the holobiont imperative perspectives from early emerging animals

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The Holobiont Imperative

Author : Thomas C. G. Bosch
ISBN : 9783709118962
Genre : Medical
File Size : 32. 73 MB
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This book examines how the growing knowledge of the huge range of animal-bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. Individuals from simple invertebrates to human are not solitary, homogenous entities but consist of complex communities of many species that likely evolved during a billion years of coexistence. Defining the individual microbe-host conversations in these consortia, is a challenging but necessary step on the path to understanding the function of the associations as a whole. The hologenome theory of evolution considers the holobiont with its hologenome as a unit of selection in evolution. This new view may have profound impact on understanding a strictly microbe/symbiont-dependent life style and its evolutionary consequences. It may also affect the way how we approach complex environmental diseases from corals (coral bleaching) to human (inflammatory bowel disease etc). The book is written for scientists as well as medically interested persons in the field of immunobiology, microbiology, evolutionary biology, evolutionary medicine and corals.

Molecular Mechanisms Of Microbial Evolution

Author : Pabulo H. Rampelotto
ISBN : 9783319690780
Genre : Science
File Size : 43. 1 MB
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One of the most profound paradigms that have transformed our understanding about life over the last decades was the acknowledgement that microorganisms play a central role in shaping the past and present environments on Earth and the nature of all life forms. Each organism is the product of its history and all extant life traces back to common ancestors, which were microorganisms. Nowadays, microorganisms represent the vast majority of biodiversity on Earth and have survived nearly 4 billion years of evolutionary change. Microbial evolution occurred and continues to take place in a great variety of environmental conditions. However, we still know little about the processes of evolution as applied to microorganisms and microbial populations. In addition, the molecular mechanisms by which microorganisms communicate/interact with each other and with multicellular organisms remains poorly understood. Such patterns of microbe-host interaction are essential to understand the evolution of microbial symbiosis and pathogenesis.Recent advances in DNA sequencing, high-throughput technologies, and genetic manipulation systems have enabled studies that directly characterize the molecular and genomic bases of evolution, producing data that are making us change our view of the microbial world. The notion that mutations in the coding regions of genomes are, in combination with selective forces, the main contributors to biodiversity needs to be re-examined as evidence accumulates, indicating that many non-coding regions that contain regulatory signals show a high rate of variation even among closely related organisms. Comparative analyses of an increasing number of closely related microbial genomes have yielded exciting insight into the sources of microbial genome variability with respect to gene content, gene order and evolution of genes with unknown functions. Furthermore, laboratory studies (i.e. experimental microbial evolution) are providing fundamental biological insight through direct observation of the evolution process. They not only enable testing evolutionary theory and principles, but also have applications to metabolic engineering and human health. Overall, these studies ranging from viruses to Bacteria to microbial Eukaryotes are illuminating the mechanisms of evolution at a resolution that Darwin, Delbruck and Dobzhansky could barely have imagined. Consequently, it is timely to review and highlight the progress so far as well as discuss what remains unknown and requires future research. This book explores the current state of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of microbial evolution with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field.

Coral Whisperers

Author : Irus Braverman
ISBN : 9780520970830
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 20 MB
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In recent years, a catastrophic global bleaching event devastated many of the world’s precious coral reefs. Working on the front lines of ruin, today’s coral scientists are struggling to save these important coral reef ecosystems from the imminent threats of rapidly warming, acidifying, and polluted oceans. Coral Whisperers captures a critical moment in the history of coral reef science. Gleaning insights from over one hundred interviews with leading scientists and conservation managers, Irus Braverman documents a community caught in an existential crisis and alternating between despair and hope. In this important new book, corals emerge not only as signs and measures of environmental catastrophe, but also as catalysts for action.

The Hologenome Concept Human Animal And Plant Microbiota

Author : Eugene Rosenberg
ISBN : 9783319042411
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 35 MB
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Groundbreaking research over the last 10 years has given rise to the hologenome concept of evolution. This concept posits that the holobiont (host plus all of its associated microorganisms) and its hologenome (sum of the genetic information of the host and its symbiotic microorganisms), acting in concert, function as a unique biological entity and therefore as a level of selection in evolution. All animals and plants harbor abundant and diverse microbiota, including viruses. Often the amount of symbiotic microorganisms and their combined genetic information far exceed that of their host. The microbiota with its microbiome, together with the host genome, can be transmitted from one generation to the next and thus propagate the unique properties of the holobiont. The microbial symbionts and the host interact in a cooperative way that affects the health of the holobiont within its environment. Beneficial microbiota protects against pathogens, provides essential nutrients, catabolizes complex polysaccharides, renders harmful chemicals inert, and contributes to the performance of the immune system. In humans and animals, the microbiota also plays a role in behavior. The sum of these cooperative interactions characterizes the holobiont as a unique biological entity. Genetic variation in the hologenome can be brought about by changes in either the host genome or the microbial population genomes (microbiome). Evolution by cooperation can occur by amplifying existing microbes, gaining novel microbiota and by acquiring microbial and viral genes. Under environmental stress, the microbiome can change more rapidly and in response to more processes than the host organism alone and thus influences the evolution of the holobiont. Prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and phage therapy are discussed as applied aspects of the hologenome concept.

Cosmopolitan Animals

Author : Kaori Nagai
ISBN : 9781137376282
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 40. 70 MB
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Cosmopolitan Animals asks what new possibilities and permutations of cosmopolitanism can emerge by taking seriously our sharing and 'becoming-with' animals. It calls for a fresh awareness that animals are important players in cosmopolitics, and that worldliness is far from being a human monopoly.

The Microbiome In Rheumatic Diseases And Infection

Author : Gaafar Ragab
ISBN : 9783319790268
Genre : Medical
File Size : 59. 14 MB
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This book discusses the role of the microbiome in rheumatic diseases and details its implications for patient treatment. Recently, with technological advances, there has been significant research into the microbiome. This has enabled us to more profoundly understand its role in our immune system maturation as well as the role played by microorganisms in autoimmunity and the deeply related rheumatic diseases. This book comprehensively explains the emerging microbiome research through the interrelationships of biomedical sciences, including: immunology, microbiology, bioinformatics, and, with special emphasis, the clinical aspect of rheumatology. It examines the interplay between infectious organisms and major autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, juvenile arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and vasculitis, and explains how to apply that knowledge to diagnostic techniques and treatment decisions. The international team of expert authors provides insight into current therapies and future interventions specifically targeting the microbiota and explores the impact of our deeper understanding on enhancing personalized medicine. The Microbiome in Rheumatic Diseases and Infection is an essential resource for rheumatologists, pediatricians, internists, microbiologists, and critical care providers caring for children and adults with rheumatic diseases.

Understanding Host Microbiome Interactions An Omics Approach

Author : Ravindra Pal Singh
ISBN : 9789811050503
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53. 9 MB
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This book offers up-to-date information on different microbiomes, their community composition and interactive functions with the host, bringing together information from diverse research reports to provide an overview of the rapid developments in meta-omics technologies. It is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers, postgraduate and graduate students interested in understanding the impact and importance of next generation sequencing technologies on different hosts and their microbiomes.

The Science And Applications Of Microbial Genomics

Author : Forum on Microbial Threats
ISBN : 9780309268196
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 49 MB
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Over the past several decades, new scientific tools and approaches for detecting microbial species have dramatically enhanced our appreciation of the diversity and abundance of the microbiota and its dynamic interactions with the environments within which these microorganisms reside. The first bacterial genome was sequenced in 1995 and took more than 13 months of work to complete. Today, a microorganism's entire genome can be sequenced in a few days. Much as our view of the cosmos was forever altered in the 17th century with the invention of the telescope, these genomic technologies, and the observations derived from them, have fundamentally transformed our appreciation of the microbial world around us. On June 12 and 13, 2012, the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop in Washington, DC, to discuss the scientific tools and approaches being used for detecting and characterizing microbial species, and the roles of microbial genomics and metagenomics to better understand the culturable and unculturable microbial world around us. Through invited presentations and discussions, participants examined the use of microbial genomics to explore the diversity, evolution, and adaptation of microorganisms in a wide variety of environments; the molecular mechanisms of disease emergence and epidemiology; and the ways that genomic technologies are being applied to disease outbreak trace back and microbial surveillance. Points that were emphasized by many participants included the need to develop robust standardized sampling protocols, the importance of having the appropriate metadata, data analysis and data management challenges, and information sharing in real time. The Science and Applications of Microbial Genomics summarizes this workshop.

Probiotics And Prebiotics In Animal Health And Food Safety

Author : Diana Di Gioia
ISBN : 9783319719504
Genre : Medical
File Size : 41. 75 MB
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This book discusses the role of probiotics and prebiotics in maintaining the health status of a broad range of animal groups used for food production. It also highlights the use of beneficial microorganisms as protective agents in animal derived foods. The book provides essential information on the characterization and definition of probiotics on the basis of recently released guidelines and reflecting the latest trends in bacterial taxonomy. Last but not least, it discusses the concept of “dead” probiotics and their benefits to animal health in detail. The book will benefit all professors, students, researchers and practitioners in academia and industry whose work involves biotechnology, veterinary sciences or food production.

Circadian Clocks Role In Health And Disease

Author : Michelle L. Gumz
ISBN : 9781493934508
Genre : Medical
File Size : 37. 83 MB
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This book sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms that generate circadian rhythms. It examines how biological rhythms influence physiological processes such as sleep, hormone synthesis and secretion, immunity, kidney function, the cardiovascular system, blood pressure, and the digestive system. Clinical implications are considered while exploring the impact of rhythms on neuropsychiatric disorders and chronotherapy’s potential for reducing cardiovascular risk. Offering a cross-section of expertise in both basic and translational (bench-to-bedside) research, this book serves as a guide for physicians and scientists who wish to learn more about the impact of circadian rhythms on physiological processes in health and disease.

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