the fundamental theorem of algebra undergraduate texts in mathematics

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The Fundamental Theorem Of Algebra

Author : Benjamin Fine
ISBN : 9781461219286
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 63. 77 MB
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The fundamental theorem of algebra states that any complex polynomial must have a complex root. This book examines three pairs of proofs of the theorem from three different areas of mathematics: abstract algebra, complex analysis and topology. The first proof in each pair is fairly straightforward and depends only on what could be considered elementary mathematics. However, each of these first proofs leads to more general results from which the fundamental theorem can be deduced as a direct consequence. These general results constitute the second proof in each pair. To arrive at each of the proofs, enough of the general theory of each relevant area is developed to understand the proof. In addition to the proofs and techniques themselves, many applications such as the insolvability of the quintic and the transcendence of e and pi are presented. Finally, a series of appendices give six additional proofs including a version of Gauss'original first proof. The book is intended for junior/senior level undergraduate mathematics students or first year graduate students, and would make an ideal "capstone" course in mathematics.

A Concrete Introduction To Higher Algebra

Author : Lindsay Childs
ISBN : 9781468400656
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 30. 5 MB
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This book is written as an introduction to higher algebra for students with a background of a year of calculus. The book developed out of a set of notes for a sophomore-junior level course at the State University of New York at Albany entitled Classical Algebra. In the 1950s and before, it was customary for the first course in algebra to be a course in the theory of equations, consisting of a study of polynomials over the complex, real, and rational numbers, and, to a lesser extent, linear algebra from the point of view of systems of equations. Abstract algebra, that is, the study of groups, rings, and fields, usually followed such a course. In recent years the theory of equations course has disappeared. Without it, students entering abstract algebra courses tend to lack the experience in the algebraic theory of the basic classical examples of the integers and polynomials necessary for understanding, and more importantly, for ap preciating the formalism. To meet this problem, several texts have recently appeared introducing algebra through number theory.

Abstract Algebra

Author : Ronald Solomon
ISBN : 0821847953
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 44. 8 MB
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This undergraduate text takes a novel approach to the standard introductory material on groups, rings, and fields. At the heart of the text is a semi-historical journey through the early decades of the subject as it emerged in the revolutionary work of Euler, Lagrange, Gauss, and Galois. Avoiding excessive abstraction whenever possible, the text focuses on the central problem of studying the solutions of polynomial equations. Highlights include a proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, essentially due to Euler, and a proof of the constructability of the regular 17-gon, in the manner of Gauss. Another novel feature is the introduction of groups through a meditation on the meaning of congruence in the work of Euclid. Everywhere in the text, the goal is to make clear the links connecting abstract algebra to Euclidean geometry, high school algebra, and trigonometry, in the hope that students pursuing a career as secondary mathematics educators will carry away a deeper and richer understanding of the high school mathematics curriculum. Another goal is to encourage students, insofar as possible in a textbook format, to build the course for themselves, with exercises integrally embedded in the text of each chapter.

Elementary Analysis

Author : Kenneth A. Ross
ISBN : 9781461462712
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 33. 5 MB
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For over three decades, this best-selling classic has been used by thousands of students in the United States and abroad as a must-have textbook for a transitional course from calculus to analysis. It has proven to be very useful for mathematics majors who have no previous experience with rigorous proofs. Its friendly style unlocks the mystery of writing proofs, while carefully examining the theoretical basis for calculus. Proofs are given in full, and the large number of well-chosen examples and exercises range from routine to challenging. The second edition preserves the book’s clear and concise style, illuminating discussions, and simple, well-motivated proofs. New topics include material on the irrationality of pi, the Baire category theorem, Newton's method and the secant method, and continuous nowhere-differentiable functions.

Twenty One Lectures On Complex Analysis

Author : Alexander Isaev
ISBN : 9783319681702
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 42. 44 MB
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At its core, this concise textbook presents standard material for a first course in complex analysis at the advanced undergraduate level. This distinctive text will prove most rewarding for students who have a genuine passion for mathematics as well as certain mathematical maturity. Primarily aimed at undergraduates with working knowledge of real analysis and metric spaces, this book can also be used to instruct a graduate course. The text uses a conversational style with topics purposefully apportioned into 21 lectures, providing a suitable format for either independent study or lecture-based teaching. Instructors are invited to rearrange the order of topics according to their own vision. A clear and rigorous exposition is supported by engaging examples and exercises unique to each lecture; a large number of exercises contain useful calculation problems. Hints are given for a selection of the more difficult exercises. This text furnishes the reader with a means of learning complex analysis as well as a subtle introduction to careful mathematical reasoning. To guarantee a student’s progression, more advanced topics are spread out over several lectures. This text is based on a one-semester (12 week) undergraduate course in complex analysis that the author has taught at the Australian National University for over twenty years. Most of the principal facts are deduced from Cauchy’s Independence of Homotopy Theorem allowing us to obtain a clean derivation of Cauchy’s Integral Theorem and Cauchy’s Integral Formula. Setting the tone for the entire book, the material begins with a proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra to demonstrate the power of complex numbers and concludes with a proof of another major milestone, the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which is rarely part of a one-semester undergraduate course.

Types For Proofs And Programs

Author : Paul Callaghan
ISBN : 9783540458425
Genre : Computers
File Size : 81. 99 MB
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A First Course In Topology

Author : John McCleary
ISBN : 9780821838846
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 79. 95 MB
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How many dimensions does our universe require for a comprehensive physical description? In 1905, Poincare argued philosophically about the necessity of the three familiar dimensions, while recent research is based on 11 dimensions or even 23 dimensions. The notion of dimension itself presented a basic problem to the pioneers of topology. Cantor asked if dimension was a topological feature of Euclidean space. To answer this question, some important topological ideas were introduced by Brouwer, giving shape to a subject whose development dominated the twentieth century. The basic notions in topology are varied and a comprehensive grounding in point-set topology, the definition and use of the fundamental group, and the beginnings of homology theory requires considerable time.The goal of this book is a focused introduction through these classical topics, aiming throughout at the classical result of the Invariance of Dimension. This text is based on the author's course given at Vassar College and is intended for advanced undergraduate students. It is suitable for a semester-long course on topology for students who have studied real analysis and linear algebra. It is also a good choice for a capstone course, senior seminar, or independent study.

Linear Algebra

Author : Serge Lang
ISBN : 9781475719499
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 87. 76 MB
Format : PDF
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This book begins with an exposition of the basic theory of vector spaces and proceeds to explain the fundamental structure theorem for linear maps, including eigenvectors and eigenvalues, quadratic and hermitian forms, diagnolization of symmetric, hermitian, and unitary linear maps and matrices, triangulation, and Jordan canonical form. Material in this new edition has been rewritten and reorganized and new exercises have been added.

A Concrete Introduction To Higher Algebra

Author : Lindsay N. Childs
ISBN : 9780387745275
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 27. 53 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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This book is an informal and readable introduction to higher algebra at the post-calculus level. The concepts of ring and field are introduced through study of the familiar examples of the integers and polynomials. The new examples and theory are built in a well-motivated fashion and made relevant by many applications - to cryptography, coding, integration, history of mathematics, and especially to elementary and computational number theory. The later chapters include expositions of Rabiin's probabilistic primality test, quadratic reciprocity, and the classification of finite fields. Over 900 exercises are found throughout the book.

Classical Invariant Theory

Author : Peter J. Olver
ISBN : 0521558212
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 73. 97 MB
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The book is a self-contained introduction to the results and methods in classical invariant theory.

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