the holobiont imperative perspectives from early emerging animals

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The Holobiont Imperative

Author : Thomas C. G. Bosch
ISBN : 9783709118962
Genre : Medical
File Size : 88. 97 MB
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This book examines how the growing knowledge of the huge range of animal-bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. Individuals from simple invertebrates to human are not solitary, homogenous entities but consist of complex communities of many species that likely evolved during a billion years of coexistence. Defining the individual microbe-host conversations in these consortia, is a challenging but necessary step on the path to understanding the function of the associations as a whole. The hologenome theory of evolution considers the holobiont with its hologenome as a unit of selection in evolution. This new view may have profound impact on understanding a strictly microbe/symbiont-dependent life style and its evolutionary consequences. It may also affect the way how we approach complex environmental diseases from corals (coral bleaching) to human (inflammatory bowel disease etc). The book is written for scientists as well as medically interested persons in the field of immunobiology, microbiology, evolutionary biology, evolutionary medicine and corals.

Microbial Biofilms

Author : Gavin Lear
ISBN : 9781904455967
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 21 MB
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Biofilms are the default mode-of-life for many bacterial species. The three-dimensional structure of the biofilm provides the associated microbial communities with additional protection from predation, toxic substances, and physical perturbation. The variety of microniches provided by the biofilm also promotes a huge diversity of microbial life and metabolic potential. These complex and highly structured communities help to maintain the health of soils and waters. Current applications of biofilms include the degradation of toxic substances in soil and water, the commercial production of chemicals, and the generation of electricity. However, biofilm-based infections cause harm to millions of humans annually. In addition, biofilms can affect the quality and yield of crops and cause biofouling and microbially-induced corrosion. In this book, leading scientists provide an up-to-date review of the latest scientific research on these fascinating microbial communities and predict future trends and growth areas in biofilm-related research. Authors from around the world have contributed critical reviews on the most topical aspects of current biofilm research. The subjects covered include: quorum sensing and social interactions in microbial biofilms * biofilms in disease * plant-associated biofilms * biofilms in the soil * applications in bioremediation * biofilms in wastewater treatment * corrosion and fouling * aquatic biofilms * microbial fuel cells * catalytic biofilms. The book will be essential for everyone interested in biofilms and their applications. It is also highly recommended for environmental microbiologists, soil scientists, medical microbiologists, bioremediation experts, and microbiologists working in biocorrosion, biofouling, biodegradation, water microbiology, quorum sensing, and many other areas.

Coral Whisperers

Author : Irus Braverman
ISBN : 9780520970830
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 1 MB
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In recent years, a catastrophic global bleaching event devastated many of the world’s precious coral reefs. Working on the front lines of ruin, today’s coral scientists are struggling to save these important coral reef ecosystems from the imminent threats of rapidly warming, acidifying, and polluted oceans. Coral Whisperers captures a critical moment in the history of coral reef science. Gleaning insights from over one hundred interviews with leading scientists and conservation managers, Irus Braverman documents a community caught in an existential crisis and alternating between despair and hope. In this important new book, corals emerge not only as signs and measures of environmental catastrophe, but also as catalysts for action.

The Hologenome Concept Human Animal And Plant Microbiota

Author : Eugene Rosenberg
ISBN : 9783319042411
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 66 MB
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Groundbreaking research over the last 10 years has given rise to the hologenome concept of evolution. This concept posits that the holobiont (host plus all of its associated microorganisms) and its hologenome (sum of the genetic information of the host and its symbiotic microorganisms), acting in concert, function as a unique biological entity and therefore as a level of selection in evolution. All animals and plants harbor abundant and diverse microbiota, including viruses. Often the amount of symbiotic microorganisms and their combined genetic information far exceed that of their host. The microbiota with its microbiome, together with the host genome, can be transmitted from one generation to the next and thus propagate the unique properties of the holobiont. The microbial symbionts and the host interact in a cooperative way that affects the health of the holobiont within its environment. Beneficial microbiota protects against pathogens, provides essential nutrients, catabolizes complex polysaccharides, renders harmful chemicals inert, and contributes to the performance of the immune system. In humans and animals, the microbiota also plays a role in behavior. The sum of these cooperative interactions characterizes the holobiont as a unique biological entity. Genetic variation in the hologenome can be brought about by changes in either the host genome or the microbial population genomes (microbiome). Evolution by cooperation can occur by amplifying existing microbes, gaining novel microbiota and by acquiring microbial and viral genes. Under environmental stress, the microbiome can change more rapidly and in response to more processes than the host organism alone and thus influences the evolution of the holobiont. Prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and phage therapy are discussed as applied aspects of the hologenome concept.

Cosmopolitan Animals

Author : Kaori Nagai
ISBN : 9781137376282
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 57. 69 MB
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Cosmopolitan Animals asks what new possibilities and permutations of cosmopolitanism can emerge by taking seriously our sharing and 'becoming-with' animals. It calls for a fresh awareness that animals are important players in cosmopolitics, and that worldliness is far from being a human monopoly.

The Evolutionary Strategies That Shape Ecosystems

Author : J. Philip Grime
ISBN : 9781118223277
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 1 MB
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In 1837 a young Charles Darwin took his notebook, wrote "I think" and then sketched a rudimentary, stick-like tree. Each branch of Darwin's tree of life told a story of survival and adaptation – adaptation of animals and plants not just to the environment but also to life with other living things. However, more than 150 years since Darwin published his singular idea of natural selection, the science of ecology has yet to account for how contrasting evolutionary outcomes affect the ability of organisms to coexist in communities and to regulate ecosystem functioning. In this book Philip Grime and Simon Pierce explain how evidence from across the world is revealing that, beneath the wealth of apparently limitless and bewildering variation in detailed structure and functioning, the essential biology of all organisms is subject to the same set of basic interacting constraints on life-history and physiology. The inescapable resulting predicament during the evolution of every species is that, according to habitat, each must adopt a predictable compromise with regard to how they use the resources at their disposal in order to survive. The compromise involves the investment of resources in either the effort to acquire more resources, the tolerance of factors that reduce metabolic performance, or reproduction. This three-way trade-off is the irreducible core of the universal adaptive strategy theory which Grime and Pierce use to investigate how two environmental filters selecting, respectively, for convergence and divergence in organism function determine the identity of organisms in communities, and ultimately how different evolutionary strategies affect the functioning of ecosystems. This book reflects an historic phase in which evolutionary processes are finally moving centre stage in the effort to unify ecological theory, and animal, plant and microbial ecology have begun to find a common theoretical framework. Visit www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies to access the artwork from the book.

The Cnidaria Past Present And Future

Author : Stefano Goffredo
ISBN : 9783319313054
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 89 MB
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This volume presents a broad panorama of the current status of research of invertebrate animals considered belonging to the phylum Cnidaria, such as hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, and coral. In this book the Cnidarians are traced from the Earth’s primordial oceans, to their response to the warming and acidifying oceans. Due to the role of corals in the carbon and calcium cycles, various aspects of cnidarian calcification are discussed. The relation of the Cnidaria with Mankind is approached, in accordance with the Editors’ philosophy of bridging the artificial schism between science, arts and Humanities. Cnidarians' encounters with humans result in a broad spectrum of medical emergencies that are reviewed. The final section of the volume is devoted to the role of Hydra and Medusa in mythology and art.

Probiotics And Prebiotics In Animal Health And Food Safety

Author : Diana Di Gioia
ISBN : 9783319719504
Genre : Medical
File Size : 44. 85 MB
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This book discusses the role of probiotics and prebiotics in maintaining the health status of a broad range of animal groups used for food production. It also highlights the use of beneficial microorganisms as protective agents in animal derived foods. The book provides essential information on the characterization and definition of probiotics on the basis of recently released guidelines and reflecting the latest trends in bacterial taxonomy. Last but not least, it discusses the concept of “dead” probiotics and their benefits to animal health in detail. The book will benefit all professors, students, researchers and practitioners in academia and industry whose work involves biotechnology, veterinary sciences or food production.

Ticks Of Europe And North Africa

Author : Agustín Estrada-Peña
ISBN : 9783319637600
Genre : Medical
File Size : 42. 37 MB
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This book includes descriptive keys for identifying every stage of all the species of ticks reported in Europe and northern Africa. It includes descriptive texts on the ecology and prominent features of each species, together with ink illustrations and distribution maps of more than 60 species of hard and soft ticks. The text for each species was prepared by specialists, the illustrations were made especially for this book and the maps were compiled on the basis of more than 40 years of records. This book is the first to offer keys for more than 60 species of ticks (both immature and adult) in the target territory. It also includes supplementary information with bibliographical details for each species. This book is based upon work from COST Action TD1303, supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)

Routledge Handbook Of Ocean Resources And Management

Author : Hance D. Smith
ISBN : 9781136294822
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 67 MB
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This comprehensive handbook provides a global overview of ocean resources and management by focusing on critical issues relating to human development and the marine environment, their interrelationships as expressed through the uses of the sea as a resource, and the regional expression of these themes. The underlying approach is geographical, with prominence given to the biosphere, political arrangements and regional patterns – all considered to be especially crucial to the human understanding required for the use and management of the world's oceans. Part one addresses key themes in our knowledge of relationships between people and the sea on a global scale, including economic and political issues, and understanding and managing marine environments. Part two provides a systematic review of the uses of the sea, grouped into food, ocean space, materials and energy, and the sea as an environmental resource. Part three on the geography of the sea considers management strategies especially related to the state system, and regional management developments in both core economic regions and the developing periphery. The primary themes within each chapter are governance (including institutional and legal bases); policy – sets of ideas governing management; and management, both technical and general.

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