the first triumvirate of rome julius caesar marcus licinius crassus gnaeus pompey magnus and the fall of the roman republic

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The First Triumvirate Of Rome

Author : Clifford Alexander
ISBN : 1523294442
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The First Century BC was a watershed for the development of the Roman state. It was a century characterized by near incessant warfare and political strife in Rome, evidence that a new form of government was necessary to rule over its new extensive conquests. It was becoming apparent to the traditional ruling elite that the ancient military superpower was beginning to undergo an uneasy transition from Republic to Imperial Power. Central in this change were the actions of the First Triumvirate: an alliance between the most powerful men in Rome. The Triumvirate was composed of Gnaeus Pompey Magnus, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Gaius Julius Caesar, and together these individuals combined their vast political influence to reduce the Roman Senate to a mere charade. Together, they eked out a place for themselves at the head of the Roman state. Through their efforts, Gaul, Spain and Syria came firmly into the Roman fold. However, like all things true to the Roman Republic, the First Triumvirate was not invulnerable to outside coercion and manipulation. Soon, it too began to show signs of corruption, and each man started to suspect the other of looming betrayal. These misgivings would seep through the alliance until the poison had successfully turned the members of the First Triumvirate against one another. The political tension, and the ensuing war, would fundamentally alter the very fabric of the Roman state forever. From the chaos of the Triumvirate, a new form of government would take root: the Roman monarchy we now know as the Empire.

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus

Author : Source Wikipedia
ISBN : 1230813136
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 24. Chapters: First Triumvirate, Julius Caesar, Lucca Conference, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompey. Excerpt: Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: , July 100 BC - 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion to march on Rome. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity." But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the...

The Roman Republic A Very Short Introduction

Author : David M. Gwynn
ISBN : 9780191642357
Genre : History
File Size : 59. 16 MB
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The rise and fall of the Roman Republic occupies a special place in the history of Western civilization. From humble beginnings on the seven hills beside the Tiber, the city of Rome grew to dominate the ancient Mediterranean. Led by her senatorial aristocracy, Republican armies defeated Carthage and the successor kingdoms of Alexander the Great, and brought the surrounding peoples to east and west into the Roman sphere. Yet the triumph of the Republic was also its tragedy. In this Very Short Introduction, David M. Gwynn provides a fascinating introduction to the history of the Roman Republic and its literary and material sources, bringing to life the culture and society of Republican Rome and its ongoing significance within our modern world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Wars That Changed History 50 Of The World S Greatest Conflicts

Author : Spencer C. Tucker
ISBN : 9781610697866
Genre : History
File Size : 85. 42 MB
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A thorough study of significant wars throughout history and their influence on world affairs—from the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmore III's Campaigns during 479–459 BCE through the Iraq War of 2003–2011. • Features Illustrations, maps, and photographs to visually engage readers • Discusses the significance of major conflicts and their broad historical consequences • Offers the most recent interpretations as to the causes and effects of each war covered • Provides a list of books for additional reading to expand learning opportunities • Reveals the meaning of the term "tech-tac disjoint" and explains its relevance to to modern use of technology-enabled weaponry

Christ And The Caesars

Author : Bauer ; Translators:Brunar&Marchant
ISBN : 9781503542358
Genre : History
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Nearly thirty years after Bruno Bauer published his 1877 book, Christus und die Caesaren...(Christ and the Caesars...), Albert Schweitzer left the Lutheran ministry in his native Alsace-Lorraine to study medicine in Paris (1905 at age 30). In 1911 he earned a Doctorate in Medicine and two years later (1913) he and his wife set off to establish a hospital in Lambarene, now Gabon, West Central Africa. He had given chapter eleven of his 1906 book (Geschichte der Leben-Jesu-Forschung; English: The Quest of the Historical Jesus) the title "Bruno Bauer." In that chapter, Dr. Schweitzer had concluded with this statement: "...his [Bruno Bauer's] work...is the ablest and most complete collection of the difficulties of the Life of Jesus which is anywhere to be found...The shaft which he had driven into the mountain...laid bare once more the veins of ore which he had struck...for his contemporaries he was a mere eccentric...But his eccentricity concealed a penetrating insight. No one else had as yet grasped with the same completeness the idea that primitive Christianity and early Christianity were not merely the direct outcome of the preachings of Jesus, not merely a teaching put into practice, but more, much more, since to the experience of which Jesus was the subject there allied itself [with] the experience of the world-soul at a time when its body-humanity under the Roman Empire-lay in the throes of death...Bauer transferred it to the historical plane and found the 'body of Christ' in the Roman Empire," The Quest of the Historical Jesus, translated by W. Montgomery, B.A., B.D. (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1911), second English edition, pp. 159-160, with a Preface by, F. C. Burkitt, M.A., D.D. What, according to Albert Schweitzer, were the "...bare...veins of ore..." that Bruno Bauer had struck about Jesus' history (and the New Testament)? Chances are that it can be found in the last chapter (VIII) of Christ and the Caesars (Bloomington IN: Xlibris, 2015): Chapter VIII The Completion of New Testament Literature A Great History and a Late Work of Fiction "We have now seen unfold, in a series of images, the fate of imperial rule, nationalities and social classes during the first two centuries of our calendar. As diverse as the figures were who acted before our eyes, they were still just shells hiding one and the same fact. If on the one hand already at that time the friends of tradition saw the removal of the citizens from their political and national efforts only as a violent act of the new Lord of the world, so we also recognized on the other hand in imperial rule the consequence and image of an emancipation of minds from their limited daily tasks, and a political form that corresponded with the ideal of a world community during that time. Personal freedom within the newly opened world-wide coherence was the heartfelt wish of that discredited time, which, in the history books since the days of Tacitus, has been decried as decayed and lost. The immaterial goods which Greece had produced in a similar time of political decline filled the political void; in Rome and Alexandria they united around the center of the Jewish Law, and Seneca gave the new associations the leader in the image of the one who would perfect mankind and who was eventually able to join in battle with the powerful ruler in Rome," Christ and the Caesars, pp. 365-6. Indeed, critics of Bruno Bauer and Albert Schweitzer assert that Bruno Bauer failed to prove there was no first century Jesus Christ. At such a point of confrontation, logicians, like Bruno Bauer and Albert Schweitzer, would be correct in asking the question: Explain, dear critic, just what is the proposed necessary method to prove anegative? And Bruno Bauer had made it clear that those who wrote and completed the New Testament literature written "A Great History and a Late..." (written way too many years after the alleged life of Christ for the story to be of any historical value at all) "...Work of Fiction."

A Global Chronology Of Conflict From The Ancient World To The Modern Middle East 6 Volumes

Author : Spencer C. Tucker
ISBN : 9781851096725
Genre : History
File Size : 68. 13 MB
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This monumental six-volume resource offers engaging entries of major diplomatic, military, and political events driving world conflicts from ancient times to the present. • Hundreds of concise, chronologically organized entries on major wars, battles, political events, weapons technologies, and diplomatic initiatives • Essays at roughly 50-year intervals analyzing each era's defining developments in the evolution of warfare, including changes in tactics, weapons, and other technologies • Sidebars highlighting hundreds of key individuals in the history of military conflict as well as important developments in weapon systems • A comprehensive glossary of military terms to help readers understand the language of warfare and weapons • A rich illustration program of images, drawings, and maps

Julius Caesar And The Transformation Of The Roman Republic

Author : Tom Stevenson
ISBN : 9781317597544
Genre : History
File Size : 39. 78 MB
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Julius Caesar and the Transformation of the Roman Republic provides an accessible introduction to Caesar’s life and public career. It outlines the main phases of his career with reference to prominent social and political concepts of the time. This approach helps to explain his aims, ideals, and motives as rooted in tradition, and demonstrates that Caesar’s rise to power owed much to broad historical processes of the late Republican period, a view that contrasts with the long-held idea that he sought to become Rome’s king from an early age. This is an essential undergraduate introduction to this fascinating figure, and to his role in the transformation of Rome from republic to empire.

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