# the foundations of geometry and the non euclidean plane undergraduate texts in mathematics

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## The Foundations Of Geometry And The Non Euclidean Plane

**Author :**G.E. Martin

**ISBN :**9781461257257

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**84. 32 MB

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This book is a text for junior, senior, or first-year graduate courses traditionally titled Foundations of Geometry and/or Non Euclidean Geometry. The first 29 chapters are for a semester or year course on the foundations of geometry. The remaining chap ters may then be used for either a regular course or independent study courses. Another possibility, which is also especially suited for in-service teachers of high school geometry, is to survey the the fundamentals of absolute geometry (Chapters 1 -20) very quickly and begin earnest study with the theory of parallels and isometries (Chapters 21 -30). The text is self-contained, except that the elementary calculus is assumed for some parts of the material on advanced hyperbolic geometry (Chapters 31 -34). There are over 650 exercises, 30 of which are 10-part true-or-false questions. A rigorous ruler-and-protractor axiomatic development of the Euclidean and hyperbolic planes, including the classification of the isometries of these planes, is balanced by the discussion about this development. Models, such as Taxicab Geometry, are used exten sively to illustrate theory. Historical aspects and alternatives to the selected axioms are prominent. The classical axiom systems of Euclid and Hilbert are discussed, as are axiom systems for three and four-dimensional absolute geometry and Pieri's system based on rigid motions. The text is divided into three parts. The Introduction (Chapters 1 -4) is to be read as quickly as possible and then used for ref erence if necessary.

## 5000 Jahre Geometrie

**Author :**Christoph J. Scriba

**ISBN :**9783540271864

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**79. 89 MB

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Lange bevor die Schrift entwickelt wurde, hat der Mensch geometrische Strukturen wahrgenommen und systematisch verwendet: ob beim Weben oder Flechten einfacher zweidimensionaler Muster oder beim Bauen mit dreidimensionalen Körpern. Das Buch liefert einen faszinierenden Überblick über die geometrischen Vorstellungen und Erkenntnisse der Menschheit von der Urgesellschaft bis hin zu den mathematischen und künstlerischen Ideen des 20. Jahrhunderts.

## Elementary Geometry

**Author :**Ilka Agricola

**ISBN :**9780821843475

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**61. 27 MB

**Format :**PDF, ePub

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Elementary geometry provides the foundation of modern geometry. For the most part, the standard introductions end at the formal Euclidean geometry of high school. Agricola and Friedrich revisit geometry, but from the higher viewpoint of university mathematics. Plane geometry is developed from its basic objects and their properties and then moves to conics and basic solids, including the Platonic solids and a proof of Euler's polytope formula. Particular care is taken to explain symmetry groups, including the description of ornaments and the classification of isometries by their number of fixed points. Complex numbers are introduced to provide an alternative, very elegant approach to plane geometry. The authors then treat spherical and hyperbolic geometries, with special emphasis on their basic geometric properties. This largely self-contained book provides a much deeper understanding of familiar topics, as well as an introduction to new topics that complete the picture of two-dimensional geometries. For undergraduate mathematics students the book will be an excellent introduction to an advanced point of view on geometry. For mathematics teachers it will be a valuable reference and a source book for topics for projects. The book contains over 100 figures and scores of exercises. It is suitable for a one-semester course in geometry for undergraduates, particularly for mathematics majors and future secondary school teachers.

## A Differential Approach To Geometry

**Author :**Francis Borceux

**ISBN :**9783319017365

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**83. 9 MB

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This book presents the classical theory of curves in the plane and three-dimensional space, and the classical theory of surfaces in three-dimensional space. It pays particular attention to the historical development of the theory and the preliminary approaches that support contemporary geometrical notions. It includes a chapter that lists a very wide scope of plane curves and their properties. The book approaches the threshold of algebraic topology, providing an integrated presentation fully accessible to undergraduate-level students. At the end of the 17th century, Newton and Leibniz developed differential calculus, thus making available the very wide range of differentiable functions, not just those constructed from polynomials. During the 18th century, Euler applied these ideas to establish what is still today the classical theory of most general curves and surfaces, largely used in engineering. Enter this fascinating world through amazing theorems and a wide supply of surprising examples. Reach the doors of algebraic topology by discovering just how an integer (= the Euler-Poincaré characteristics) associated with a surface gives you a lot of interesting information on the shape of the surface. And penetrate the intriguing world of Riemannian geometry, the geometry that underlies the theory of relativity. The book is of interest to all those who teach classical differential geometry up to quite an advanced level. The chapter on Riemannian geometry is of great interest to those who have to “intuitively” introduce students to the highly technical nature of this branch of mathematics, in particular when preparing students for courses on relativity.

## Strasbourg Master Class On Geometry

**Author :**Athanase Papadopoulos

**ISBN :**3037191058

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**25. 57 MB

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The text is addressed to students and mathematicians who wish to learn the subject. It can also be used as a reference book and as a textbook for short courses on geometry.

## Von Fermat Bis Minkowski

**Author :**W. Scharlau

**ISBN :**9783642618499

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**38. 14 MB

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## Euclidean And Non Euclidean Geometry

**Author :**Patrick J. Ryan

**ISBN :**0521276357

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**28. 60 MB

**Format :**PDF

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This book gives a rigorous treatment of the fundamentals of plane geometry: Euclidean, spherical, elliptical and hyperbolic. The primary purpose is to acquaint the reader with the classical results of plane Euclidean and nonEuclidean geometry, congruence theorems, concurrence theorems, classification of isometries, angle addition and trigonometrical formulae. However, the book not only provides students with facts about and an understanding of the structure of the classical geometries, but also with an arsenal of computational techniques for geometrical investigations. The aim is to link classical and modern geometry to prepare students for further study and research in group theory, Lie groups, differential geometry, topology, and mathematical physics. The book is intended primarily for undergraduate mathematics students who have acquired the ability to formulate mathematical propositions precisely and to construct and understand mathematical arguments. Some familiarity with linear algebra and basic mathematical functions is assumed, though all the necessary background material is included in the appendices.

## Geometry From A Differentiable Viewpoint

**Author :**John McCleary

**ISBN :**0521424801

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**86. 50 MB

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This book offers a new treatment of the topic, one which is designed to make differential geometry an approachable subject for advanced undergraduates. Professor McCleary considers the historical development of non-Euclidean geometry, placing differential geometry in the context of geometry students will be familiar with from high school. The text serves as both an introduction to the classical differential geometry of curves and surfaces and as a history of a particular surface, the non-Euclidean or hyperbolic plane. The main theorems of non-Euclidean geometry are presented along with their historical development. The author then introduces the methods of differential geometry and develops them toward the goal of constructing models of the hyperbolic plane. While interesting diversions are offered, such as Huygen's pendulum clock and mathematical cartography, the book thoroughly treats the models of non-Euclidean geometry and the modern ideas of abstract surfaces and manifolds.

## Foundations Of Three Dimensional Euclidean Geometry

**Author :**I. Vaisman

**ISBN :**0824769015

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**30. 44 MB

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Foundations of Three-Dimensional Euclidean Geometry provides a modern axiomatic construction of three-dimensional geometry, in an accessible form. The method of this book is a graduated formulation of axioms, such that, by determining all the geometric spaces which satisfy the considered axioms, one may characterize the Euclidean space up to an isomorphism. A special feature of Foundations of Three-Dimensional Euclidean Geometry is the introduction of the parallel axiom at an early stage of the discussion, so that the reader can see what results may be obtained both with and without this important axiom. The many theorems, drawings, exercises, and problems richly enhance the presentation of material. Foundations of Three-Dimensional Euclidean Geometry is suitable as a textbook for a one- or two-semester course on geometry or foundations of geometry for undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Mathematics majors in M.A.T. programs will find that this exposition of a classical subject will contribute greatly to their ability to teach geometry at all levels; and logicians, philosophers, and engineers will benefit from this book's applications to their own interests. Book jacket.

## Foundations Of Geometry

**Author :**C. R. Wylie

**ISBN :**9780486472140

**Genre :**Education

**File Size :**72. 26 MB

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Explains geometric theories and shows many examples.