the design of mammals a scaling approach

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The Design Of Mammals

Author : John William Prothero
ISBN : 9781316369012
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 66 MB
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Despite an astonishing 100 million-fold range in adult body mass from bumblebee bat to blue whale, all mammals are formed of the same kinds of molecules, cells, tissues and organs and to the same overall body plan. A scaling approach investigates the principles of mammal design by examining the ways in which mammals of diverse size and taxonomy are quantitatively comparable. This book presents an extensive reanalysis of scaling data collected over a quarter of a century, including many rarely or never-cited sources. The result is an unparalleled contribution to understanding scaling in mammals, addressing a uniquely extensive range of mammal attributes and using substantially larger and more rigorously screened samples than in any prior works. An invaluable resource for all those interested in the 'design' of mammals, this is an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers in a range of fields from comparative physiology to ecology.

Metabolic Ecology

Author : Richard M. Sibly
ISBN : 9781119968511
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 36 MB
Format : PDF
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One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.

Comparative Cardiovascular Dynamics Of Mammals

Author : John K-J Li
ISBN : 0849301696
Genre : Medical
File Size : 82. 1 MB
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Comparative Cardiovascular Dynamics of Mammals offers never-before-published data on the structure and function of the circulatory systems of the different mammalian species. This text explores classic allometry, dimensional analysis, and modern hemodynamics to establish similarity principles that provide a necessary and important step in understanding the natural common design and functional features of the cardiovascular systems of different mammals. Fluid and blood vessel mechanics, pulse transmission characteristics, cardiac energetics and mechanics, as well as heart-arterial system interaction are included in this essential reference. The sensitivity of parameters and similarity of principles in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases are also addressed. This book also describes the natural processes involved in the functional development of the mammalian cardiovascular system. By using modern methods to present recent findings on the similarities and differences of the mammalian cardiovascular system, the author provides an easily understood approach to this dynamic field of study.

The Biology Of Tumors

Author : Enrico Mihich
ISBN : 9781489913524
Genre : Medical
File Size : 24. 15 MB
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The Ninth Annual Pezcoller Symposium entitled "The Biology of Tumors" was held in Rovereto, Italy, June 4-7, 1997. It focused on the genetic mechanisms underlying het erogeneity of tumor cell populations and tumor cell differentiation, on interactions be tween tumor cells and cells of host defenses, and the mechanisms of angiogenesis. With presentations at the cutting edge of progress and stimulating discussions, this symposium addressed issues related to phenomena concerned with cell regulation and cell interactions as determined by activated genes through the appropriate and timely media tion of gene products. Important methodologies that would allow scientists to measure dif ferentially genes and gene products and thus validate many of the mechanisms of control currently proposed were considered, as were the molecular basis of tumor recognition by the immune system, interactions between cells and molecular mechanisms of cell regula tion as they are affected by or implemented through these interactions. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor vascularization were also discussed. It was recognized that angiogenesis provides a potential site of therapeutic intervention and this makes it even more important to understand the mechanisms underlying it. We wish to thank the participants in the symposium for their substantial contribu tions and their participation in the spirited discussions that followed. We would also like to thank Drs.

Engineering Design Of The Cardiovascular System Of Mammals

Author : Thomas H. Dawson
ISBN : UOM:39015019836652
Genre : Medical
File Size : 72. 61 MB
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Scaling Biodiversity

Author : David Storch
ISBN : STANFORD:36105131718376
Genre : Nature
File Size : 59. 18 MB
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Leading experts in ecology present new, innovative, views on quantitative patterns of biological diversity.

Scale

Author : Geoffrey West
ISBN : 9781594205583
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 33. 94 MB
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"From one of the most influential scientists of our time, a dazzling exploration of the hidden laws that govern the life cycle of everything from plants and animals to the cities we live in. The former head of the Sante Fe Institute, visionary physicist Geoffrey West is a pioneer in the field of complexity science, the science of emergent systems and networks. The term "complexity" can be misleading, however, because what makes West's discoveries so beautiful is that he has found an underlying simplicity that unites the seemingly complex and diverse phenomena of living systems, including our bodies, our cities and our businesses. Fascinated by issues of aging and mortality, West applied the rigor of a physicist to the biological question of why we live as long as we do and no longer. The result was astonishing, and changed science, creating a new understanding of energy use and metabolism: West found that despite the riotous diversity in the sizes of mammals, they are all, to a large degree, scaled versions of each other. If you know the size of a mammal, you can use scaling laws to learn everything from how much food it eats per day, what its heart-rate is, how long it will take to mature, its lifespan, and so on. Furthermore, the efficiency of the mammal's circulatory systems scales up precisely based on weight: if you compare a mouse, a human and an elephant on a logarithmic graph, you find with every doubling of average weight, a species gets 25% more efficient--and lives 25% longer. This speaks to everything from how long we can expect to live to how many hours of sleep we need. Fundamentally, he has proven, the issue has to do with the fractal geometry of the networks that supply energy and remove waste from the organism's body"--

Equine Locomotion

Author : Willem Back
ISBN : 9780702052934
Genre : Medical
File Size : 77. 95 MB
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The first edition of Equine Locomotion has established itself as the book in the equine literature that discusses all aspects of equine locomotion and gait analysis, written by an international team of editors and contributors. The new edition continues this trend and gives the reader a complete picture of the horse in motion, at the same time including many recent findings in this area. The book begins with a history of man’s association with the horse and then continues to discuss with comprehensive descriptions of the present state of knowledge beginning with the initiation of gait and ending with the more scientific area of computer modeling. In the new edition, the list of contributors continues to comprise of authors who are acknowledged experts in their subject areas and includes many new illustrations.

Scaling In Biology

Author : James H. Brown
ISBN : 9780195131420
Genre : Medical
File Size : 52. 79 MB
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Scaling relationships have been a persistent theme in biology at least since the time of Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo. Because scaling relationships are among the most general empirical patterns in biology, they have stimulated research to develop mechanistic hypotheses and mathematical models. While there have been many excellent empirical and theoretical investigations, there has been little attempt to synthesize this diverse but interrelated area of biology. In an effort to fill this void, Scaling in Biology, the first general treatment of scaling in biology in over 15 years, covers a broad spectrum of the most relevant topics in a series of chapters written by experts in the field. Some of those topics discussed include allometry and fractal structure, branching of vascular systems of mammals and plants, biomechanical and life history of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, and species-area patterns of biological diversity. Many more examples are included within this text to complete the broader picture. Scaling in Biology conveys the diversity, promise, and excitement of current research in this area, in a format accessible to a wide audience of not only specialists in the various sub-disciplines, but also students and anyone with a serious interest in biology.

Bioreactor Design And Product Yield

Author : Open Universiteit (Heerlen, Netherlands)
ISBN : UOM:39015023874814
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 24. 47 MB
Format : PDF
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