topics concerning extrapolation of life sciences and social sciences, including chapters on the philosophical investigation of conjoining biological and economic analyses with, respectively, demography, medicine and sociology.

Causality

Author : Phyllis Illari
ISBN : 9780191639685
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 20. 14 MB
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Head hits cause brain damage - but not always. Should we ban sport to protect athletes? Exposure to electromagnetic fields is strongly associated with cancer development - does that mean exposure causes cancer? Should we encourage old fashioned communication instead of mobile phones to reduce cancer rates? According to popular wisdom, the Mediterranean diet keeps you healthy. Is this belief scientifically sound? Should public health bodies encourage consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables? Severe financial constraints on research and public policy, media pressure, and public anxiety make such questions of immense current concern not just to philosophers but to scientists, governments, public bodies, and the general public. In the last decade there has been an explosion of theorizing about causality in philosophy, and also in the sciences. This literature is both fascinating and important, but it is involved and highly technical. This makes it inaccessible to many who would like to use it, philosophers and scientists alike. This book is an introduction to philosophy of causality - one that is highly accessible: to scientists unacquainted with philosophy, to philosophers unacquainted with science, and to anyone else lost in the labyrinth of philosophical theories of causality. It presents key philosophical accounts, concepts and methods, using examples from the sciences to show how to apply philosophical debates to scientific problems.

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