the holobiont imperative perspectives from early emerging animals

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The Holobiont Imperative

Author : Thomas C. G. Bosch
ISBN : 9783709118962
Genre : Medical
File Size : 28. 64 MB
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This book examines how the growing knowledge of the huge range of animal-bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. Individuals from simple invertebrates to human are not solitary, homogenous entities but consist of complex communities of many species that likely evolved during a billion years of coexistence. Defining the individual microbe-host conversations in these consortia, is a challenging but necessary step on the path to understanding the function of the associations as a whole. The hologenome theory of evolution considers the holobiont with its hologenome as a unit of selection in evolution. This new view may have profound impact on understanding a strictly microbe/symbiont-dependent life style and its evolutionary consequences. It may also affect the way how we approach complex environmental diseases from corals (coral bleaching) to human (inflammatory bowel disease etc). The book is written for scientists as well as medically interested persons in the field of immunobiology, microbiology, evolutionary biology, evolutionary medicine and corals.

Molecular Mechanisms Of Microbial Evolution

Author : Pabulo H. Rampelotto
ISBN : 9783319690780
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 34 MB
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One of the most profound paradigms that have transformed our understanding about life over the last decades was the acknowledgement that microorganisms play a central role in shaping the past and present environments on Earth and the nature of all life forms. Each organism is the product of its history and all extant life traces back to common ancestors, which were microorganisms. Nowadays, microorganisms represent the vast majority of biodiversity on Earth and have survived nearly 4 billion years of evolutionary change. Microbial evolution occurred and continues to take place in a great variety of environmental conditions. However, we still know little about the processes of evolution as applied to microorganisms and microbial populations. In addition, the molecular mechanisms by which microorganisms communicate/interact with each other and with multicellular organisms remains poorly understood. Such patterns of microbe-host interaction are essential to understand the evolution of microbial symbiosis and pathogenesis.Recent advances in DNA sequencing, high-throughput technologies, and genetic manipulation systems have enabled studies that directly characterize the molecular and genomic bases of evolution, producing data that are making us change our view of the microbial world. The notion that mutations in the coding regions of genomes are, in combination with selective forces, the main contributors to biodiversity needs to be re-examined as evidence accumulates, indicating that many non-coding regions that contain regulatory signals show a high rate of variation even among closely related organisms. Comparative analyses of an increasing number of closely related microbial genomes have yielded exciting insight into the sources of microbial genome variability with respect to gene content, gene order and evolution of genes with unknown functions. Furthermore, laboratory studies (i.e. experimental microbial evolution) are providing fundamental biological insight through direct observation of the evolution process. They not only enable testing evolutionary theory and principles, but also have applications to metabolic engineering and human health. Overall, these studies ranging from viruses to Bacteria to microbial Eukaryotes are illuminating the mechanisms of evolution at a resolution that Darwin, Delbruck and Dobzhansky could barely have imagined. Consequently, it is timely to review and highlight the progress so far as well as discuss what remains unknown and requires future research. This book explores the current state of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of microbial evolution with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field.

Coral Whisperers

Author : Irus Braverman
ISBN : 9780520970830
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 77 MB
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In recent years, a catastrophic global bleaching event devastated many of the world’s precious coral reefs. Working on the front lines of ruin, today’s coral scientists are struggling to save these important coral reef ecosystems from the imminent threats of rapidly warming, acidifying, and polluted oceans. Coral Whisperers captures a critical moment in the history of coral reef science. Gleaning insights from over one hundred interviews with leading scientists and conservation managers, Irus Braverman documents a community caught in an existential crisis and alternating between despair and hope. In this important new book, corals emerge not only as signs and measures of environmental catastrophe, but also as catalysts for action.

Author : د. ستيفن ماير
ISBN : 9789776545274
Genre :
File Size : 90. 56 MB
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في (توقيع في الخلية) يطرح ماير أول مرجع شامل لحجة التصميم الذكي المبنية على الدنا. بينما يروي قصة نجاح محاولات حل خيوط اللغز الذي لم يتعرض له داروين –كيف نشأت الحياة؟–، طور ماير حجة للنظرية التي غالبا ما يساء فهمها، مستخدما الطريقة التي استعملها داروين نفسه. بطرحه لرؤية جديدة لواحد من الألغاز المستمرة للبيولوجيا الحديثة، أثبت ماير أن أدلة التصميم الذكي ليست قائمة على الجهل أو رفض العلم، بل هي بالأحرى قائمة على أدلة علمية ساحقة، تتزايد مع الوقت. «حجة حاسمة مبنية على نقاط علمية مذهلة من أحدث ما توصل إليه العلم». - د. فيليب سكيل (بروفيسور شرفي في جامعة ولاية بنسلفانيا وعضو الأكاديمية الوطنية للعلوم) «استعراض رائع... سواءً أكنت تؤيد التصميم الذكي أو تعارضه، كتاب (توقيع في الخلية) هو كتابٌ يجب أن تقرأه». - د. سكوت ترنر (بروفيسور البيولوجيا البيئية وبيولوجيا الغابات في جامعة ولاية نيويورك) «عرض متقن للإشكالية الصعبة». - د. توماس ناجل (أستاذ بجامعة نيويورك)، في جريدة Times Literary Supplement

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