the detonation phenomenon

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The Detonation Phenomenon

Author : John H. S. Lee
ISBN : 1107430739
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 78. 69 MB
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This book introduces the detonation phenomenon in explosives. It is ideal for engineers and graduate students with a background in thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. The material is mostly qualitative, aiming to illustrate the physical aspects of the phenomenon. Classical idealized theories of detonation waves are presented first. These permit detonation speed, gas properties ahead and behind the detonation wave, and the distribution of fluid properties within the detonation wave itself to be determined. Subsequent chapters describe in detail the real unstable structure of a detonation wave. One-, two-, and three-dimensional computer simulations are presented along with experimental results using various experimental techniques. The important effects of confinement and boundary conditions and their influence on the propagation of a detonation are also discussed. The final chapters cover the various ways detonation waves can be formed and provide a review of the outstanding problems and future directions in detonation research.

Assessment Of Safety And Risk With A Microscopic Model Of Detonation

Author : C.-O. Leiber
ISBN : 0080527620
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 77 MB
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This unique book is a store of less well-known explosion and detonation phenomena, including also data and experiences related to safety risks. It highlights the shortcomings of the current engineering codes based on a classical plane wave model of the phenomenon, and why these tools must fail. For the first time all the explosion phenomena are described in terms of proper assemblages of hot spots, which emit pressure waves and associated near field terms in flow. Not all of the approaches are new. Some even date back to the 19th century or earlier.. What is new is the application of these approaches to explosion phenomena. In order to make these tools easily available to the current detonation physicist, basic acoustics is therefore also addressed. Whereas the current plane wave, homogeneous flow detonation physics is an excellent engineering tool for numerical predictions under given conditions, the multi-hot-spot-model is an additional tool for analyzing phenomena that cannot be explained by classical calculations. The real benefit comes from being able to understand, without any artificial assumptions, the whole phenomenology of detonations and explosions. By specifying pressure generating mechanisms, one is able to see that the current treatment of the detonics of energetic materials is only a very special - but powerful - case of explosion events and hazards. It becomes clear that physical explosions must be taken into account in any safety considerations. In these terms it is easy to understand why even liquid carbon dioxide and inert silo materials can explode. A unique collection of unexpected events, which might surprise even specialists, has resulted from the evaluation of the model. Therefore this book is valuable for each explosion and safety scientist for the understanding and forecasting of unwanted events. The text mainly addresses the next generation of explosion and detonation scientists, with the goal of promoting the science of detonation on a new physical basis. For this reason gaps in current knowledge are also addressed. The science of explosions is not fully mature, but is still in its beginning - and the tools necessary for furthering the understanding of these phenomena have been with us for centuries.

Explosive Effects And Applications

Author : Jonas A. Zukas
ISBN : 9781461205890
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 94 MB
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This is a broad-based text on the fundamentals of explosive behavior and the application of explosives in civil engineering, industrial processes, aerospace applications, and military uses.

The Gas Dynamics Of Explosions

Author : John H. S. Lee
ISBN : 9781316592083
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 56. 71 MB
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Explosions, and the non-steady shock propagation associated with them, continue to interest researchers working in different fields of physics and engineering (such as astrophysics and fusion). Based on the author's course in shock dynamics, this book describes the various analytical methods developed to determine non-steady shock propagation. These methods offer a simple alternative to the direct numerical integration of the Euler equations and offer a better insight into the physics of the problem. Professor Lee presents the subject systematically and in a style that is accessible to graduate students and researchers working in shock dynamics, combustion, high-speed aerodynamics, propulsion and related topics.

Introduction To Physics And Chemistry Of Combustion

Author : Michael A. Liberman
ISBN : 3540787593
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 48 MB
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Most of the material covered in this book deals with the fundamentals of chemistry and physics of key processes and fundamental mechanisms for various combustion and combustion related phenomena in gaseous combustible mixture. It provides the reader with basic knowledge of burning processes and mechanisms of reaction wave propagation. The combustion of a gas mixture (flame, explosion, detonation) is necessarily accompanied by motion of the gas. The process of combustion is therefore not only a chemical phenomenon but also one of gas dynamics. The material selection focuses on the gas phase and with premixed gas combustion. Premixed gas combustion is of practical importance in engines, modern gas turbine and explosions, where the fuel and air are essentially premixed, and combustion occurs by the propagation of a front separating unburned mixture from fully burned mixture. Since premixed combustion is the most fundamental and potential for practical applications, the emphasis in the present work is be placed on regimes of premixed combustion. This text is intended for graduate students of different specialties, including physics, chemistry, mechanical engineering, computer science, mathematics and astrophysics.

Detonation

Author : Wildon Fickett
ISBN : 9780486140704
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 39 MB
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Comprehensive review of detonation explores the "simple theory" and experimental tests of the theory; flow in a reactive medium; steady detonation; the nonsteady solution; and the structure of the detonation front. 1979 edition.

Combustion Phenomena

Author : Jozef Jarosinski
ISBN : 0849384095
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 34. 33 MB
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Extensively using experimental and numerical illustrations, Combustion Phenomena: Selected Mechanisms of Flame Formation, Propagation, and Extinction provides a comprehensive survey of the fundamental processes of flame formation, propagation, and extinction. Taking you through the stages of combustion, leading experts visually display, mathematically explain, and clearly theorize on important physical topics of combustion. After a historical introduction to the field, they discuss combustion chemistry, flammability limits, and spark ignition. They also study counterflow twin-flame configuration, flame in a vortex core, the propagation characteristics of edge flames, instabilities, and tulip flames. In addition, the book describes flame extinction in narrow channels, global quenching of premixed flames by turbulence, counterflow premixed flame extinction limits, the interaction of flames with fluids in rotating vessels, and turbulent flames. The final chapter explores diffusion flames as well as combustion in spark- and compression-ignition engines. It also examines the transition from deflagration to detonation, along with the detonation wave structure. With a CD-ROM of images that beautifully illustrate a range of combustion phenomena, this book facilitates a practical understanding of the processes occurring in the conception, spread, and extinguishment of a flame. It will help you on your way to finding solutions to real issues encountered in transportation, power generation, industrial processes, chemical engineering, and fire and explosion hazards.

Shock Wave Compression Of Condensed Matter

Author : Jerry W Forbes
ISBN : 9783642325359
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 74. 35 MB
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This book introduces the core concepts of the shock wave physics of condensed matter, taking a continuum mechanics approach to examine liquids and isotropic solids. The text primarily focuses on one-dimensional uniaxial compression in order to show the key features of condensed matter’s response to shock wave loading. The first four chapters are specifically designed to quickly familiarize physical scientists and engineers with how shock waves interact with other shock waves or material boundaries, as well as to allow readers to better understand shock wave literature, use basic data analysis techniques, and design simple 1-D shock wave experiments. This is achieved by first presenting the steady one-dimensional strain conservation laws using shock wave impedance matching, which insures conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Here, the initial emphasis is on the meaning of shock wave and mass velocities in a laboratory coordinate system. An overview of basic experimental techniques for measuring pressure, shock velocity, mass velocity, compression and internal energy of steady 1-D shock waves is then presented. In the second part of the book, more advanced topics are progressively introduced: thermodynamic surfaces are used to describe equilibrium flow behavior, first-order Maxwell solid models are used to describe time-dependent flow behavior, descriptions of detonation shock waves in ideal and non-ideal explosives are provided, and lastly, a select group of current issues in shock wave physics are discussed in the final chapter.

Combustion

Author : Irvin Glassman
ISBN : 9780124115552
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 36. 69 MB
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Throughout its previous four editions, Combustion has made a very complex subject both enjoyable and understandable to its student readers and a pleasure for instructors to teach. With its clearly articulated physical and chemical processes of flame combustion and smooth, logical transitions to engineering applications, this new edition continues that tradition. Greatly expanded end-of-chapter problem sets and new areas of combustion engineering applications make it even easier for students to grasp the significance of combustion to a wide range of engineering practice, from transportation to energy generation to environmental impacts. Combustion engineering is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications—including power generation in internal combustion automobile engines and gas turbine engines. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions, make this a crucial area of engineering. New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion—all interrelated and discussed by considering scaling issues (e.g., length and time scales) New information on sensitivity analysis of reaction mechanisms and generation and application of reduced mechanisms Expanded coverage of turbulent reactive flows to better illustrate real-world applications Important new sections on stabilization of diffusion flames—for the first time, the concept of triple flames will be introduced and discussed in the context of diffusion flame stabilization

Irreversible Phenomena

Author : Kunio Terao
ISBN : 9783540499015
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 50 MB
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Ideals are simple and able to be easily understood, but never exist in reality. In this book a theory based on the second law of thermodynamics and its applications are described. In thermodynamics there is a concept of an ideal gas which satisfies a mathematical formula PV = RT. This formula can appro- mately be applied to the real gas, so far as the gas has not an especially high pressure and low temperature. In connection with the second law of thermo- namics there is also a concept of reversible and irreversible processes. The reversible process is a phenomenon proceeding at an infinitely low velocity, while the irreversible process is that proceeding with a finite velocity. Such a process with an infinitely slow velocity can really never take place, and all processes observed are always irreversible, therefore, the reversible process is an ideal process, while the irreversible process is a real process. According to the first law of thermodynamics the energy increase dU of the thermodynamic system is a sum of the heat dQ added to the system and work dW done in the system. Practically, however, the mathematical formula of the law is often expressed by the equation , or some similar equations derived from this formula, is applied to many phenomena. Such formulae are, however, th- retically only applicable to phenomena proceeding at an infinitely low velocity, that is, reversible processes or ideal processes.

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