the institutional revolution measurement and the economic emergence of the modern world markets and governments in economic history

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The Institutional Revolution

Author : Douglas W. Allen
ISBN : 9780226014760
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 88. 18 MB
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Few events in the history of humanity rival the Industrial Revolution. Following its onset in eighteenth-century Britain, sweeping changes in agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, and technology began to gain unstoppable momentum throughout Europe, North America, and eventually much of the world—with profound effects on socioeconomic and cultural conditions. In The Institutional Revolution, Douglas W. Allen offers a thought-provoking account of another, quieter revolution that took place at the end of the eighteenth century and allowed for the full exploitation of the many new technological innovations. Fundamental to this shift were dramatic changes in institutions, or the rules that govern society, which reflected significant improvements in the ability to measure performance—whether of government officials, laborers, or naval officers—thereby reducing the role of nature and the hazards of variance in daily affairs. Along the way, Allen provides readers with a fascinating explanation of the critical roles played by seemingly bizarre institutions, from dueling to the purchase of one’s rank in the British Army. Engagingly written, The Institutional Revolution traces the dramatic shift from premodern institutions based on patronage, purchase, and personal ties toward modern institutions based on standardization, merit, and wage labor—a shift which was crucial to the explosive economic growth of the Industrial Revolution.

Clashing Over Commerce

Author : Douglas A. Irwin
ISBN : 9780226398969
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 56. 76 MB
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Revenue. The struggle for Independence, 1763-1789 ; Trade policy for the new nation, 1789-1816 ; Sectional conflict and crisis, 1816-1833 ; Tariff peace and Civil War, 1833-1865 -- Restriction. The failure of tariff reform, 1865-1890 ; Protectionism entrenched, 1890-1912 ; Policy reversals and drift, 1912-1928 ; The Hawley-Smoot tariff and the Great Depression, 1928-1932 -- Reciprocity. The New Deal and reciprocal trade agreements, 1932-1943 ; Creating a multilateral trading system, 1943-1950 ; New Order and new stresses, 1950-1979 ; Trade shocks and response, 1979-1992 ; From globalization to polarization, 1992-2017 -- Conclusion

Selling Power

Author : John L. Neufeld
ISBN : 9780226399638
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 77. 48 MB
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The economics of electric utilities -- Early commercialization -- The first electric utilities -- The adoption of state commission rate regulation -- Growth and growing pains -- Public utility holding companies: opportunity and crisis -- Public utility holding companies: indictment and "death sentence"--Hydroelectricity and the federal government -- Rural electrification -- Conclusion and a look forward from 1940

Founding Choices

Author : Douglas A. Irwin
ISBN : 9780226384757
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 59. 86 MB
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Papers of the National Bureau of Economic Research conference held at Dartmouth College on May 8-9, 2009.

Chinas Economic Rise

Author : Morrison
ISBN : 150552590X
Genre :
File Size : 40. 66 MB
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Prior to 1979, China, under the leadership of Chairman Mao Zedong, maintained a centrally planned, or command, economy. A large share of the country's economic output was directed and controlled by the state, which set production goals, controlled prices, and allocated resources throughout most of the economy. During the 1950s, all of China's individual household farms were collectivized into large communes. To support rapid industrialization, the central government undertook large-scale investments in physical and human capital during the 1960s and 1970s. As a result, by 1978 nearly three-fourths of industrial production was produced by centrally controlled, state-owned enterprises (SOEs), according to centrally planned output targets. Private enterprises and foreign-invested firms were generally barred. A central goal of the Chinese government was to make China's economy relatively self-sufficient. Foreign trade was generally limited to obtaining only those goods that could not be made or obtained in China.

Economic Principles

Author : Douglas W. Allen
ISBN : 0558743331
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 57. 22 MB
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When most students think of "principles of economics" textbooks, they think, "long, boring, and expensive." Economic Principles: Seven Ideas for Thinking... About Almost Anything is designed to be none of those things. Instead, the book is relatively short, and focuses on the essential ideas in microeconomics; it is not encyclopedic, and doesn't read like an encyclopedia. Appropriate for a Principles of Microeconomics course, the book's main emphasis is on explaining economic behavior, rather than crunching numbers. It is full of interesting real-life examples, applications, and humorous stories-and no mention of "widgets"! There are several end-of-chapter appendices to for those who want to better understand the mathematical models; however, the entire book can be read and understood without them. The overriding emphasis of Economic Principles is on explanation. Repetitive curve shifting and theoretical policy discussions are not to be found, as the most important aspect of a principles course is to teach students how to think like an economist, and this begins with explaining behavior. Economic Principles will engage students in this way, without overburdening their wallets or their backpacks.

The Great Divergence

Author : Kenneth Pomeranz
ISBN : 1400823498
Genre : History
File Size : 58. 96 MB
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The Great Divergence brings new insight to one of the classic questions of history: Why did sustained industrial growth begin in Northwest Europe, despite surprising similarities between advanced areas of Europe and East Asia? As Ken Pomeranz shows, as recently as 1750, parallels between these two parts of the world were very high in life expectancy, consumption, product and factor markets, and the strategies of households. Perhaps most surprisingly, Pomeranz demonstrates that the Chinese and Japanese cores were no worse off ecologically than Western Europe. Core areas throughout the eighteenth-century Old World faced comparable local shortages of land-intensive products, shortages that were only partly resolved by trade. Pomeranz argues that Europe's nineteenth-century divergence from the Old World owes much to the fortunate location of coal, which substituted for timber. This made Europe's failure to use its land intensively much less of a problem, while allowing growth in energy-intensive industries. Another crucial difference that he notes has to do with trade. Fortuitous global conjunctures made the Americas a greater source of needed primary products for Europe than any Asian periphery. This allowed Northwest Europe to grow dramatically in population, specialize further in manufactures, and remove labor from the land, using increased imports rather than maximizing yields. Together, coal and the New World allowed Europe to grow along resource-intensive, labor-saving paths. Meanwhile, Asia hit a cul-de-sac. Although the East Asian hinterlands boomed after 1750, both in population and in manufacturing, this growth prevented these peripheral regions from exporting vital resources to the cloth-producing Yangzi Delta. As a result, growth in the core of East Asia's economy essentially stopped, and what growth did exist was forced along labor-intensive, resource-saving paths--paths Europe could have been forced down, too, had it not been for favorable resource stocks from underground and overseas.

Institutions And The Path To The Modern Economy

Author : Avner Greif
ISBN : 0521480442
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 30. 40 MB
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This 2006 book presents a unifying concept of the term institution.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution

Author : Klaus Schwab
ISBN : 9781524758868
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 82. 34 MB
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In the bestselling tradition of The Fred Factorand What the CEO Wants You to Know, bestselling author and quality guru Subir Chowdhury (The Power of Six Sigma), tackles a question that has haunted him in his consulting work with companies for years. Why is it that some companies improve 50x, while others improve only incrementally? The ideas and training, after all, is the same. What is the difference? That is the question he tackles in this compelling and empowering new book. In The Difference, Subir Chowdhury looks at what distinguishes a company that adopts his quality training processes, and improves 5x, versus a company that adopts the same training and consulting, but increases their profits and quality 50x. The difference, he claims, is this short, engaging, and insightful book, is the people in your workplace, on your staff, in your executive offices. The best processes and training programs in the world will not lead to world-class operations, unless a company first looks to the people who make up their workforce. Only by creating a "caring mindset" -- a culture built upon straightforwardness, honest and openness; a management structure that thinks about the concerns of their people; a workplace that inspires accountability and engagement; and managers and employees who tackle the challenges they face with perseverance and resolve, can companies flourish and excel.

The General Theory Of Employment Interest And Money

Author : John Maynard Keynes
ISBN : 9783319703442
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 43. 65 MB
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This book was originally published by Macmillan in 1936. It was voted the top Academic Book that Shaped Modern Britain by Academic Book Week (UK) in 2017, and in 2011 was placed on Time Magazine's top 100 non-fiction books written in English since 1923. Reissued with a fresh Introduction by the Nobel-prize winner Paul Krugman and a new Afterword by Keynes’ biographer Robert Skidelsky, this important work is made available to a new generation. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money transformed economics and changed the face of modern macroeconomics. Keynes’ argument is based on the idea that the level of employment is not determined by the price of labour, but by the spending of money. It gave way to an entirely new approach where employment, inflation and the market economy are concerned. Highly provocative at its time of publication, this book and Keynes’ theories continue to remain the subject of much support and praise, criticism and debate. Economists at any stage in their career will enjoy revisiting this treatise and observing the relevance of Keynes’ work in today’s contemporary climate.

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