the economics of biodiversity conservation valuation in tropical forest ecosystems

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The Economics Of Biodiversity Conservation

Author : K. N. Ninan
ISBN : 9781849772976
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 43. 41 MB
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Economic valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services is possibly the most powerful tool for halting the loss of biodiversity while maintaining incomes and livelihoods. Yet rarely have such approaches been applied to tropical forest ?hotspots?, which house the vast majority of the planets plant and animal species. This ground-breaking work is the most comprehensive and detailed examination of the economics of environmental valuation and biodiversity conservation to date. Focusing on the Western Ghats of India, one of the top biodiversity hotspots in the world, this volume looks at a cross-section of local communities living within or near sanctuaries and reserve forests such as coffee growers, indigenous people and farmers-cum-pastoralists to assess the use and non-use values that people derive from tropical forests. It also looks at the extent of their dependence on forests for various goods and services, and examines their perceptions and attitudes towards biodiversity conservation and wildlife protection. The book concludes with an assessment of the institutional alternatives and policies for promoting biodiversity conservation through economic valuation methods.Related titlesEconomics for Collaborative Environmental Management (2005) 1-84407-095-6

The Economics Of Ecosystems And Biodiversity In National And International Policy Making

Author : Patrick ten Brink
ISBN : 9781136538728
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 79. 89 MB
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The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) study is a major international initiative drawing attention to local, national and global economic benefits of biodiversity, to highlight the growing costs of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation, the benefits of investing in natural capital, and to draw together expertise from the fields of science, economics and policy to enable practical actions. Drawing on a team of more than one hundred authors and reviewers, this book demonstrates the value of ecosystems and biodiversity to the economy, society and individuals. It underlines the urgency of strategic policy making and action at national and international levels, and presents a rich evidence base of policies and instruments in use around the world and a wide range of innovative solutions. It highlights the need for new public policy to reflect the appreciation that public goods and social benefits are often overlooked and that we need a transition to decision making which integrates the many values of nature across policy sectors. It explores the range of instruments to reward those offering ecosystem service benefits, such as water provision and climate regulation. It looks at fiscal and regulatory instruments to reduce the incentives of those running down our natural capital, and at reforming subsidies such that they respond to current and future priorities. The authors also consider two major areas of investment in natural capital - protected areas and investment in restoration. Overall the book underlines the needs and ways to transform our approach to natural capital, and demonstrates how we can practically take into account the value of ecosystems and biodiversity in policy decisions - at national and international levels - to promote the protection of our environment and contribute to a sustainable economy and to the wellbeing of societies.

Conserving And Valuing Ecosystem Services And Biodiversity

Author : K. N. Ninan
ISBN : 9781849770859
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 53. 10 MB
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'Should be essential reading for all those who wish to realize truly sustainable development in this new millennium.' From the foreword by Achim Steiner UN Under-Secretary General and Executive Director United Nations Environment Programme 'Fills a much needed gap in the literature ... The chapters include contributions by leading academics and policy experts which make for one of the most authoritative books in this field.' Andreas Kontoleon University Lecturer and Director of MPhil in Environmental Policy University of Cambridge This is the most comprehensive book to address the economic soci.

Tropical Forest Ecology

Author : Florencia Montagnini
ISBN : 3540237976
Genre : Nature
File Size : 21. 16 MB
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Importance of tropical forests. Functions of tropical forests. Economic. Forest products. Timber. Fuelwood. Non- timber forest products. Ecotourism. Environmental services. Reserve for biodiversity. Regulation of climate. Local effects. Global effects. Social. Subsistence for local populations. The need for an integrated approach to Forest conservation and management. Characteristics of tropical forests. Characteristics relevant to management and conservation. High diversity. Latitudinal gradients of species diversity. The latitude effect. Effects of elevation on species diversity. Effects of soil fertility on species diversity. Influence of stress on species diversity. Other factors influencing diversity. Theories to explain high diversity in the tropics. Benefits of high diversity. Defense against pests and diseases. Complementarity. Implications of high diversity for forest management. Reproductive ecology of tropical trees. Timing/frequency of flowering and seed production. Modes of reproduction of tropical trees. Species interactions in the tropics. Energy flow. Delineation of the tropics. Primary production. Production patterns within the tropics. Light environment of tropical forests. Availability of light. Responses of plants to light. Light distribution in the forest. Herbivory. Decomposition. Nutrient cycling. Cycling rates in the tropics. Leaching and weathering. Nutrient-conserving mechanisms. "Direct" nutrient cycling. Concentration of roots near the soil surface. Nutrient storage in wood biomass. Other nutrient-conserving mechanisms. Role of soil organic matter in nutrient conservation. Effects of disturbance on nutrient stocks in the soil. Implications for forestry. Conclusion. Classification of tropical forests. Classification based on forest structure. Classification based on forest function. Climatic classifications. Functional variation along climatic gradients. Classification based on species. Classification at the community level. Classification based on "temperament" of species. Classification based on successional stage. Forest classification based upon soil nutrient status. Implications for management. The unesco classification system. Conclusion. Deforestation in the tropics. Rates of deforestation. Causes of deforestation. Proximate causes of deforestation. Expansion of agriculture. Wood extraction. Development of infrastructure. Underlying causes of deforestation. Economic. Political and institutional factors. Technological. Cultural. Demographic. External debt and deforestation. Effects of deforestation. Environmental effects of deforestation. Social and economic effects of deforestation. Effects on indigenous peoples. Effects on traditional rural peoples. Effects on recently arrived rural peoples. Benefits and costs of deforestation at the international and national levels. International. National. Conclusion. Management of tropical forests. Introduction. Natural forest management. Sustainable forest management. Systems used in management of natural forests in tropical regions. Natural regeneration systems. Partial clearing systems. Reduced impact logging (ril). Ecological and economic feasibility of methods of management of natural tropical forests. Criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management. Certification of forest management. Obstacles to sustainable forest management. Management of secondary forests. Techniques for management of secondary forests. Management for non-timber forest products (ntfps). Is forest management compatible with conservation of biodiversity?. Effects of forest management on wildlife. Reserves. Setting priorities. Conclusion. Plantations and agroforestry systems. Introduction. Plantation forestry: alternative to supplying the world's timber demand?. Plantation productivity. Sustainability of forest plantations. Plantations of native tree species. Mixed species plantations. Plantations and the conservation of biodiversity. Plantations in the landscape. Plantations as a tool for economic development. Agroforestry. Most frequently used agroforestry systems. Functions of agroforestry systems. Restoration of degraded tropical forest ecosystems. Recovery of degraded forests. Enrichment planting of degraded and secondary forests. Rehabilitation of degraded pasture and cropland. Recovery of the soil's productive capacity. Restoration of areas invaded by aggressive vegetation. Recovery of biodiversity in degraded lands. Conclusion. Approaches for implementing ustainable management techniques. Introduction. Top-down development. Top-down conservation planning. Bottom- up development. Participatory action. A case study of participatory action research and development case i: uruani: where par failed. Case ii: porto de moz: where par succeeded. Community forestry. Globalization. Globalization and forest resources. Case study of globalization. Locally centered development and integrated natural resource management (inrm). Importance of scale in efficiency of production. Conclusion. Conclusions. Introduction. Tropical forest classification. Tropical deforestation. Management of tropical forests. Plantations and agroforestry systems. Political and economic development strategies for sustainable forest development. References. Subject index.

Nutrient Cycling In Tropical Forest Ecosystems

Author : Carl F. Jordan
ISBN : 047190449X
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 68 MB
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Brings together much of the recent literature on nutrient cycling due to conversion of forests to croplands, pastures, and plantation forests. It explains why nutrients are often very critical in tropical humid ecosystems and discusses principles that can guide land managers to conserve nutrients and sustain productivity.

Climate Change Impacts On Tropical Forests In Central America

Author : Aline Chiabai
ISBN : 9781317961505
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 84. 37 MB
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The loss of biodiversity is a major environmental problem in nearly every terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. This loss is accelerating driven by climate change, as well as by other causes including agricultural exploitation, fragmentation and degradation triggered by land use changes. The crucial issue under debate is the impact on the welfare of current and future population, and the role of humans in the exploitation of natural resources. This is of particular importance in Central America, which it is amongst the richest and most threatened biodiversity regions on the Earth, and where the loss of ecosystems strongly affects its socio-economic vulnerability. This book addresses the impacts of climate and land-use change on tropical forest ecosystems in this important region, and assesses the expected economic costs if no policy action is taken, under different future scenarios and for different geographical scales. This innovative collection utilises both theoretical approaches and empirical results to provide a conceptual framework for an integrated analysis of climate and land-use change impacts on forest ecosystems and related economic effects, offering insight into the complex relationship between ecosystems and benefits to humans. This important contribution to forest ecosystems and climate change provides invaluable reading for students and scholars in the fields of environmental and ecological economics, environmental science and forestry, natural resource management, agriculture and climate change.

Forestry Economics And The Environment

Author : Wiktor L. Adamowicz
ISBN : 0851989829
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 37. 69 MB
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Global interest in forest conservation, biodiversity preservation, and non-timber values has risen while pressures on the forest as a source of income and employment have also increased. These demands are often conflicting, making forest planning, allocation, and policy formation very complex. This volume explores theoretical and applied issues surrounding forest resource allocation. The book is divided into three sections: (1) Tropical Forests: Environment, Economics and Trade, (2) Non-Timber Valuation: Theory and Application, and (3) Ecosystem Management. The first section focuses on tropical forests, reflecting the fact that global environmental concerns surrounding these regions are often in conflict with local economic objectives. The chapters in this section examine mechanisms for capturing or optimizing total (timber and non-timber) economic value from tropical forests and the implications of forest policy on global trade in forest products and production from tropical forest regions. The second section examines non-timber values. These values, particularly existence or passive use values, are important in planning and policy decisions. However, these non-timber valuation techniques are also very controversial. This section examines theoretical advances in non-timber valuation and presents case studies employing state of the art techniques. The third section considers ecosystem management, a concept that promotes the use of forest harvesting practices that mimic natural disturbance patterns. The impact of ecosystem management on timber and non-timber values is largely unknown. The chapters in this section explore these issues from theoretical and applied perspectives. Overall, the book will be of interest to readers in forestry and environmental economics.

International Environmental Law Policy And Ethics

Author : Alexander Gillespie
ISBN : 9780191022470
Genre : Law
File Size : 80. 98 MB
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This second edition of International Environmental Law, Policy, and Ethics revises and expands this groundbreaking study into the question of why the environment is protected in the international arena. This question is rarely asked because it is assumed that each member of the international community wants to achieve the same ends. However, in his innovative study of international environmental ethics, Alexander Gillespie explodes this myth. He shows how nations, like individuals, create environmental laws and policies which are continually inviting failure, as such laws can often be riddled with inconsistencies, and be ultimately contradictory in purpose. Specifically, he seeks a nexus between the reasons why nations protect the environment, how these reasons are reflected in law and policy, and what complications arise from these choices. This book takes account of the numerous developments in international environmental law and policy that have taken place the publication of the first edition, most notably at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and the 2012 'Rio + 20' United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. Furthermore, it addresses recent debates on the economic value of nature, and the problems of the illegal trade in species and toxic waste. The cultural context has also been considerably advanced in the areas of both intangible and tangible heritage, with increasing attention being given to conservation, wildlife management, and the notion of protected areas. The book investigates the ways in which progress has been made regarding humane trapping and killing of animals, and how, in contrast, the Great Apes initiative, and similar work with whales, have failed. Finally, the book addresses the fact that while the notion of ecosystem management has been embraced by a number of environmental regimes, it has thus far failed as an international philosophy.

Not By Timber Alone

Author : Theodore Panayotou
ISBN : 1559631953
Genre : Business & Economics
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Recommends ways of managing tropical forests to ensure they are both productive and still there

Working Forests In The Neotropics

Author : Daniel J. Zarin
ISBN : 9780231503037
Genre : Nature
File Size : 22. 29 MB
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-- Thomas Lovejoy, The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment

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