the holobiont imperative perspectives from early emerging animals

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The Holobiont Imperative

Author : Thomas C. G. Bosch
ISBN : 9783709118962
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 84 MB
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This book examines how the growing knowledge of the huge range of animal-bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. Individuals from simple invertebrates to human are not solitary, homogenous entities but consist of complex communities of many species that likely evolved during a billion years of coexistence. Defining the individual microbe-host conversations in these consortia, is a challenging but necessary step on the path to understanding the function of the associations as a whole. The hologenome theory of evolution considers the holobiont with its hologenome as a unit of selection in evolution. This new view may have profound impact on understanding a strictly microbe/symbiont-dependent life style and its evolutionary consequences. It may also affect the way how we approach complex environmental diseases from corals (coral bleaching) to human (inflammatory bowel disease etc). The book is written for scientists as well as medically interested persons in the field of immunobiology, microbiology, evolutionary biology, evolutionary medicine and corals.

Microbial Biofilms

Author : Gavin Lear
ISBN : 9781904455967
Genre : Science
File Size : 71. 16 MB
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Biofilms are the default mode-of-life for many bacterial species. The three-dimensional structure of the biofilm provides the associated microbial communities with additional protection from predation, toxic substances, and physical perturbation. The variety of microniches provided by the biofilm also promotes a huge diversity of microbial life and metabolic potential. These complex and highly structured communities help to maintain the health of soils and waters. Current applications of biofilms include the degradation of toxic substances in soil and water, the commercial production of chemicals, and the generation of electricity. However, biofilm-based infections cause harm to millions of humans annually. In addition, biofilms can affect the quality and yield of crops and cause biofouling and microbially-induced corrosion. In this book, leading scientists provide an up-to-date review of the latest scientific research on these fascinating microbial communities and predict future trends and growth areas in biofilm-related research. Authors from around the world have contributed critical reviews on the most topical aspects of current biofilm research. The subjects covered include: quorum sensing and social interactions in microbial biofilms * biofilms in disease * plant-associated biofilms * biofilms in the soil * applications in bioremediation * biofilms in wastewater treatment * corrosion and fouling * aquatic biofilms * microbial fuel cells * catalytic biofilms. The book will be essential for everyone interested in biofilms and their applications. It is also highly recommended for environmental microbiologists, soil scientists, medical microbiologists, bioremediation experts, and microbiologists working in biocorrosion, biofouling, biodegradation, water microbiology, quorum sensing, and many other areas.

The Hologenome Concept Human Animal And Plant Microbiota

Author : Eugene Rosenberg
ISBN : 9783319042411
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 40 MB
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Groundbreaking research over the last 10 years has given rise to the hologenome concept of evolution. This concept posits that the holobiont (host plus all of its associated microorganisms) and its hologenome (sum of the genetic information of the host and its symbiotic microorganisms), acting in concert, function as a unique biological entity and therefore as a level of selection in evolution. All animals and plants harbor abundant and diverse microbiota, including viruses. Often the amount of symbiotic microorganisms and their combined genetic information far exceed that of their host. The microbiota with its microbiome, together with the host genome, can be transmitted from one generation to the next and thus propagate the unique properties of the holobiont. The microbial symbionts and the host interact in a cooperative way that affects the health of the holobiont within its environment. Beneficial microbiota protects against pathogens, provides essential nutrients, catabolizes complex polysaccharides, renders harmful chemicals inert, and contributes to the performance of the immune system. In humans and animals, the microbiota also plays a role in behavior. The sum of these cooperative interactions characterizes the holobiont as a unique biological entity. Genetic variation in the hologenome can be brought about by changes in either the host genome or the microbial population genomes (microbiome). Evolution by cooperation can occur by amplifying existing microbes, gaining novel microbiota and by acquiring microbial and viral genes. Under environmental stress, the microbiome can change more rapidly and in response to more processes than the host organism alone and thus influences the evolution of the holobiont. Prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and phage therapy are discussed as applied aspects of the hologenome concept.

Cosmopolitan Animals

Author : Kaori Nagai
ISBN : 9781137376282
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 68. 15 MB
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Cosmopolitan Animals asks what new possibilities and permutations of cosmopolitanism can emerge by taking seriously our sharing and 'becoming-with' animals. It calls for a fresh awareness that animals are important players in cosmopolitics, and that worldliness is far from being a human monopoly.

The Cnidaria Past Present And Future

Author : Stefano Goffredo
ISBN : 9783319313054
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 25 MB
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This volume presents a broad panorama of the current status of research of invertebrate animals considered belonging to the phylum Cnidaria, such as hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, and coral. In this book the Cnidarians are traced from the Earth’s primordial oceans, to their response to the warming and acidifying oceans. Due to the role of corals in the carbon and calcium cycles, various aspects of cnidarian calcification are discussed. The relation of the Cnidaria with Mankind is approached, in accordance with the Editors’ philosophy of bridging the artificial schism between science, arts and Humanities. Cnidarians' encounters with humans result in a broad spectrum of medical emergencies that are reviewed. The final section of the volume is devoted to the role of Hydra and Medusa in mythology and art.

Ticks Of Europe And North Africa

Author : Agustín Estrada-Peña
ISBN : 9783319637600
Genre : Medical
File Size : 67. 59 MB
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This book includes descriptive keys for identifying every stage of all the species of ticks reported in Europe and northern Africa. It includes descriptive texts on the ecology and prominent features of each species, together with ink illustrations and distribution maps of more than 60 species of hard and soft ticks. The text for each species was prepared by specialists, the illustrations were made especially for this book and the maps were compiled on the basis of more than 40 years of records. This book is the first to offer keys for more than 60 species of ticks (both immature and adult) in the target territory. It also includes supplementary information with bibliographical details for each species. This book is based upon work from COST Action TD1303, supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)

Probiotics And Prebiotics In Animal Health And Food Safety

Author : Diana Di Gioia
ISBN : 9783319719504
Genre : Medical
File Size : 50. 54 MB
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This book discusses the role of probiotics and prebiotics in maintaining the health status of a broad range of animal groups used for food production. It also highlights the use of beneficial microorganisms as protective agents in animal derived foods. The book provides essential information on the characterization and definition of probiotics on the basis of recently released guidelines and reflecting the latest trends in bacterial taxonomy. Last but not least, it discusses the concept of “dead” probiotics and their benefits to animal health in detail. The book will benefit all professors, students, researchers and practitioners in academia and industry whose work involves biotechnology, veterinary sciences or food production.

Signaling In The Phytomicrobiome

Author : Donald L. Smith
ISBN : 9782889452163
Genre :
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A plant growing under field conditions is not a simple individual; it is a community. We now know that there is a community of microbes associated with all parts of the plant, and that the root associated community is particularly large. This microbial community, the phytomicrobiome, is complex, regulated and the result of almost half a billion years of evolution. Circumstances that benefit the plant generally benefit the phytomicrobiome, and vice versa. Members of the holobiont modulate each other's activities, in part, through molecular signals, acting as the hormones of the holobiont. The plant plus the phytomicrobiome constitute the holobiont, the resulting entity that is that community. The phytomicrobiome is complex, well developed and well-orchestrated, and there is considerable potential in managing this system. The use of “biologicals” will develop during the 21st century and play as large a role as agro-chemistry did in the 20th century. Biologicals can be deployed to enhance plant pathogen resistance, improve plant access to nutrients and improve stress tolerance. They can be used to enhance crop productivity, to meet the expanding demands for plant material as food, fibre and fuel. They can assist crop plants in dealing with the more frequent and more extreme episodes of stress that will occur as climate change conditions continue to develop. The path is clear and we have started down it; there is a considerable distance remaining.

Proceedings Of The 2007 National Conference On Environmental Science And Technology

Author : Godfrey Uzochukwu
ISBN : 0387884831
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 82 MB
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Staying With The Trouble

Author : Donna J. Haraway
ISBN : 9780822373780
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 41. 15 MB
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In the midst of spiraling ecological devastation, multispecies feminist theorist Donna J. Haraway offers provocative new ways to reconfigure our relations to the earth and all its inhabitants. She eschews referring to our current epoch as the Anthropocene, preferring to conceptualize it as what she calls the Chthulucene, as it more aptly and fully describes our epoch as one in which the human and nonhuman are inextricably linked in tentacular practices. The Chthulucene, Haraway explains, requires sym-poiesis, or making-with, rather than auto-poiesis, or self-making. Learning to stay with the trouble of living and dying together on a damaged earth will prove more conducive to the kind of thinking that would provide the means to building more livable futures. Theoretically and methodologically driven by the signifier SF—string figures, science fact, science fiction, speculative feminism, speculative fabulation, so far—Staying with the Trouble further cements Haraway's reputation as one of the most daring and original thinkers of our time.

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