the marvelous learning animal what makes human behavior unique

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The Marvelous Learning Animal

Author : Arthur W. Staats
ISBN : 9781616145989
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 23 MB
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What makes us human? In recent decades, researchers have focused on innate tendencies and inherited traits as explanations for human behavior, especially in light of groundbreaking human genome research. The author thinks this trend is misleading. As he shows in great detail in this engaging, thought-provoking, and highly informative book, what makes our species unique is our marvelous ability to learn, which is an ability that no other primate possesses. In his exploration of human progress, the author reveals that the immensity of human learning has not been fully understood or examined. Evolution has endowed us with extremely versatile bodies and a brain comprised of one hundred billion neurons, which makes us especially suited for a wide range of sophisticated learning. Already in childhood, human beings begin learning complex repertoires—language, sports, value systems, music, science, rules of behavior, and many other aspects of culture. These repertoires build on one another in special ways, and our brains develop in response to the learning experiences we receive from those around us and from what we read and hear and see. When humans gather in society, the cumulative effect of building learning upon learning is enormous. The author presents a new way of understanding humanness—in the behavioral nature of the human body, in the unique human way of learning, in child development, in personality, and in abnormal behavior. With all this, and his years of basic and applied research, he develops a new theory of human evolution and a new vision of the human being. This book offers up a unified concept that not only provides new ways of understanding human behavior and solving human problems but also lays the foundations for opening new areas of science. From the Hardcover edition.

Critical Thinking For Helping Professionals

Author : Eileen Gambrill
ISBN : 9780190297305
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 46. 38 MB
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Critical thinking values, skills, and knowledge are integral to evidence-based practice in the helping professions. On a daily basis, practitioners must be able and willing to think critically about decisions that affect clients' lives, while detecting and avoiding misleading framing of problems that may harm clients but contribute to the profit of involved industries (e.g. ignoring environmental sources of distress and focusing on characteristics of clients). Critical Thinking for Helping Professionals, Fourth Edition is designed to engage readers as active participants in 37 exercises designed to hone critical thinking skills and offer practice in critically appraising different kinds of research, carrying out the steps in the process of evidence-based practice, reviewing the extent to which clients are involved as informed participants, and reviewing excuses used for offering poor services .For students in social work, nursing, counseling, and psychology, this new edition offers entertaining and thought-provoking ways to sharpen decision making skills.

How And Why Thoughts Change

Author : Ian M. Evans
ISBN : 9780199380855
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 64. 65 MB
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Cognitive therapy, a core approach within a collection of psychotherapeutic techniques known as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), is fundamentally about changing peoples' thoughts-helping them overcome difficulties by recognizing and changing dysfunctional thinking styles. Among other strategies, it requires encouraging the development of skills for rehearsing new habits of thought, modifying biases in judging and interpreting social and emotional information, and for testing assumptions underlying dysfunctional and negative, distorted thinking. In How and Why Thoughts Change, Dr. Ian Evans deconstructs the nature of cognitive therapy by examining the cognitive element of CBT, that is, how and why thoughts change behavior and emotion. There are a number of different approaches to cognitive therapy, including the classic Beck approach, the late Albert Ellis's rational-emotive psychotherapy, Young's schema-focused therapy, and newer varieties such as mindfulness training, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), and problem-solving strategies. Evans identifies the common principles underlying these methods, attempts to integrate them, and makes suggestions as to how our current cognitive therapies might be improved. He draws on a broad survey of contemporary research on basic cognitive processes and integrates these with therapeutic approaches. While it may seem obvious that how and what we think determines how and in what manner we behave, the relationship between thought and action is not a simple one. Evans addresses questions such as: What is the difference between a thought and a belief? How do we find the cause of a thought? And can it really be that thought causes behavior and emotion, or could it be the other way around? In a reader-friendly style that avoids jargon, this innovative book answers some pertinent questions about cognitive therapy in a way that clarifies exactly how and why thoughts change. Evans demonstrates that understanding these concepts is a linchpin to providing and improving therapy for clients.

Das Tier Mensch

Author : Desmond Morris
ISBN : 3453098838
Genre : Mensch - Tiere
File Size : 50. 1 MB
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Artificial Animals For Computer Animation

Author : Xiaoyuan Tu
ISBN : 9783540465935
Genre : Computers
File Size : 42. 54 MB
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After nearly half a century of research, the Holy Grail of the ?eld of art- cial intelligence (AI) remains a comprehensive computational model capable of emulating the marvelous abilities of animals, including locomotion, p- ception, behavior, manipulation, learning, and cognition. The comprehensive modeling of higher animals –humans and other primates –remains elusive; However, the research documented in this monograph achieves nothing less than a functional computer model of certain species of lower animals that are by no means trivial in their complexity. Reported herein is the 1996 ACM Doctoral Dissertation Award winning work of Xiaoyuan Tu, which she carried out in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Toronto. Tu presents “arti?cial ?shes”, a rema- able computational model of familiar marine animals in their natural habitat. Originally conceived in the context of computer graphics, Tu’s is to date the only PhD dissertation from this major sub?eld of computer science (and the only thesis from a Canadian university) to win the coveted ACM award.

The Design Of Everyday Things

Author : Norman Don
ISBN : 9783800648108
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 77. 8 MB
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Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Darwin And The Emergence Of Evolutionary Theories Of Mind And Behavior

Author : Robert J. Richards
ISBN : 9780226712000
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 84. 41 MB
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With insight and wit, Robert J. Richards focuses on the development of evolutionary theories of mind and behavior from their first distinct appearance in the eighteenth century to their controversial state today. Particularly important in the nineteenth century were Charles Darwin's ideas about instinct, reason, and morality, which Richards considers against the background of Darwin's personality, training, scientific and cultural concerns, and intellectual community. Many critics have argued that the Darwinian revolution stripped nature of moral purpose and ethically neutered the human animal. Richards contends, however, that Darwin, Herbert Spencer, and their disciples attempted to reanimate moral life, believing that the evolutionary process gave heart to unselfish, altruistic behavior. "Richards's book is now the obvious introduction to the history of ideas about mind and behavior in the nineteenth century."—Mark Ridley, Times Literary Supplement "Not since the publication of Michael Ghiselin's The Triumph of the Darwinian Method has there been such an ambitious, challenging, and methodologically self-conscious interpretation of the rise and development and evolutionary theories and Darwin's role therein."—John C. Greene, Science "His book . . . triumphantly achieves the goal of all great scholarship: it not only informs us, but shows us why becoming thus informed is essential to understanding our own issues and projects."—Daniel C. Dennett, Philosophy of Science

Dein Gehirn Wei Mehr Als Du Denkst

Author : Niels Birbaumer
ISBN : 9783843707060
Genre : Self-Help
File Size : 32. 63 MB
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Depressionen, Epilepsie, Schlaganfälle und ADS lassen sich kontrollieren, und zwar nur durch Lernen und ohne risikoreiche Medikamente. So lautet die bahnbrechende Erkenntnis des renommierten Hirnforschers Niels Birbaumer. Denn das Gehirn verfügt über fast grenzenlose Potentiale und gleicht bei der Geburt einer Tabula rasa: Nur wenig ist festgelegt, das meiste wird geformt. Darum haben wir großen Einfluss auf unser Denken und Handeln — und unser Gehirn kann sich selbst aus dem Sumpf seiner Erkrankungen ziehen. "Wissenschaftsbuch des Jahres 2015", Buchkultur, Österreich

Psychology

Author : Henry L. Roediger
ISBN : UOM:39015024102645
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 53. 26 MB
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Das Geheime Leben Der Hunde

Author : Elizabeth Marshall Thomas
ISBN : 9783644405639
Genre : Pets
File Size : 88. 49 MB
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Was machen Hunde, wenn sie sich unbeobachtet fühlen? Wie denken sie, was fühlen sie, wie orientieren sie sich sich «in freier Wildbahn», welches Sozialverhalten legen sie an den Tag? Die Biologin und Verhaltensforscherin Elizabeth Marshall Thomas erzählt, was sie im eigenen Rudel von elf Tieren erlebt hat. Ob es um die Huskys Misha und Maria geht, den asthmatischen Mops Bingo oder den australischen Schäferhund Rider: Sie folgte den Wegen und dem Verhalten ihrer Tiere über Jahre hinweg und beschreibt, was sie dabei lernte, liebevoll, aber durchaus unsentimental. Antropomorhismus ist für sie kein Vorwurf. Früher als viele andere hat die Autorin teilnehmend beobachtet und beschrieben, nach welchen Regeln Hunde sich und ihr Leben organisieren, wenn Menschen nicht eingreifen.

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