# the foundations of geometry and the non euclidean plane undergraduate texts in mathematics

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## The Foundations Of Geometry And The Non Euclidean Plane

**Author :**G.E. Martin

**ISBN :**9781461257257

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**24. 48 MB

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This book is a text for junior, senior, or first-year graduate courses traditionally titled Foundations of Geometry and/or Non Euclidean Geometry. The first 29 chapters are for a semester or year course on the foundations of geometry. The remaining chap ters may then be used for either a regular course or independent study courses. Another possibility, which is also especially suited for in-service teachers of high school geometry, is to survey the the fundamentals of absolute geometry (Chapters 1 -20) very quickly and begin earnest study with the theory of parallels and isometries (Chapters 21 -30). The text is self-contained, except that the elementary calculus is assumed for some parts of the material on advanced hyperbolic geometry (Chapters 31 -34). There are over 650 exercises, 30 of which are 10-part true-or-false questions. A rigorous ruler-and-protractor axiomatic development of the Euclidean and hyperbolic planes, including the classification of the isometries of these planes, is balanced by the discussion about this development. Models, such as Taxicab Geometry, are used exten sively to illustrate theory. Historical aspects and alternatives to the selected axioms are prominent. The classical axiom systems of Euclid and Hilbert are discussed, as are axiom systems for three and four-dimensional absolute geometry and Pieri's system based on rigid motions. The text is divided into three parts. The Introduction (Chapters 1 -4) is to be read as quickly as possible and then used for ref erence if necessary.

## Geometry Euclid And Beyond

**Author :**Robin Hartshorne

**ISBN :**9780387226767

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**81. 23 MB

**Format :**PDF, Kindle

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This book offers a unique opportunity to understand the essence of one of the great thinkers of western civilization. A guided reading of Euclid's Elements leads to a critical discussion and rigorous modern treatment of Euclid's geometry and its more recent descendants, with complete proofs. Topics include the introduction of coordinates, the theory of area, history of the parallel postulate, the various non-Euclidean geometries, and the regular and semi-regular polyhedra.

## The Foundation Of Geometry And The Non Euclidean Plane

**Author :**George E. Martin

**ISBN :**OCLC:819977641

**Genre :**

**File Size :**60. 26 MB

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## Axiomatic Geometry

**Author :**John M. Lee

**ISBN :**9780821884782

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**31. 11 MB

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The story of geometry is the story of mathematics itself: Euclidean geometry was the first branch of mathematics to be systematically studied and placed on a firm logical foundation, and it is the prototype for the axiomatic method that lies at the foundation of modern mathematics. It has been taught to students for more than two millennia as a mode of logical thought. This book tells the story of how the axiomatic method has progressed from Euclid's time to ours, as a way of understanding what mathematics is, how we read and evaluate mathematical arguments, and why mathematics has achieved the level of certainty it has. It is designed primarily for advanced undergraduates who plan to teach secondary school geometry, but it should also provide something of interest to anyone who wishes to understand geometry and the axiomatic method better. It introduces a modern, rigorous, axiomatic treatment of Euclidean and (to a lesser extent) non-Euclidean geometries, offering students ample opportunities to practice reading and writing proofs while at the same time developing most of the concrete geometric relationships that secondary teachers will need to know in the classroom. -- P. [4] of cover.

## Transformation Geometry

**Author :**George E. Martin

**ISBN :**9781461256809

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**45. 31 MB

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Transformation Geometry: An Introduction to Symmetry offers a modern approach to Euclidean Geometry. This study of the automorphism groups of the plane and space gives the classical concrete examples that serve as a meaningful preparation for the standard undergraduate course in abstract algebra. The detailed development of the isometries of the plane is based on only the most elementary geometry and is appropriate for graduate courses for secondary teachers.

## Non Euclidean Geometry

**Author :**H. S. M. Coxeter

**ISBN :**0883855224

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**50. 67 MB

**Format :**PDF

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A reissue of Professor Coxeter's classic text on non-Euclidean geometry. It surveys real projective geometry, and elliptic geometry. After this the Euclidean and hyperbolic geometries are built up axiomatically as special cases. This is essential reading for anybody with an interest in geometry.

## Foundations Of Geometry

**Author :**C. R. Wylie

**ISBN :**9780486472140

**Genre :**Education

**File Size :**50. 20 MB

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Explains geometric theories and shows many examples.

## Geometry From A Differentiable Viewpoint

**Author :**John McCleary

**ISBN :**0521424801

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**52. 47 MB

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This book offers a new treatment of the topic, one which is designed to make differential geometry an approachable subject for advanced undergraduates. Professor McCleary considers the historical development of non-Euclidean geometry, placing differential geometry in the context of geometry students will be familiar with from high school. The text serves as both an introduction to the classical differential geometry of curves and surfaces and as a history of a particular surface, the non-Euclidean or hyperbolic plane. The main theorems of non-Euclidean geometry are presented along with their historical development. The author then introduces the methods of differential geometry and develops them toward the goal of constructing models of the hyperbolic plane. While interesting diversions are offered, such as Huygen's pendulum clock and mathematical cartography, the book thoroughly treats the models of non-Euclidean geometry and the modern ideas of abstract surfaces and manifolds.

## Geometry

**Author :**R.S. Millman

**ISBN :**9781468401301

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**58. 81 MB

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This book is intended as a first rigorous course in geometry. As the title indicates, we have adopted Birkhoff's metric approach (i.e., through use of real numbers) rather than Hilbert's synthetic approach to the subject. Throughout the text we illustrate the various axioms, definitions, and theorems with models ranging from the familiar Cartesian plane to the Poincare upper half plane, the Taxicab plane, and the Moulton plane. We hope that through an intimate acquaintance with examples (and a model is just an example), the reader will obtain a real feeling and intuition for non Euclidean (and in particular, hyperbolic) geometry. From a pedagogical viewpoint this approach has the advantage of reducing the reader's tendency to reason from a picture. In addition, our students have found the strange new world of the non-Euclidean geometries both interesting and exciting. Our basic approach is to introduce and develop the various axioms slowly, and then, in a departure from other texts, illustrate major definitions and axioms with two or three models. This has the twin advantages of showing the richness of the concept being discussed and of enabling the reader to picture the idea more clearly. Furthermore, encountering models which do not satisfy the axiom being introduced or the hypothesis of the theorem being proved often sheds more light on the relevant concept than a myriad of cases which do.

## Introduction To Projective Geometry

**Author :**C. R. Wylie

**ISBN :**9780486141701

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**87. 67 MB

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This introductory volume offers strong reinforcement for its teachings, with detailed examples and numerous theorems, proofs, and exercises, plus complete answers to all odd-numbered end-of-chapter problems. 1970 edition.