the first triumvirate of rome julius caesar marcus licinius crassus gnaeus pompey magnus and the fall of the roman republic

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The First Triumvirate Of Rome

Author : Clifford Alexander
ISBN : 1523294442
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The First Century BC was a watershed for the development of the Roman state. It was a century characterized by near incessant warfare and political strife in Rome, evidence that a new form of government was necessary to rule over its new extensive conquests. It was becoming apparent to the traditional ruling elite that the ancient military superpower was beginning to undergo an uneasy transition from Republic to Imperial Power. Central in this change were the actions of the First Triumvirate: an alliance between the most powerful men in Rome. The Triumvirate was composed of Gnaeus Pompey Magnus, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Gaius Julius Caesar, and together these individuals combined their vast political influence to reduce the Roman Senate to a mere charade. Together, they eked out a place for themselves at the head of the Roman state. Through their efforts, Gaul, Spain and Syria came firmly into the Roman fold. However, like all things true to the Roman Republic, the First Triumvirate was not invulnerable to outside coercion and manipulation. Soon, it too began to show signs of corruption, and each man started to suspect the other of looming betrayal. These misgivings would seep through the alliance until the poison had successfully turned the members of the First Triumvirate against one another. The political tension, and the ensuing war, would fundamentally alter the very fabric of the Roman state forever. From the chaos of the Triumvirate, a new form of government would take root: the Roman monarchy we now know as the Empire.

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus

Author : Source Wikipedia
ISBN : 1230813136
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 24. Chapters: First Triumvirate, Julius Caesar, Lucca Conference, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompey. Excerpt: Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: , July 100 BC - 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion to march on Rome. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity." But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the...

Marcus Crassus And The Late Roman Republic

Author : Allen Mason Ward
ISBN : UOM:49015000255100
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
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The Second Triumvirate

Author : Clifford Alexander
ISBN : 1542398517
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With the murder of Julius Caesar on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new political constellation seized control of the city of Rome. Known as the Second Triumvirate, this alliance between Gaius Octavius (Augustus), Marc Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus formed in the year 43 BC and saw the three most powerful men in Rome overcome their own personal differences to bring about a new stability to their tumultuous city. It was a period of extreme violence, as the Second Triumvirate first needed to contend with the rebellious conspirators who had first assassinated Caesar and then broken away from the Roman state. Gradually emerging victorious over the assassins, the Second Triumvirate attempted to consolidate their hold on the Roman Empire by partitioning its vast expanse amongst themselves. However, as Rome always proves true only one man can master the greatest empire of the Mediterranean. In what followed, political intrigue pitted each member of the Triumvirate against one another, as all attempted to seize absolute power. This contest between the greatest Roman politicians mobilized vast armies from across the world, and featured battles that stretched from the sands of the Persian heartlands to the Spanish steppes. From the ashes of the Second Triumvirate emerged a new form of government that we now know as the Empire. It was a form of governance that reflected the violence from which it was born. Cruel and absolute in their use of power, the Roman emperors could now dictate the course of the nation without having to bow to the desires of the people of Rome. Under their direction, Rome would be resplendent and glorious once more.

Wars That Changed History 50 Of The World S Greatest Conflicts

Author : Spencer C. Tucker
ISBN : 9781610697866
Genre : History
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A thorough study of significant wars throughout history and their influence on world affairs—from the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmore III's Campaigns during 479–459 BCE through the Iraq War of 2003–2011. • Features Illustrations, maps, and photographs to visually engage readers • Discusses the significance of major conflicts and their broad historical consequences • Offers the most recent interpretations as to the causes and effects of each war covered • Provides a list of books for additional reading to expand learning opportunities • Reveals the meaning of the term "tech-tac disjoint" and explains its relevance to to modern use of technology-enabled weaponry

Cleopatra And Antony

Author : Diana Preston
ISBN : 0802719597
Genre : History
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On a stiflingly hot day in August, 30 B.C., the thirty-nine-year-old Queen of Egypt, Cleopatra, took her own life, rather than be paraded in chains through Rome by her conqueror, Octavian, the future emperor Augustus. A few days earlier, her lover of eleven years, Mark Antony, had died in her arms following his own botched suicide attempt. Oceans of mythology have grown up around them, all of which Diana Preston puts to rest in her stirring history of the lives and times of a couple whose names-more than two millennia later-still invoke passion, curiosity, and intrigue. This book sets the romance and tragedy of Antony and Cleopatra's personal lives within the context of their political times. There are many contemporary resonances: the relationship between East and West and the nature of empire, the concealment of personal ambition beneath the watchword of liberty, documents forged, edited or disposed of, special relationships established, constitutional forms and legal niceties invoked when it suited. Indeed their lives and deaths had deep political ramifications, and they offer a revealing perspective on a tipping point in Roman politics and on the consolidation of the Roman Empire. Three hundred years would pass before the east would, with the rise of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire, once again take a share of political power in the Mediterranean. In an intriguing postscript, Preston speculates on what might have happened had Antony and Cleopatra defeated Octavian at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.

The Roman Republic A Very Short Introduction

Author : David M. Gwynn
ISBN : 9780191642357
Genre : History
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The rise and fall of the Roman Republic occupies a special place in the history of Western civilization. From humble beginnings on the seven hills beside the Tiber, the city of Rome grew to dominate the ancient Mediterranean. Led by her senatorial aristocracy, Republican armies defeated Carthage and the successor kingdoms of Alexander the Great, and brought the surrounding peoples to east and west into the Roman sphere. Yet the triumph of the Republic was also its tragedy. In this Very Short Introduction, David M. Gwynn provides a fascinating introduction to the history of the Roman Republic and its literary and material sources, bringing to life the culture and society of Republican Rome and its ongoing significance within our modern world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Rise Of Rome

Author : Anthony Everitt
ISBN : 9781400066636
Genre : History
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Traces the rise of Rome as an unlikely evolution from a market village to the world's most powerful empire, offering insight into its political clashes, military strategies, leading figures, and internal corruptions.

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A Global Chronology Of Conflict From The Ancient World To The Modern Middle East 6 Volumes

Author : Spencer C. Tucker
ISBN : 9781851096725
Genre : History
File Size : 67. 80 MB
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This monumental six-volume resource offers engaging entries of major diplomatic, military, and political events driving world conflicts from ancient times to the present. • Hundreds of concise, chronologically organized entries on major wars, battles, political events, weapons technologies, and diplomatic initiatives • Essays at roughly 50-year intervals analyzing each era's defining developments in the evolution of warfare, including changes in tactics, weapons, and other technologies • Sidebars highlighting hundreds of key individuals in the history of military conflict as well as important developments in weapon systems • A comprehensive glossary of military terms to help readers understand the language of warfare and weapons • A rich illustration program of images, drawings, and maps

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